17th Century Dutch Galliot [COMPLETED BUILD]

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Part 1. Getting Started

Having recently completed a large modeling project in terms of time and complexity, I wanted to switch to making a model of a simpler vessel for a change of pace. In the Completed Models Forum I have previously described a number of smaller models I made that followed a bigger effort. After looking over the possibilities for this build, I decided on the 17th century Dutch galliot as described in the book ”17th Century Dutch Merchant Ships” by A.J. Hoving with plans by C.A. Emke. This book discusses and provides plans for a wide variety of Dutch ships from the period. Galliots were a very successful vessel design, and were built into the 19th century in a range of sizes (In the Build Logs From Kits
Forum Hillro has started a log for a large galliot dated 1841). The version in this book, as illustrated below, is at the small end of the size range.
Fig 1 galliot.jpg

The plans provided in the book are very complete and include all of the details needed for hull construction, deck furniture and rigging. The original plans in 1:48 scale were reduced 1:64 scale on a copier to give a hull about 12” long. A sampling of the plans to indicate the general vessel appearance is shown below:

Fig 2 sheer:deck planIMG_1802.jpgFig 3 ship plan.jpg
I used these plans to develop templates for a plank on bulkhead (POB) model of a galliot using the techniques described in my previous build log for the sloop of war Austin. The
completed keel piece and bulkheads are shown below:
Fig 4 keel pieceIMG_1804.jpgFig 5 bulkheadsIMG_1807.jpg

The plans called for keel, stem and stern thickness of 1/8”. To provide more rigidity, 1/32” thick basswood was glued inside the rabbet lines on each side of the 1/8” ply keel piece to increase the thickness in the center to 3/16” . Bulkheads were cut from 3/16” ply except for the ones on either end which were 1/8” ply.
The bulkheads were glued into the keel piece and faired by the usual methods. Also wood was glued to the sides of the mast slots so that the masts would be centered when put in place later. As can be seen from the shape of the bulkheads, there is a transition from a box shaped cross section in the center to a sharper shape at each end. Also there is appreciable sheer. Anticipating that considerable twist will be needed in the planking, in addition to filler pieces at the bow and stern, fillers were added between the fore-most and aft-most two bulkheads towards the keel. This is shown in the below figures.
Fig 6 framing aftIMG_1810.jpgfig 7 framing foreIMG_1811.jpg
 

Maarten

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Interesting build, everybody always wants to build the big warships but we sometimes forget that these smaller vessels were the actual backbone of the maritime industry.
I will follow with interest.
 
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Part 2 First Planking

A very Happy New Year to all. May 2021 brings us all fair winds and calm seas.

With the framework complete, my next step was to add the sub-decks. The deck plans were glued to card stock which was then cut out and adjusted to to fit around the bulkhead extensions:
Fig 8 deck templateIMG_1814 (1).jpg

After tracing these templates on to 1/32” plywood, I made the sub-decks and glued and nailed them to the bulkheads and keel piece :
Fig 9 subdeckIMG_1816 (1).jpg


The model will be planked from the deck shear line to the keel with a first planking of 1/16” basswood and a second planking of 1/32” cherry. A width of 4mm (about 5/32”) was selected for the first planking to make it easier to negotiate the bends in the hull. This corresponds to about 10” full scale. I like to measure plank widths in millimeters since it is easier than dealing with 32nds when making calculations for plank taper . The next decision before starting to plank is where to put the first one. I have found it convenient to begin with the location of the main wale since this also serves as reference point for transferring measurements from the plan to the model later on.
The distance along the perimeter of the dead flat bulkhead from the top of the wale to the keel was 72mm so 18 planks would be needed. There are many techniques for planking a model, and my preference is to divide the hull into planking bands with battens, each band containing 4 -5 planks. Marks 16 mm apart were placed along the dead flat bulkhead giving 4 bands of 4 planks each plus several more planks needed from the bottom of the last band to the keel. Thin battens were then nailed at these marks and their position was adjusted to give a smooth run of planking from stem to stern. When I was satisfied with the appearance, each bulkhead was marked with the batten location indicating band boundaries as shown below:

Fig 10 planking zonesIMG_1821.jpg


By measuring the distance between the marks at each bulkhead, the plank taper required to fill each band could be determined. Planks were first tapered and then prebent by wetting and the heating before being fixed to the hull.
This technique is illustrated in the below three photos. The first shows the hull with the first plank installed. In the next, three planks have been added in the first zone and then the first plank installed in the second band along the pencil marks to insure the planks follow the boundaries . The fourth and final plank in the first band is then shaped to fill the gap as shown in the third picture:
Fig 11 first plankIMG_1822.jpgFig 12 planking2IMG_1823 (1).jpgFig 13 planking 3IMG_1825.jpg

This procedure was followed for the entire hull, and the completed planking is shown below:

fig 14 planking 4IMG_1834.jpg

All of the planks terminated at the stern, but in order to avoid severe twists the final 7 planks above the garboard ended at the last plank of the third band:

Fig 15 planking runsIMG_1832.jpg


Other depictions of galliots show similar planking runs.
The bulwark area was planked with a single layer of 1/16” thick cherry since double planking would result in the bulwarks being too thick. The completed initial planking on the hull is shown below:

Fig 16 bulwark planksMG_1841.jpg
Putting on the second planking is my next task..
 
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Part 3 Second Planking

The second planking was done with 1/32” thick cherry. The first question to answer is what width of planks to use. Looking at the few available depictions of galliots, the planks look fairly wide as indicated in the below print:
fig 17 Galliot print.png

Big trees were readily available in the 17th century and fewer planks mean less seams to leak so relatively large widths seem reasonable. Planks of 12” to 18” would translate to 3/16” to 1/4” at my 1/64 scale. I tried a few 3/16” wide test planks and had great difficulty getting them to lie flat due to the curvature of the sheer combined with bluff-bows at the stem and a similar shape at the stern. Consequently, I retreated and selected 5/32” for the width (10” full scale), the same plank size used for the first bass wood layer.

The planking scheme was the same as described earlier for the first planking. I started at the wale and progressed toward the keel until a gap corresponding to seven planks remained. Three planks were then added from the garboard upward and then the final four planks were inserted in the remaining space. Even with 5/32” planks, planking this model was a chore despite the fact the hull is only 12” long. The curves that had to be negotiated made it very difficult to have the planks lie flat along their entire length without extended hold periods to allow the glue to set firmly.

I did not use thick planking for the wales. Instead a second layer of 1/32” cherry was glued over the first layer at the wale positions. This is a much easier procedure than trying to bend thicker planks. After planking was complete the bulkhead extensions at the bulwarks were cut off.

The final result after giving the hull a coat of MinWax natural stain is shown in the below three views to indicate the transition from a flat bottom to vertical sides and curvature in all directions. Of the many models I have built, this one will be remembered for a long time as particularly challenging to plank.Fig 18 hull side IMG_1842.jpgfig 19 hull bottomIMG_1843.jpgfig 20 hull top IMG_1844.jpg
 
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Part 4 Adding the Decking and Rails

To begin the decking process, waterways, made from 1/16” basswood, 3/16” wide, were installed along the main deck and fore deck. Before installation, they were notched for the timber heads that attach to the bulkheads. Deck planks, 5/32” wide cut from a sheet of 1/32” plywood, were laid in single strips starting at the center line One side of each plank was darkened with a black permanent laundry marker to simulate caulking. The ink in these markers is not affected by oil-based finishes. While waiting for the glue to set as planks were added, I kept busy by installing the timber heads along the bulwarks:

fig 21 adding deck planksIMG_1845.jpg

When all of the decking was in place, the planks were scored with a sharp blade to simulate deck seams which repeated every four planks.

fig 22 deck and rails.jpg
To complete the hull, 1/32” cherry rails were added. The curved rails at the stem and stern were sawn to shape.

Next, the exposed plywood of the keel piece at the stem, stern, and keel was painted, and MinWax natural stain was applied to the rails and decking . As owner of this vessel I decided a bit of decoration was needed so also painted two blue stripes on the bulwarks. Finally the entire hull was given a coat of poyurethane varnish. The final result is shown in the below two photos:
Fig 23 completed hull.jpg
fig 24 completed hullIMG_1849.jpg

While the hull could still be turned upside down, a stand was built to fit around the hull as shown below. It will later be sanded and painted.
Fig 25 stand MG_1855.jpg
 

Uwek

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The stain and final appearance of your hull is looking very good - well done, it is looking very good
 

Jimsky

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There is always a charm on those little boats, their body lines...the way they built...Ah... You doing a great job to prove it! Thumbs-Up
 
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Part 5 Rudder and Winch
Next in my building sequence was to start construction of the various attachments to the hull. First will be the rudder followed by the deck furniture working from forward to aft.

The rudder was cut from 1/8” cherry and plank lines were scribed into the sides to simulate a built-up rudder. The plans showed a decorative element at the rudder head. For this, I attached a metal decoration left over from an old kit with epoxy clay. I usually make the gudgeon and pintle from brass strip but that would have been oversize for this model so I decided to go with paper cut from a 3X5 card.

After the paper strips were blackened, they were wrapped around a piece of wire to form a loop in the middle and a tiny drop of glue was added at the throat to keep it from opening. The gudgeon/pintle pair was positioned at 180 degrees and the sharpened end of a toothpick was glued through both loops to serve as a pin attaching them together. The rudder with pintles glued in place is shown below :
Fig 26 rudderIMG_1863.jpg

Paper hinges can't be used to hang the rudder on the hull. Instead, the rudder was attached by two brass rods inserted into holes drilled through the back and into the stem. They were glued in place with epoxy. At the rudder surface, the holes were filled with wood-filler and painted. The final result is shown below. Short section of the rods are visible but you have to look hard:
fig 27 rudder attached.jpg

The deck winch has the usual tapered octagonal cross section, for this model with a width of 1/4” at the center, and a toothed gear in the middle. Rather than start with a piece of the correct width, four pieces of 1/8” square wood were glued together to form a 1/4” square. I have found it useful to have permanent centerlines when an square has to be transformed into an octagon. A piece was cut to the needed length and a square was inscribed at the ends with the required dimensions. Also, holes were drilled in the ends for inserting pins during final assembly. Starting the the center, the piece was tapered in both directions with a file to the dimension of the end square. Next, the edges were chamfered to form the octagon. Holes were then drilled for the winch bars and squared with a punch. The ends of the shaped barrel, which will extend outside the stand, were cut off and then the remainder was cut in half for insertion of the gear.

The gear was formed from a section of 1/4” dowel. Gear teeth, made from pieces 1/32” square, were glued around the periphery and shaped by passing a triangular file between them. Hopefully the series of three photos below showing the winch during the assembly process will help explain what I tried to describe in words. The fourth and final photo shows the winch mounted on the hull.
fig 28 winch 1IMG_1857.jpgfig 29 winch 2.jpgfig 30 winch 3IMG_1865.jpgfig 31 winch 4IMG_1870.jpg
 
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JUST DISCOVERED THIS THREAD, WHERE YOU BEEN HIDING LOL GREAT, GREAT WORK BY SOMEONE MY AGE 82 PLUS WAY TO GO. GOD BLESS YOU AND YOURS DON
 
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JUST DISCOVERED THIS THREAD, WHERE YOU BEEN HIDING LOL GREAT, GREAT WORK BY SOMEONE MY AGE 82 PLUS WAY TO GO. GOD BLESS YOU AND YOURS DON
Thanks Don, nice to hear from you. I've been hiding in plain sight and doing a lot of posting here as it helps to stay busy when you can't do much outside due to Covid. However, my wife and I just got our first vaccine shots, with the second scheduled for the end of the month, so there will be a little less time spent on modeling in the future.
 
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HI YEA I GOT MY FIRST SHOT MODERNA ALSO SECOND ONE DUE MARCH 4TH AS I HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO DRIVE IN 9 1/2 YEARS GO OUT WITH SON-IN-LAW I HAVE NOT BEEN OUT OTHER THEN TO GET SHOT IN 6MOS. LOTS, AND LOTS, AND LOTS OF MODELING, I DO NOT PLAN ON GOING NOUT UNTIL APRIL OTHER THENJ ONE TRIP TO GROCERY STORE, STILL WILL BE WEARING A MASK FOR SOME TIME TO COME PLEASE KEEP GOING ON THE GALLOT AS I LOVE THE SMALLER LESS MODELED AND LESS TIME CONSUMING PROJECTS. GOD BLESS YOU AND YOURS STAY SAFE DON
 
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Part 6 Hull Equipment and Fittings

Continuing with the equipment and fittings on the deck and hull, I made and installed the various hatches, bitts, and cleats. The hatch coamings and covers were assembled off the model and then glued to the deck. As can be seen in the photos below there are two beams attached to the bulwarks that cross the deck in front of the mast openings. I had never seen this before on a vessel, and was informed by Ab Hoving that sliding blocks were attached to these beams for controlling the yards. Kevel cleats are difficult to make with wood that has a grain due to the risk of splitting at the crotch. I used 1/16” plywood for my kevel cleats.

I also ran into a splitting problem when making the tiller from a piece of 1/8” cherry. The arms of the bracket where the tiller attaches to the rudder kept breaking off. I solved this problem by making the tiller from two pieces of 1/16” cherry that had been glued together at cross grains.

When work inside the bulwarks was complete I added the channels and lee boards to the hull exterior. The dead eye chain plates, which were made from annealed steel wire, will be nailed in place as the shrouds are put on in order to get the correct angles.
Fig 32.jpgFig33.jpgFig34.jpg
The state of the model at this point is shown on the below three photos. Next up is to make the masts and yards and begin rigging.
 
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Not realty one for answering all threads on a post but I really like to see a scratch built model and your standard of build excellent looking fwd to seeing the finished build

Henry x
 
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