Naval/Maritime History 17th of April - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

10th of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1755 - Adam Duncan confirmed in the rank of Lieutenant.
Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan
(1 July 1731 – 4 August 1804) was a British admiral who defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown (north of Haarlem) on 11 October 1797. This victory is considered one of the most significant actions in naval history.
He was born at Dundee. In 1746, when he was 15 years old and after receiving his education in Dundee, he entered the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial, under Captain Robert Haldane, with whom, in HMS Trial and afterwards in HMS Shoreham, he continued till the peace in 1748. In 1749 he was appointed to HMS Centurion, then commissioned for service in the Mediterranean, by the Hon. Augustus Keppel (afterwards Viscount Keppel), with whom he was afterwards in HMS Norwich on the coast of North America, and was confirmed in the rank of lieutenant on 10 January 1755.
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1761 – Death of Edward Boscawen, English admiral and politician (b. 1711)
Admiral Edward Boscawen, PC (19 August 1711 – 10 January 1761) was an Admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall. He is known principally for his various naval commands during the 18th century and the engagements that he won, including the Siege of Louisburg in 1758 and Battle of Lagos in 1759.[2]He is also remembered as the officer who signed the warrant authorising the execution of Admiral John Byng in 1757, for failing to engage the enemy at the Battle of Minorca (1756). In his political role, he served as a Member of Parliament for Truro from 1742 until his death although due to almost constant naval employment he seems not to have been particularly active. He also served as one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty on the Board of Admiralty from 1751 and as a member of the Privy Council from 1758 until his death in 1761.
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1761 - HMS Seahorse (1748 - 24), Cptn. James Smith, and HMS Unicorn (1748 - 28), Lt. John Symons-Acting, engaged French 32-gun frigate L’Aigrette (1756 - 32) off Start Point
On January 8th, 1761, the Unicorn, 28, Captain Joseph Hunt, cruising off Penmarck, fought a sharp action with, and captured, the Vestale, 32, which later became the Flora in the British Navy. The captains of both ships were mortally wounded. On the following day the Unicorn chased, but could not come up with, the Aigrette, 32, and, on the 10th, saw her engage the Seahorse, 20, Captain James Smith, then carrying out astronomers to India to observe the transit of Venus. Again she tried to come up, but could not; and the Aigrette, having mauled the Seahorse considerably, refused to be further detained and forced to fight at a disadvantage.
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1807 – Launch of HMS Clio, a Cruizer-class brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, at James Betts' shipyard in Mistleythorn in Essex
HMS Clio
was Cruizer-class brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, launched at James Betts' shipyard in Mistleythorn in Essex on 10 January 1807. Her establishment was 71 officers and men, 24 boys and 20 marines. She served in the Baltic during the Napoleonic Wars, accomplished the re-establishment of British rule on the Falkland Islands in 1833, and participated in the First Opium War. She was broken up in 1845.
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1810 - Boats of HMS Christian VII (80), Cptn. Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, and HMS Armide (38), Cptn. Lucius Hardyman, attacked in Basque Road a French convoy of 4 vessels. 3 were driven ashore and completely burnt, the fourth, a chasse-maree, was taken.
In January 1810 HMS Armide, under Captain Hardyman, and the 80-gun second rate, HMS Christian VII, Captain Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, were stationed off the Basque Roads. On 10 January, they sighted a small convoy sailing from the Île d'Aix to La Rochelle. The boats of the two ships went in under small arms and grapeshot fire from a shore battery and captured a chasse-maree of about 30 tons. The tide was ebbing too fast to bring off the other vessels so the British burnt a brig, a schooner and a chasse-maree. This was regrettable as the all were fully laden with cargoes consisting of best quality wines and brandies, soap, rosin, candles, pitch, oil, pine varnish, and the like. The cutting out expedition suffered no casualties. The captured chasse maree was probably the Felicite.
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1900 – Launch of SS Deutschland, a passenger liner built in Stettin, by the Hamburg America Line of Germany.
SS Deutschland
was a passenger liner built in Stettin and launched in 1900 by the Hamburg America Line of Germany. The rival North German Lloyd line had launched Germany's first four funnel liner, Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse in 1897, and SS Deutschland was built by Hamburg America as Germany's second four-funnel liner in order to compete.
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1952 - SS Flying Enterprise was a 6,711 ton Type C1-B ship sank
SS Flying Enterprise
was a 6,711 ton Type C1-B ship which sank in 1952. She was built in 1944 as SS Cape Kumukaki for the United States Maritime Commission for use in World War II. The ship was sold in 1947 and then operated in scheduled service under the name Flying Enterprise.
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

11th of January

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1742 - HMS Tiger (32), Cptn. Edward Herbert, wrecked on a key near Tortuga
HMS Tyger
, often spelled Tiger, was a 38-gun fourth rate frigate of the Royal Navy, built by Peter Pett II at Woolwich and launched in 1647. The term 'frigate' during the period of this ship referred to a method of construction, rather than a role which did not develop until the following century. Tyger was the third ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name, and by successive rebuildings she served for almost a century until she was wrecked in the Dry Tortugas in 1742. The ship's crew was stranded on Garden Key for 56 days, fighting off Spanish attempts to capture them, and then spent another 56 days sailing in small boats 700 miles to Port Royal, Jamaica. Remarkably, only five crew members died during this period: three killed by the Spanish, and two others of natural causes. Six crewmen were captured and imprisoned by the Spanish. The captain and three of his lieutenants were court-martialed over the wreck and subsequent events.
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1758 – Launch of HMS Active, a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate sailing frigate
HMS Active
was a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate sailing frigate of the Royal Navy, launched in 1758. She was one of the captors of the Spanish ship Hermione. After Hermione surrendered, her captors found that she carried a large cargo of gold and silver that would lead to the greatest single amount of prize money awarded to the crew of a British warship.
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1788 – Death of François Joseph Paul de Grasse, French admiral (b. 1722)
François Joseph Paul, comte de Grasse
(13 September 1722 – 11 January 1788) was a career French officer who achieved the rank of admiral. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781 in the last year of the American Revolutionary War. It led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown and helped gain the rebels' victory.
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1794 - HMS Juno (32), Cptn. Samuel Hood, having unwarily entered Toulon after the British evacuation came under fire from shore batteries but escaped.
HMS Juno
was at Toulon during its period of British control under Samuel Hood, Juno's captain's cousin once removed. Unaware that Toulon had fallen to French republican forces, and desiring to deliver 107 Maltese and 46 Marines embarked in Malta to reinforce Lord Hood's forces, Captain Hood sailed into the port at night on 11 January 1794, several days after the evacuation of the British forces. After anchorimg, Juno was boarded by 13 armed men. On being informed that British forces had left and that he and his ship's company were now prisoners of war, Captain Hood ordered cables to be cut and immediately set sail with the 13 French officials aboard as prisoners, whereupon Juno received a broadside from a nearby brig and came under point-blank fire from French batteries, but was able to escape with only light damage.
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1803 - Hindostan, an East Indiaman of the East India Company, wrecked
Hindostan was an East Indiaman of the East India Company. She was a large vessel of 1,463 tons (bm), launched in 1796 to replace a previous Hindostan that the Royal Navy had bought and turned into a Fourth Rate ship of the line. Her owner was Robert Williams, M.P., who had been the owner of the previous Hindostan.
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1860 - HMS Rodney, a two-deck 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, finished her refitting with screw propulsion – the last unarmoured wooden battleship in full commission
HMS Rodney
was a two-deck 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 18 June 1833 at Pembroke Dockyard.
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1866 - SS London was a British steamship which sank in the Bay of Biscay during a storm.
The ship was overloaded with cargo, and thus unseaworthy, and only 19 survivors were able to escape the foundering ship by lifeboat, leaving a death toll of 220.
SS London
was a British steamship which sank in the Bay of Biscay on 11 January 1866. The ship was travelling from Gravesend in England to Melbourne, Australia, when she began taking in water on 10 January, with 239 persons aboard. The ship was overloaded with cargo, and thus unseaworthy, and only 19 survivors were able to escape the foundering ship by lifeboat, leaving a death toll of 220.
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1917 - HMS Ben-my-Chree (Manx: "Woman of My Heart"), ex-packet steamer and a Royal Navy (RN) seaplane carrier of the First World War, sunk by turkish artillery
HMS Ben-my-Chree
(Manx: "Woman of My Heart") was a packet steamer and a Royal Navy (RN) seaplane carrier of the First World War. She was originally built in 1907 by Vickers for the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company and was intended for use on the England–Isle of Man route. She was the third vessel to bear her name. To this day Ben-my-Chree holds the crossing speed record from Liverpool to Douglas for a steamship at under three hours.
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1962 – Cold War: While tied to its pier in Polyarny, the Soviet submarine B-37 is destroyed when fire breaks out in its torpedo compartment.
Soviet submarine B-37
(Russian: Б-37) was a Project 641 or Foxtrot-class diesel submarine of the Soviet Navy's Northern Fleet.
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A Cuban Foxtrot underway
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

12th of January

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1783 - HMS Coventry, a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate, was captured by a french fleet under Suffren,
HMS Coventry
was a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, launched in 1757 and in active service as a privateer hunter during Seven Years' War, and as part of the British fleet in India during the Anglo-French War. After seventeen years' in British service she was captured by the French in 1783, off Ganjam in the Bay of Bengal. Thereafter she spent two years as part of the French Navy until January 1785 when she was removed from service at the port of Brest. She was broken up in 1786.
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1805 - HMS Doris (36), Cptn. Patrick Campell, struck the Diamond Rock rock in Quiberon Bay.
Due to leak sustained, 3 days later off the Loire, the ship was set on fire and she burned until her after magazine blew up and she sank
HMS Doris
was a 36-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, launched on 31 August 1795. which saw service in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Doris was built by Cleveley, of Gravesend.
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1813 - US Frigate Chesapeake (38), Cptn. Samuel Evans, captures British merchant Volunteer and two days later, British brig Liverpool Hero.
Chesapeake was a 38-gun wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. She was one of the original six frigates whose construction was authorized by the Naval Act of 1794. Joshua Humphreys designed these frigates to be the young navy's capital ships. Chesapeake was originally designed as a 44-gun frigate but construction delays, material shortages, and budget problems caused builder Josiah Fox to alter her design to 38 guns. Launched at the Gosport Navy Yard on 2 December 1799, Chesapeake began her career during the Quasi-War with France and saw service in the First Barbary War.
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1819 – Launch of HMS Blonde, a 46-gun modified Apollo-class fifth-rate frigate of 1,103 tons burthen.
HMS
Blonde was a 46-gun modified Apollo-class fifth-rate frigate of 1,103 tons burthen. She undertook an important voyage to the Pacific in 1824. She was used for harbour service from 1850 and was renamed HMS Calypso in 1870, before being sold in 1895
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1920 - Afrique, a passenger ship of the French shipping company Compagnie des Chargeurs Réunis, sank with only 34 survivors of the 609 on board.
Afrique was a passenger ship of the French shipping company Compagnie des Chargeurs Réunis, which was put into service in 1907 and sank January 1920 with only 34 survivors of the 609 on board.
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1922 - HMS Victory (100) entered Portsmouth dock where she remains to this day
HMS Victory
is a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, ordered in 1758, laid down in 1759 and launched in 1765. She is best known for her role as Lord Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805.
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The Battle of Cape Saint Vincent, Richard Brydges Beechey, 1881

She additionally served as Keppel's flagship at Ushant, Howe's flagship at Cape Spartel and Jervis's flagship at Cape St Vincent. After 1824, she was relegated to the role of harbour ship.
In 1922, she was moved to a dry dock at Portsmouth, England, and preserved as a museum ship. She has been the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012 and is the world's oldest naval ship still in commission with 240 years service by 2018.

In dry dock
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Restoring HMS Victory (William Lionel Wyllie, 1925)

By 1921 the ship was in a very poor state, and a public Save the Victory campaign was started, with shipping magnate Sir James Caird as a major contributor. On 12 January 1922, her condition was so poor that she would no longer stay afloat, and had to be moved into No. 2 dock at Portsmouth, the oldest dry dock in the world still in use. A naval survey revealed that between a third and a half of her internal fittings required replacement. Her steering equipment had also been removed or destroyed, along with most of her furnishings.

The relocation to No. 2 dock sparked public discussion about Victory's future location. Suggestions in contemporary newspapers included the creation of a floating plinth atop which she could be preserved as a monument, either in Portsmouth or adjacent to the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Others proposed a berth beside Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames, or as land-based structure in Trafalgar Square. Despite popular support, these options were not seriously entertained by Admiralty. The naval architects who had surveyed the ship reported that she was too damaged to be moved; Admiralty formally adopted their advice and No. 2 dock thereafter became Victory's permanent home.

During the initial restoration period from 1922 to 1929, a considerable amount of structural repair work was carried out above the waterline and mainly above the middle deck. In 1928, King George V was able to unveil a tablet celebrating the completion of the work, although restoration and maintenance still continued under the supervision of the Society for Nautical Research.[75]Restoration was suspended during the Second World War, and in 1941, Victory sustained further damage when a bomb dropped by the Luftwaffe destroyed one of the steel cradles and part of the foremast. On one occasion, German radio propaganda claimed that the ship had been destroyed by a bomb, and the Admiralty had to issue a denial.

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2004 The world's largest ocean liner, RMS Queen Mary 2, makes its maiden voyage.
RMS Queen Mary 2
(also referred to as the QM2) is a transatlantic ocean liner. She is the largest passenger ship built for the Cunard Line since Queen Elizabeth 2 in 1969, the vessel she succeeded as flagship of the line.[9] As of 2019, Queen Mary 2 is the only passenger ship operating as an ocean liner.
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

13th of January

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1766 - HMS Aurora (32), Niger-class frigate, launched at Chatham
HMS Aurora
(1766) was a 32-gun fifth rate launched in 1766, sailed September 1769 for East Indies, lost without a trace, presumably from fire or storm, in the Indian Ocean in January 1770.
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1779 - HMS Weazel or Weazle, a 16-gun ship-sloop, captured by French frigate Boudeuse
HMS Weazel
or Weazle was a 16-gun ship-sloop of the Royal Navy, in active service during the War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. Launched in 1745, she remained in British service until 1779 and captured a total of 11 enemy vessels. She was also present, but not actively engaged, at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747.
Weazel was captured by the French in 1779, and was later sold into private hands.
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1798 - Lt. Lord Camelford, commanding HMS Favorite (16), shot dead Lt. Charles Peterson commanding, HMS Perdrix (22), for mutiny in an argument over seniority at English Harbour, Antigua
Lieutenant Lord Camelford

Wood's replacement, in May 1797, was Commander S. Powell. Some months later, in July, Commander James Hanson assumed command. Then Thomas Pitt, Lieutenant Lord Camelford, took command, replacing Hanson, who had taken ill. Although Camelford was apparently appointed in January, he had been acting captain for some time.
On 13 January 1798, Camelford shot and killed Lieutenant Charles Peterson, acting captain of Perdrix for mutiny, in a dispute over which of them was senior to the other. At the time, both vessels were in English Harbour, Antigua, serving as guardships. What triggered the dispute was the departure from the harbour on the previous day of HMS Babet, whose captain, Jemmet Mainwaring, had previously been the senior officer in the port. Peterson had been first lieutenant under Camelford for three months when Camelford had taken over Favourite, even though Peterson was senior on the lieutenants list and represented Captain Fahie of Perdrix, who was away in St. Kitts.
The two ships' companies almost fired on each other when Camelford shot Petersen.
Captain Henry Mitford of Matilda arrived that evening and put Camelford under arrest. Mitford put Lieutenant Parsons of Favourite in command of Perdrix and sent her out to sea. The subsequent court martial acquitted Camelford.

HMS Favourite (or Favorite) was a 16-gun Cormorant-class sloop of the Royal Navy, launched in 1794 at Rotherhithe. The French captured her in 1806 and renamed her Favorite. However, the British recaptured her in 1807 and renamed her HMS Goree. She became a prison ship in 1810 and was broken up in Bermuda in 1817.
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1818 - HMS Shark (16), Lt. Charles Newton Hunter, wrecked at Jamaica
HMS Shark
(1779) was a 16-gun Swan class sloop launched in 1779. She was used as a receiving ship on the Jamaica station from 1803 to 1816 and foundered in Port Royal harbor in 1818; her remains were sold a few months later
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1840 – The steamship Lexington burns and sinks four miles off the coast of Long Island with the loss of 139 lives.
The Lexington was a paddlewheel steamboat that operated along the Atlantic coast of the Northeastern United States between 1835 and 1840, before sinking in January 1840 due to an onboard fire. Commissioned by industrialist Cornelius Vanderbilt, the ship was considered one of the most luxurious steamers in operation, and began service on a route between New York City and Providence, Rhode Island. In 1837, the Lexington switched to the route between New York and Stonington, Connecticut, the terminus of the newly built railroad from Boston. Vanderbilt sold the ship to his competitor, the New Jersey Steamship Navigation and Transportation Company, in December 1838 for $60,000, at which time the Lexington was reputedly the fastest steamer on Long Island Sound.
On the night of 13 January 1840, midway through the ship's voyage, the casing around the ship's smokestack caught fire, igniting nearly 150 bales of cotton that were stored nearby. The resultant fire was impossible to extinguish, and necessitated the evacuation of the ship. The ships' overcrowded lifeboats were sunk almost immediately after their launch, leaving almost all of the ship's passengers and crew to drown in the freezing water, with rescue attempts impossible due to the rough water and lack of visibility. Of the estimated 143 people on board the Lexington, only four survived, having clung to large bales of cotton which had been thrown overboard.
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1915 - RMS Atrato, a UK steamship that was built in 1888 as a Royal Mail Ship and ocean liner, sank in heavy seas off Tory Island, County Donegal, Ireland. with all hands, a total of 295 Royal Navy officers and men
RMS Atrato
was a UK steamship that was built in 1888 as a Royal Mail Ship and ocean liner for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. In 1912 she was sold and became the cruise ship The Viking. Toward the end of 1914 she was requisitioned and converted into the armed merchant cruiser HMS Viknor. She sank in 1915 with all hands, a total of 295 Royal Navy officers and men.
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1950 – British submarine HMS Truculent collides with an oil tanker in the Thames Estuary, killing 64 men.
HMS Truculent
was a British submarine of the third group of the T class. She was built as P315 by Vickers Armstrong, Barrow, and launched on 12 September 1942. Truculent was lost following a post-war accident with a Swedish oil tanker in the Thames Estuary in January 1950.
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2012 – The passenger cruise ship Costa Concordia sinks off the coast of Italy due to the captain Francesco Schettino's negligence and irresponsibility. There are 32 confirmed deaths.
On January 13, 2012, the Italian cruise ship Costa Concordia ran aground and overturned after striking an underwater rock off Isola del Giglio, Tuscany, resulting in 32 deaths. The eight year old Costa Cruises vessel was on the first leg of a cruise around the Mediterranean Sea when she deviated from her planned route at the Isola del Giglio, sailed closer to the island, and struck a rock formation on the sea floor. A six-hour rescue effort resulted in most of the passengers being brought ashore.
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-> The time is running -> already 9 years ago
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

14th of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1774 – Launch of French Ajax, a 64-gun Sévère class ship of the line of the French Navy.
Built as Maréchal de Broglie for private owners and transferred to the French East India Company, the ship sailed two journeys to China as a merchantman. In April 1779, she was purchased by the Crown to ferry furnitures to Isle de France (now Mauritius) and be commissioned as a warship upon her arrival. In June, she was coppered, and she received her name of Ajax on 13 August.
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Lancement du vaisseau de 64 canons le Caton à Toulon en 1777.

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1797 - Action of 13 January 1797 (lastet 13. + 14.th January) - Part II
The Action of 13 January 1797 was a minor naval battle fought between a French ship of the line and two British frigates off the coast of Brittany during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the action the frigates outmanoeuvred the much larger French vessel and drove it onto shore in heavy seas, resulting in the deaths of between 400 and 1,000 of the 1,300 persons aboard. One of the British frigates was also lost in the engagement with six sailors drowned after running onto a sandbank while failing to escape a lee shore.
The French 74-gun ship Droits de l'Homme had been part of the Expédition d'Irlande, an unsuccessful attempt by a French expeditionary force to invade Ireland. During the operation, the French fleet was beset by poor coordination and violent weather, eventually being compelled to return to France without landing a single soldier. Two British frigates, the 44-gun HMS Indefatigable and the 36-gun HMS Amazon, had been ordered to patrol the seas off Ushant in an attempt to intercept the returning French force and sighted the Droits de l'Homme on the afternoon of 13 January.
The engagement lasted for more than 15 hours, in an increasing gale and the constant presence of the rocky Breton coast. The seas were so rough that the French ship was unable to open the lower gun ports during the action and as a result could only fire the upper deck guns, significantly reducing the advantage that a ship of the line would normally have over the smaller frigates. The damage the more manoeuvrable British vessels inflicted on the French ship was so severe that as the winds increased, the French crew lost control and the Droits de l'Homme was swept onto a sandbar and destroyed.
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1798 - Raid on Manila (1798) - HMS Sibylle (38), Cptn. Edward Cooke, and HMS Fox (32), Cptn. Pulteney Malcolm, at Caista Roads, Manila - Part I
The Raid on Manila of January 1798 was a Royal Navy false flag military operation during the French Revolutionary Wars intended to scout the strength of the defences of Manila, capital of the Spanish Philippines, capture a Manila galleon and assess the condition of the Spanish Navy squadron maintained in the port. Spain had transformed from an ally of Great Britain in the War of the First Coalition into an enemy in 1796. Thus the presence of a powerful Spanish squadron at Manila posed a threat to the China Fleet, an annual convoy of East Indiaman merchant ships from Macau in Qing Dynasty China to Britain, which was of vital economic importance to Britain. So severe was this threat that a major invasion of the Spanish Philippines had been planned from British India during 1797, but had been called off following the Treaty of Campo Formio in Europe and the possibility of a major war in India between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore.
To ensure the safety of the merchant ships gathering at Macau in the winter of 1797–98, the British commander in the East Indies, Rear-Admiral Peter Rainier, sent a convoy to China escorted by the frigates HMS Sybille and HMS Fox and commanded by Captain Edward Cooke. After completing his mission Cooke decided to investigate the state of readiness of Spanish forces in Manila himself. He was also intrigued by reports that a ship carrying treasure was due to sail from Manila, which would make a valuable prize. Sailing in Sybille and accompanied by Captain Pulteney Malcolm in Fox, Cooke reached the Spanish capital on 13 January 1798.
Anchored in Manila Bay, Cooke pretended that his ships were French vessels and successfully lured successive boatloads of Spanish officials aboard, taking them prisoner in turn. Once he had determined from his captives the state of defences in Manila, that the treasure ship had been unloaded at Cavite and that the Spanish squadron was undergoing extensive repairs and thus unavailable for operations, he sent a raiding party against a squadron of gunboats in the mouth of the Pasig River. Capturing the gunboats in a bloodless attack, Cooke then released his prisoners and sailed southwards, unsuccessfully assaulting Zamboanga before returning to Macau.
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Scale: 1:48. A contemporary full hull model of the 'Mermaid' (1784), a 32-gun frigate, built in 'bread and butter' fashion, planked and finished in the Georgian style.


1805 - HMS Doris (36), Cptn. Patrick Campbell, badly damaged striking the Diamond Rock was set on fire and blown up near the mouth of the Loire
(some sources say 14th others 21st January)
HMS Doris was a 36-gun Phoebe class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, launched on 31 August 1795. which saw service in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Doris was built by Cleveley, of Gravesend.
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1827 - HM Sloop Nimrod (18), Cdr. Samuel Sparshott, bilged in Holyhead Bay
HMS Nimrod
was a Cruizer class brig-sloop of the British Royal Navy, launched in 1812. She spent her war years in north American waters where she captured one small privateer, assisted in the capture of another, and captured or destroyed some 50 American vessels. After the war she captured smugglers and assisted the civil authorities in maintaining order in Tyne. She was wrecked in 1827 and so damaged that the Navy decided she was not worth repairing. A private ship-owner purchased Nimrod and repaired her. She then went on to spend some 20 years trading between Britain and Charleston, the Mediterranean, Australia, and India. She was last listed in 1851.
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1911 - Launch of Battleship Arkansas (BB 33). After service in two world wars, she is target ship for Bikini Atoll Atomic bomb tests.
USS Arkansas (BB-33)
was a dreadnought battleship, the second member of the Wyoming class, built by the United States Navy. She was the third ship of the US Navy named in honor of the 25th state, and was built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. She was laid down in January 1910, launched in January 1911, and commissioned into the Navy in September 1912. Arkansas was armed with a main battery of twelve 12-inch (305 mm) guns and capable of a top speed of 20.5 kn(38.0 km/h; 23.6 mph).
Arkansas served in both World Wars. During the First World War, she was part of Battleship Division Nine, which was attached to the British Grand Fleet, but she saw no action during the war. During the interwar years, Arkansas performed a variety of duties, including training cruises for midshipmen and goodwill visits overseas.
Following the outbreak of World War II, Arkansas conducted Neutrality Patrols in the Atlantic prior to America's entry into the war. Thereafter, she escorted convoys to Europe through 1944; in June, she supported the invasion of Normandy, and in August she provided gunfire support to the invasion of southern France. In 1945, she transferred to the Pacific, and bombarded Japanese positions during the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. After the end of the war, she ferried troops back to the United States as part of Operation Magic Carpet. Arkansas was expended as a target in Operation Crossroads, a pair of nuclear weapon tests at Bikini Atoll in July 1946.
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1917 - japanese armoured cruiser Tsukuba exploded caused by a fire in her ammunition magazine, while in port at Yokosuka, with a total loss of 305 men
Tsukuba (筑波) was the lead ship of the two-ship Tsukuba class of armoured cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. She was named after Mount Tsukuba located in Ibaraki prefecture north of Tokyo. On 28 August 1912, Tsukuba was re-classified as a battlecruiser
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1969 – USS Enterprise fire - An accidental explosion aboard the USS Enterprise near Hawaii kills 27 people.
The 1969 USS Enterprise fire was a major fire and series of explosions that broke out aboard USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) on January 14, 1969, off the coast of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The fire broke out after a Zuni rocket attached to an aircraft detonated, and spread following further rocket and bomb explosions which blew holes in the flight deck, allowing burning jet fuel to enter the ship's interior. 28 sailors were killed, 314 injured, 15 aircraft were destroyed, and the total cost of aircraft replacement and shipboard repair was over $126 million. The closely related 1967 USS Forrestal fire preceded the Enterprise fire by 18 months, but a number of improvements in the wake of the Forrestal tragedy helped reduce the damage.
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1993 – In Poland's worst peacetime maritime disaster, ferry MS Jan Heweliusz sinks off the coast of Rügen, drowning 55 passengers and crew; nine crew-members are saved.
MS Jan Heweliusz
was a Polish ferry named after astronomer Johannes Hevelius (Polish: Jan Heweliusz) that served on the route Ystad-Świnoujście. It was built in Norway in 1977 and was owned by PLO (Polish Oceanliners) and operated by its daughter company PLO EuroAfrica. In the early hours of January 14th 1993 it capsized and sank in 27 metres of water off Cape Arcona on the coast of Rügen in the Baltic Sea while sailing toward Ystad with 64 passengers and crew.[1] The accident claimed the lives of 20 crewmen and 35 passengers. 10 bodies were never found. 9 people were rescued. The sinking of Jan Heweliusz is the most deadly peacetime maritime disaster involving a Polish ship.
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

15th of January

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1759 – Launch of HMS Firm, a 60-gun Edgar-class fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 15 January 1759 at Blackwall Yard, London.
HMS Firm
was a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 15 January 1759 at Blackwall Yard, London.
Her carpenter from 1775 was James Wallis, who had previously served aboard HMS Resolution with Captain James Cook on his second voyage to the Pacific.
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1782 - Action of 15 January 1782 - frigate HMS Fox intercepted and engaged two small Spanish Navy frigates.
The Action of 15 January 1782 was a minor naval engagement that took place near the island of Jamaica during the American Revolutionary War. A Royal Naval frigate HMS Fox (32) intercepted and engaged two small Spanish Navy frigates.
HMS Fox was an Active-class fifth-rate frigate of thirty-two guns and was commanded by Captain Thomas Windsor from 1781. While on a cruise near Jamaica they saw two sail and then went to intercept. They turned out to be two small Spanish frigates and thus Windsor showed his colours.
The two Spanish frigates Socorro Guipuscoano (26) a ship of twenty-six guns and Dama Biscayma (20) of twenty guns tried to escape but Fox overhauled them both. They engaged Fox for nearly an hour before they finally struck. Fox had one boatswain and one seaman killed, and seven others wounded.
The two Spanish ships were bound to Havana from San Sebastián. The prizes were carried into Jamaica and the prize money was distributed accordingly making Windsor and his crew rich men.
For his action Thomas Windsor was promoted and went on to command HMS Lowestoffe on 31 January.
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1808 - HMS Sparkler (12), Lt. James Samuel Asked Dennis, driven ashore by a gale and wrecked on the Dutch coast
HMS Sparkler
(1804) was 178-ton (bm) Archer Class gun-brig fitted with two 18-pounder guns and ten 18-pounder carronades. The ship was launched at Brightlingsea on 6 August 1804 and wrecked on a reef off Schelling Island on the Dutch coast on 14 January 1808. After her upper deck was underwater and the surf was breaking over her, the crew took to the rigging. A fisherman rescued the survivors the next day. Sparkler lost 14 of her 50 crew in the incident.
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1814 - Cutter of HMS Castor (32), Cptn. Charles Dilkes, took L'Heureux under the guns of Montjui.
HMS Castor
was a 32-gun Amazon-class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The French briefly captured her during the Atlantic Campaign of May 1794 but she spent just 20 days in French hands as a British ship retook her before her prize crew could reach a French port. Castor eventually saw service in many of the theatres of the wars, spending time in the waters off the British Isles, in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, as well as the Caribbean.
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1815 – War of 1812: American frigate USS President, commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur, is captured by a squadron of four British frigates HMS Majestic (54), HMS Endymion (50), HMS Tenedos (38) and HMS Pomone (38)
The capture of USS President was one of many naval actions fought at the end of the War of 1812. The frigate USS President tried to break out of New York Harbor but was intercepted by a British squadron of four warships and forced to surrender. The battle took place several weeks after the Treaty of Ghent, but there is no evidence that the combatants were aware that the war had officially ended.
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1815 – War of 1812: American frigate USS President, commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur, is captured by a squadron of four British frigates HMS Majestic (54), HMS Endymion (50), HMS Tenedos (38) and HMS Pomone (38) - Part II - The Ships
USS President
was a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy, nominally rated at 44 guns. George Washington named her to reflect a principle of the United States Constitution. She was launched in April 1800 from a shipyard in New York City. President was one of the original six frigates whose construction the Naval Act of 1794had authorized, and she was the last to be completed. Joshua Humphreys designed these frigates to be the young Navy's capital ships, and so President and her sisters were larger and more heavily armed and built than standard frigates of the period. Forman Cheeseman, and later Christian Bergh were in charge of her construction. Her first duties with the newly formed United States Navy were to provide protection for American merchant shipping during the Quasi War with France and to engage in a punitive expedition against the Barbary pirates in the First Barbary War.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sternboard outline, sheer lines with scroll figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for President (captured 1815), a captured United States Fourth Rate, as taken off at Portsmouth Dockyard. The inboard detail includes the knees and riders. Signed by Nicholas Diddams [Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1803-1823].


1822 – Chinese ocean-going junk Tek Sing (Chinese, "True Star") ran aground on a reef and sank. Approx. 1600 people died in this disaster.
The Tek Sing (Chinese, "True Star") was a large three-masted Chinese ocean-going junk which sank on February 6, 1822 in an area of the South China Sea known as the Belvidere Shoals. The vessel was 50 meters in length, 10 meters wide and weighed about a thousand tons. Its tallest mast was estimated to be 90 feet in height. The ship was manned by a crew of 200 and had approx. 1600 passengers. The great loss of life associated with the sinking has led to the Tek Sing being referred to in modern times as the "Titanic of the East".
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1846 - The sloop of war USS Jamestown captures the slaver Robert Wilson off Porto Praya.
The first USS Jamestown was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the Mexican–American War and the American Civil War.
Jamestown was launched in 1844 by the Gosport Navy Yard, Virginia; and commissioned there on 12 December, with Commander Robert B. Cunningham in command.
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1865 – Second Battle of Fort Fisher
In a joint amphibious force with the Union army, Rear Adm. David D. Porter and Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry capture Fort Fisher, Wilmington, N.C., which is the last port by which supplies from Europe could reach Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees troops at Richmond, Va.

The Second Battle of Fort Fisher was a successful assault by the Union Army, Navy and Marine Corps against Fort Fisher, south of Wilmington, North Carolina, near the end of the American Civil War in January 1865. Sometimes referred to as the "Gibraltar of the South" and the last major coastal stronghold of the Confederacy, Fort Fisher had tremendous strategic value during the war, providing a port for blockade runners supplying the Army of Northern Virginia.
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1916 - The submarine USS E-2 explodes at the New York Navy Yard because of escaping gases during an overhaul. The interior ship is severely damaged and four men are killed.
USS E-2 (SS-25)
was an E-class submarine of the United States Navy. Originally named Sturgeon, the boat was launched on 15 June 1911 by the Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts; sponsored by Ms. Margaret Nelson Little; renamed E-2 on 17 November 1911; and commissioned on 14 February 1912, Ensign C. N. Hinkamp in command.
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1942 - Bad weather off Iceland causes destroyer Mayo (DD 422) and British trawler HMS Douglas to collide, and damages destroyer Simpson (DD 221).
HMS Douglas
was an Admiralty type flotilla leader (also known as the Scott-class) of the British Royal Navy. Built by Cammell Laird, Douglas commissioned in 1918, just before the end of the First World War. During the Second World War, Douglas served with Force H out of Gibraltar and as a convoy escort. She was sold for scrap in March 1945.
HMS_Douglas_FL4188.jpg
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

16th of January

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1780 – Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent
Moonlight Battle. British fleet under Rodney defeat Spanish under de Langara and relieve Gibraltar.

The Battle of Cape St. Vincent was a naval battle that took place off the southern coast of Portugal on 16 January 1780 during the Anglo-Spanish War. A British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney defeated a Spanish squadron under Don Juan de Lángara. The battle is sometimes referred to as the Moonlight Battle because it was unusual for naval battles in the Age of Sail to take place at night. It was also the first major naval victory for the British over their European enemies in the war and proved the value of copper-sheathing the hulls of warships.
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The moonlight Battle off Cape St Vincent, 16 January 1780 by Francis Holman, painted 1780, shows the Santo Domingo exploding, with Rodney's flagship Sandwich in the foreground.

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Scale: 1:48. A contemporary half full hull and half skeleton model of the Royal George (1756), a first rate, 100-gun three-decker ship of the line, built in the Georgian style. The model is partially decked and has the name Royal George painted on the counter of the stern. The starboard hull shows plank on frame while the port side is unplanked to show the internal construction and layout, including numerous fittings such as galley stoves, capstans and cabin furnishings.

1814 Start of 5 day engagement in which HMS Venerable (74), Cptn. James Andrew Worth, and HMS Cyane (22), Cptn. Thomas Forrest, took french L'Iphigenie (38) and Alcmene (44) off Madeira
In early 1814, Commander Jean-Léon Émeric was put in charge of a two-frigate squadron comprising Iphigénie and Alcmène, under Commander Ducrest de Villeneuve, for a cruise between the Azores and Cap-Vert, off Guinea.
On 16 January 1814, the 74-gun third-rate ship of the line HMS Venerable, her prize, the ex-French letter of marque brig Jason, and HMS Cyane were in company when they spotted two 44-gun French frigates, Alcmène and Iphigénie.
Venerable joined her and after a chase that left Cyane far behind, captured Alcmène, though not without a fight. Venerable lost two men dead and four wounded, while the French lost 32 dead and 50 wounded. Alcmène had a complement of 319 men under the command of Commander Ducrest de Villeneuve, who was wounded when he brought her alongside Venerable and attempted a boarding.
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1852 – Launch of French Charlemagne, an 80-gun French ship of the line
Charlemagne was an 80-gun Suffren-class French ship of the line commissioned in 1852. The ship was in the Mediterranean Sea in 1852. The ship was sent by Napoleon III to the Black Sea as a show of force in violation of the London Straits Convention just prior to the Crimean War.
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Straight walls of an arsenal model of Suffren, with the lower long 30-pounder battery, the upper short 30-pounder battery, and the 30-pounder carronades on the deck

1855 – Launch of HMY Victoria and Albert II, a 360-foot (110 m) steamer, a royal yacht of the sovereign of the United Kingdom
HMY Victoria and Albert II
, a 360-foot (110 m) steamer launched 16 January 1855, was a royal yacht of the sovereign of the United Kingdom until 1900, owned and operated by the Royal Navy. Of 2,470 tons, the yacht could make 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) on her paddles. There were 240 crew.
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Painting of HMY Victoria and Albert II - William Frederick Mitchell orginaly published in The Royal Navy in a series of illustrations

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1998 - MV Flare (P3GL2) was a Cypriot-registered bulk carrier that sank with the loss of 21 lives in the Cabot Strait on January 16, 1998
MV Flare (P3GL2)
was a Cypriot-registered bulk carrier that sank with the loss of 21 lives in the Cabot Strait on January 16, 1998.
 

Uwek

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1640 - Action of 12–17 January 1640 - Battle of Itacamara (Battle of Pernambuco)
Ending of a 5 day naval battle between a Dutch fleet and a combined Spanish-Portuguese fleet during the Eighty Years' War.

The Action of 12–17 January 1640 was a naval battle between a Dutch fleet and a combined Spanish-Portuguese fleet during the Eighty Years' War. The battle took place on the Brazilian coast off Pernambuco and was an attempt by a fleet consisting of approximately eighty vessels transporting about 5,000 soldiers under the command of Portuguese Admiral Fernando de Mascarenhas to land reinforcements to bolster the Portuguese militia besieging the city of Recife. On 12 January this fleet was intercepted by a Dutch task force of about forty ships commanded by Willem Loos. The ensuing battle lasted with occasional breaks until the evening of 17 January, when the Spanish and Portuguese fleet retreated and sailed away to the north.
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1759 – Launch of HMS Minerva, one of the four 32-gun Southampton-class fifth-rate frigates of the Royal Navy
HMS Minerva
was one of the four 32-gun Southampton-class fifth-rate frigates of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1759 and served through the Seven Years' War, but was captured in 1778 during the American Revolutionary War and served as the French Minerve until being recaptured in 1781 and renamed HMS Recovery. She was broken up in 1784.
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Lines & Profile (ZAZ3069)

1773 – Captain James Cook commands HMS Adventure and HMS Resolution in the first expedition to sail south of the Antarctic Circle.
On 17 January 1773, Resolution and Adventure were the first ships to cross the Antarctic Circle and crossed twice more on the voyage. The third crossing, on 3 February 1774, was the most southerly penetration, reaching latitude 71°10′ South at longitude 106°54′ West. Resolution thus proved Alexander Dalrymple's Terra Australis Incognita to be a myth
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1775 – Launch of French Sévère, a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy
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Lancement du vaisseau de 64 canons le Caton à Toulon en 1777.

1798 – Launch of HMS Kent, a 74-gun Ajax-class third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy
HMS Kent
was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 17 January 1798 at Blackwall Yard.
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Scale: 1:24. A model of the stern of HMS Kent (1798) showing the timbering, made entirely in wood.

1805 – Launch of French Pluton, a Téméraire class 74-gun French ship of the line built at Toulon
Pluton was a Pluton-class, Sub-class of Téméraire class, 74-gun French ship of the line built at Toulon. She was one of two prototypes for a derivative sub-class of the original design; this sub-class (somewhat smaller than the primary design) was specially intended for construction in some of the shipyards in states occupied by the French, where there was less depth of water than in the main French shipyards. Although the Pluton (and her sister, the Borée) were built at Toulon, all other vessels of this sub-class were built in these overseas yards, notably at Antwerp but also at Genoa, Trieste, Venice, Amsterdam, Flushing and Rotterdam.
Sistership Rivoli
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1907 - Prinz Waldemar, a steam passenger-cargo ship, wrecked because of earthquake
Prinz Waldemar was a steam passenger-cargo ship built in 1902 by the Reiherstieg Schiffswerfte & Maschinenfabrik of Hamburg for Hamburg America Line (HAPAG). She was named after Prince Waldemar of Prussia. The ship was primarily employed as a passenger and cargo carrier between Hamburg and South America during her career.
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1911 – Japanese battlecruiser Kongō (金剛, "Indestructible Diamond", named for Mount Kongō) laid down
Kongō (金剛, "Indestructible Diamond", named for Mount Kongō) was a warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. She was the first battlecruiser of the Kongō class, among the most heavily armed ships in any navy when built. Her designer was the British naval engineer George Thurston, and she was laid down in 1911 at Barrow-in-Furness in Britain by Vickers Shipbuilding Company. Kongō was the last Japanese capital ship constructed outside Japan. She was formally commissioned in 1913, and patrolled off the Chinese coast during World War I.
Kongō underwent two major reconstructions. Beginning in 1929, the Imperial Japanese Navy rebuilt her as a battleship, strengthening her armor and improving her speed and power capabilities. In 1935, her superstructure was completely rebuilt, her speed was increased, and she was equipped with launch catapults for floatplanes. Now fast enough to accompany Japan's growing carrier fleet, Kongō was reclassified as a fast battleship. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Kongō operated off the coast of mainland China before being redeployed to the Third Battleship Division in 1941. In 1942, she sailed as part of the Southern Force in preparation for the Battle of Singapore.
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1922 - French ironclad turret ship Marceau wrecked, the last french Barbette
Marceau was an ironclad turret ship built for the French Navy during the 1880s, the lead ship of her class. She served in the Mediterranean Squadron until 1900, when she was rebuilt and subsequently placed in reserve. She returned to service in 1906 as a torpedo training ship. During World War I, she served in Malta and Corfu as a submarine tender. The old ironclad was sold for scrapping in 1920, and while being towed to Toulon, she ran aground in a gale off Bizerte and became stranded. The wreck remained visible there until the 1930s.
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1929 – Popeye the Sailor Man, a cartoon character created by E. C. Segar, first appears in the Thimble Theatre comic strip.
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1994 – Ocean liner American Star beached at Fuertefentura
SS America
was an ocean liner built in 1940 for the United States Lines and was designed by the noted American naval architect William Francis Gibbs. She carried many names in the 54 years between her construction and her 1994 wrecking, as she served as the SS America (carrying this name three different times during her career), the USS West Point, the SS Australis, the SS Italis, the SS Noga, the SS Alferdoss, and the SS American Star. She served most notably in passenger service as the SS America, and as the Greek-flagged SS Australis.
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Uwek

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18th of January

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1788 – The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from Great Britain to Australia arrive at Botany Bay
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, marines, seamen, civil officers and free people (accounts differ on the numbers), and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival.
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1814 - HMS Severn (40), Cptn. Joseph Nourse, escorting a convoy engaged French frigates Etoile (40), Cptn. Pierre-Henri Phillibert, and Sultane (40), Cptn. Georges Du-Petit-Thouars
On 18 January 1814
Etoile and Sultane encountered a British merchant convoy at 24°N 53°W in the Central North Atlantic. Sighting distant sails at 04:00, the French captains soon confirmed that the convoy, sailing northwest towards its destination of Bermuda, was defended by only one British warship, the 40-gun frigate HMS Severn under Captain James Nourse. At 07:30, Nourse approached the unidentified ships, determining at 08:40 that they were enemy vessels and giving orders for the convoy to scatter. The French squadron pursued Severn, Nourse opening long-range fire with his stern mounted guns at Etoile at 10:30. The French ship held off returning fire with its bow guns until 16:05 when the range had narrowed considerably, Severn's flight distracting the French sufficiently to allow the convoy to escape. Severn proved to be a fast ship, Nourse successfully holding off pursuit through an exchange of fire at a distance of more than 2 nautical miles (3.7 km). At 17:30 French fire stopped as the range lengthened once more, and Severn began to pull away, Philibert finally calling off pursuit at 08:00 on 19 January.

The French squadron then sailed southwest, arriving at Maio in the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands on 22 January. The squadron anchored at Porto Inglês, and was discovered there at 09:55 the following morning by a British frigate squadron of the 36-gun ships HMS Astrea under Captain George Charles Mackenzie and HMS Creole under Captain John Eveleigh. The British ships were en route to Porto Inglês from Fuerteventura and first spied the French ships, with two small prizes, at anchor from across a promontory, assuming them to be Spanish or Portuguese ships. When the French failed to respond to the coded signals however the British captains realised that the strangers must be enemy vessels and resolved to attack them where they were anchored
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1884 - The passenger steamer SS City of Columbus ran aground on Devil’s Bridge off the Gay Head Cliffs in Aquinnah, Massachusetts
The passenger steamer City of Columbus ran aground on Devil’s Bridge off the Gay Head Cliffs in Aquinnah, Massachusetts, in the early hours of January 18, 1884. She was owned by Boston & Savannah Steamship Company and was built in 1878 by John Roach and Sons, at Chester, Pennsylvania. City of Columbus made regular runs from Boston, Massachusetts to Savannah, Georgia.
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1911 – Eugene B. Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania anchored in San Francisco Bay, the first time an aircraft landed on a ship.
Eugene Burton Ely
(October 21, 1886 – October 19, 1911) was an aviation pioneer, credited with the first shipboard aircraft take off and landing.
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1916 - Scotia, a barque that was built in 1872 as the Norwegian whaler Hekla, was destroyed by fire
Scotia was a barque that was built in 1872 as the Norwegian whaler Hekla. She was purchased in 1902 by William Spiers Bruce and refitted as a research vessel for use by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. After the expedition, she served as a sealer, patrol vessel and collier. She was destroyed by fire in January 1916.
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1939 - Herzogin Cecilie, a German-built four-mast barque (windjammer), sank
Herzogin Cecilie was a German-built four-mast barque (windjammer), named after German Crown Princess Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1886–1954), spouse of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (1882–1951) (Herzogin being German for Duchess). She sailed under German, French and Finnish flags.
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Herzogin_Cecilie_-_StateLibQld_70_143636.jpg
 

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19th of January

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1678 - HMS Guernsey engaged an Algerine Corsair.
HMS Guernsey
was a 22-gun ship launched as HMS Basing in 1654, and renamed HMS Guernsey in 1660. She was converted to a fireship in 1688 and broken up in 1693.
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This may be a portrait of the ‘Guernsey’, fifth-rate, 30 guns. She was built in 1654 as the ‘Basing’. She was renamed in 1660 and condemned in 1693. She is viewed from abaft the starboard beam. On the tafferel is a large cross with a helmet and mantling above it, presumably the arms of Guernsey. Above the quarter gallery is a swan with wings outspread. It is freely drawn, but not as accurately as most drawings by the Younger at this period. The ship is shown too long for the amount of stern showing, and the stern is heeled slightly to port while the fore part of the ship is not.


1764 - Launch of French Ville de Paris, a large 90-gun ship of the line, that became famous as the flagship of the Comte de Grasse during the American Revolutionary War.
Ville de Paris was a large three-decker French ship of the line that became famous as the flagship of the Comte de Grasse during the American Revolutionary War.
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The Ville de Paris, Foundering in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean (PAD6009)


1782 - HMS Hinchinbrook, ex French privateer Astrée, captured by British in 1778, wrecked
HMS Hinchinbrook
was the French privateer Astrée, which the British captured in 1778 and took into the Royal Navy as a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate. She was Captain Horatio Nelson's second navy command, after the brig HMS Badger, and his first as post-captain. She was wrecked, with no loss of life, in January 1783.


1788 – The second group of ships of the First Fleet arrive at Botany Bay.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, marines, seamen, civil officers and free people (accounts differ on the numbers), and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival.
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1799 - Action of 19 January 1799
The Action of 19 January 1799 was a minor naval battle of the French Revolutionary Wars fought in waters of the Strait of Gibraltar, off Punta Europa. A Spanish squadron of 14 gunboats with a mistico as flagship, commanded by Francisco Mourelle de la Rua, attacked a British merchant convoy escorted by several Royal Navy warships, among them a 74-gun ship of the line. The British warships failed to defend the convoy, losing a gunboat sunk and another captured. The convoy also lost a ship and two brigs. For this action Mourelle de la Rua was promoted to frigate captain.
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Engraving of a Spanish gunboat of the late 18th century.


1799 - HMS Grampus (20) Store-ship, wrecked near Woolwich.
Ceres was an East Indiaman launched in 1787. She made three trips to China for the British East India Company (EIC). After the outbreak of war with France in 1793, the Admiralty, desirous of quickly building up the Royal Navy, purchased a number of commercial vessels, including nine East Indiamen, to meet the need for small two-decker fourth rates to serve as convoy escorts. The Admiralty purchased Ceres in 1795 and renamed her HMS Grampus. In 1797 the Admiralty converted her to a storeship. That year her crew participated in the Spithead and Nore mutinies. Grampus grounded in January 1799 and was destroyed.
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1808 - HMS Flora (36), Cptn. Loftus Otway Bland, wrecked on the coast of Holland.
HMS Flora
(1780) was a 36-gun fifth rate launched in 1780 and wrecked in 1808. Because Flora served in the navy's Egyptian campaign between 8 March 1801 and 2 September, her officers and crew qualified for the clasp "Egypt" to the Naval General Service Medal, which the Admiralty issued in 1847 to all surviving claimants
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1816 - Estramina, originally called Extremeña, a two-masted schooner of 102 tons, wrecked
Estramina, originally called Extremeña, a two-masted schooner of 102 tons, was built at Guayaquil, in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, now in modern-day Ecuador, and launched on 13 October 1803. A Spanish Naval vessel, it was pierced for 12 guns but was armed with only four 4-pounders and carried a crew of 18. It was commanded by Lieutenant Mariano Isasbiribil, and engaged in hydrographical surveys.


1824 – Launch of HMS Asia, an 84-gun Canopus class second rate ship of the line
HMS Asia
was an 84-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 19 January 1824 at Bombay Dockyard.
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Scale: 1: 48. Plan showing the framing profile (disposition) for Asia (1824) and Bombay (1828), both 84-gun Second Rate, two-deckers, building at Bombay Dockyard, India. The plan includes later undated alterations.


1839 - Capture of Aden by HMS Volage (28), Cptn. Henry Smith, and troops.
HMS Volage
was a Sixth-rate Sailing frigate launched in 1825 for the Royal Navy.
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Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half breadth as proposed and approved for Volage (1825), a 28-gun, Sixth Rate Sloop.


1840 - During the Exploring Expedition, USS Vincennes, commanded by Lt. Charles Wilkes, becomes the first U.S. Navy ship to reach the Antarctic Continent.
USS Vincennes (1826)
was a 703-ton Boston-class sloop of war in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1865. During her service, Vincennes patrolled the Pacific, explored the Antarctic, and blockaded the Confederate Gulf coast in the Civil War. Named for the Revolutionary War Battle of Vincennes, she was the first U.S. warship to circumnavigate the globe.
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19th-century painting (based on a sketch by Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, USN), depicting USS Vincennes in Disappointment Bay, Antarctica, circa January–February 1840.


1883 - “Cimbria” Catastrophe – the Story of the “German Titanic”
The HAPAG passenger ship SS Cimbria sank with the loss of between 389 and 437 lives (sources disagree) after colliding with the steamer Sultan ( United Kingdom) in the North Sea near Borkum Island. Between 56 and 133 people survived and were saved by Diamant and Thetis (flags unknown).
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1941 – World War II: HMS Greyhound and other escorts of convoy AS-12 sink Italian submarine Neghelli with all hands 40 miles northeast of Falkonera.
Italian submarine Neghelli
was an Adua-class submarine built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during the 1930s. It was named after a town of Negele in Ethiopia.
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1942 - German submarine U-66 sank RMS Lady Hawkins in the North Atlantic, killing 251 of the 322 people aboard.
RMS Lady Hawkins
was a steam turbine ocean liner. She was one of a class of five sister ships popularly known as "Lady Boats" that Cammell Laird of Birkenhead, England built in 1928 and 1929 for the Canadian National Steamship Company (CNS). The five vessels were Royal Mail Ships that CN operated from Halifax, Nova Scotia and the Caribbean via Bermuda. In 1942 the German submarine U-66 sank Lady Hawkins in the North Atlantic, killing 251 of the 322 people aboard.
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1943 - The Battle off Zuwarah was a World War II naval battle which took place on the night of 19 January 1943 in Libyan waters between British and Italian forces.
The Battle off Zuwarah was a World War II naval battle which took place on the night of 19 January 1943 in Libyan waters between British and Italian forces. The battle ended with the complete destruction of an Italian flotilla of small minesweepers and auxiliary vessels evacuating Tripoli.
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1996 – The barge North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island.
The North Cape oil spill took place on January 19, 1996, when the tank barge North Cape and the tug Scandia grounded on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island after the tug caught fire in its engine room during a winter storm. An estimated 828,000 gallons of home heating oil was spilled. Oil spread throughout a large area of Block Island Sound, including Trustom Pond National Wildlife Refuge, resulting in the closure of a 250-square-mile (650 km2) area of the soundfor fishing.
Hundreds of oiled birds and large numbers of dead lobsters, surf clams, and sea stars were recovered in the weeks following the spill. US federal and Rhode Island state governments undertook considerable work to clean up the spill and restore lost fishery stocks and coastal marine habitat. The North Cape oil spill is considered a significant legal precedent in that it was the first major oil spill in the continental U.S. after the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, resulting from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska on March 24, 1989.
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

20th of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1755 – Birth of Sir Albemarle Bertie, 1st Baronet, English admiral (d. 1824)
Admiral Sir Albemarle Bertie, 1st Baronet, KCB (20 January 1755 – 24 February 1824) was a long-serving and at the time controversial officer of the British Royal Navy who saw extensive service in his career, but also courted controversy with several of his actions.
Bertie won recognition for unsuccessfully defending his ship against superior odds in the American Revolutionary War. He was later criticised however for failing to close with the enemy at the Glorious First of June and later for pulling rank on a subordinate officer just days before the capture of the French island of Mauritius and taking credit for the victory. Despite these controversies, Bertie was rewarded for his service with a baronetcy and the Order of the Bath, retiring in 1813 to his country estate at Donnington, Berkshire.


1783 – Launch of HMS Gladiator, a 44-gun fifth-rate Roebuck-class ship of the Royal Navy
HMS Gladiator
was a 44-gun fifth-rate Roebuck-class ship of the Royal Navy. She was launched on 20 January 1783 by Henry Adams of Bucklers Hard. She spent her entire career on harbour service, never putting to sea. Even so, her crew earned prize money for the seizure of two Russian and five American ships. Her sessile existence made her an excellent venue for courts-martialand a number of notable ones took place aboard her. She was broken up in 1817.
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1786 – Launch of Spanish Mexicano (or Mejicano), a 112-gun three-decker ship of the line built at Havanna for the Spanish Navy in 1786
Mexicano (or Mejicano) was a 112-gun three-decker ship of the line built at Havanna for the Spanish Navy in 1786 to plans by Romero Landa. One of the eight very large ships of the line of the Santa Ana class, also known as los Meregildos. Mexicano served in the Spanish Navy for three decades throughout the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, finally being sold at Ferrol in 1815. Although she was a formidable part of the Spanish battlefleet throughout these conflicts, the only major action Mexicano participated in was the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1797.
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1789 – Launch of Spanish San Hermenegildo, a 112-gun three-decker ship of the line built at Havanna for the Spanish Navy
San Hermenegildo was a 112-gun three-decker ship of the line built at Havanna for the Spanish Navy in 1789 to plans by Romero Landa, one of the eight very large ships of the line of the Santa Ana class, also known as los Meregildos. San Hermenegildo served in the Spanish Navy during the French Revolutionary Wars and was destroyed with heavy loss of life during the Second Battle of Algeciras.
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1809 - Cutter HMS Claudia (1806 - 10), Lt. Anthony Bliss William Lord, wrecked off Norway.
HMS Claudia
was an Adonis-class schooner of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic War. She was built at Bermuda using Bermudan cedar and completed in 1806. She was commissioned under Lieutenant Anthony Bliss William Lord in March 1806.
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1817 - HMS Telegraph (14), Lt. John Little, wrecked by a gale whilst anchored off the Eastern Hoe in Plymouth Sound.
HMS Telegraph
was built in 1812 in New York as the American letter of marque Vengeance. The Royal Navy captured her in 1813 and took her into service as the 14-gun schooner or gunbrig Telegraph. Over a period of only about two years she took numerous small prizes and caused the destruction of a French 16-gun brig. A gale caused the wrecking of Telegraph in 1817.


1887 - Kapunda; a British emigrant ship which; sank after colliding with the barque Ada Melmoure in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil
Kapunda was a British emigrant ship which sank on 20 January 1887 after colliding with the barque Ada Melmoure in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil. She was an iron-hulled ship of 1,095 tons, owned by Frinder, Anderson, and Company
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1918 - The Battle of Imbros was a naval action that took place during the First World War.
The Battle of Imbros was a naval action that took place during the First World War. The battle occurred on 20 January 1918 when an Ottoman squadron engaged a flotilla of the British Royal Navy off the island of Imbros in the Aegean Sea. A lack of heavy Alliedwarships in the area allowed the Ottoman battlecruiser Yavûz Sultân Selîm and light cruiser Midilli to sortie into the Mediterranean and attack the British monitors and destroyers at Imbros before assaulting the naval base at Mudros.
Although the Ottoman forces managed to complete their objective of destroying the British monitors at Imbros, the battle turned sour for them as they sailed through a minefield while withdrawing. Midilli was sunk and Yavûz Sultân Selîm heavily damaged. Although Yavûz Sultân Selîm managed to beach herself within the Dardanelles, she was subjected to days of air attacks until she was towed to safety. With the most modern cruiser of the Ottoman Navy sunk and her only battlecruiser out of action, the battle effectively curtailed the Ottoman Navy's offensive capability until the end of the war.
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1921 – The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel; all 56 on board die.
HMS K5
was one of the K-class submarines that served in the Royal Navy from 1917-1921. She was lost with all hands when she sank en route to a mock battle in the Bay of Biscay.
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Aerial view of K5 showing smoke from steam engine

1942 - SS Kurtuluş was a Turkish cargo ship which became famous for her humanitarian role in carrying food aid during the famine Greece suffered under the Axis occupation in World War II. She sank on 20 February 1942 in the Sea of Marmara
SS Kurtuluş
was a Turkish cargo ship which became famous for her humanitarian role in carrying food aid during the famine Greece suffered under the Axis occupation in World War II. She sank on 20 February 1942 in the Sea of Marmara during her fifth voyage from İstanbul, Turkey to Piraeus, Greece. In Turkish kurtuluş means "liberation".
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

21st of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1782 - HMS Blonde (1760 - 32), Cptn. Andrew Barclay, wrecked on Nantucket Shoal
HMS Blonde
was a 32-gun fifth rate warship of the British Royal Navy captured from the French in 1760. The ship wrecked on Blonde Rock with American prisoners on board. An American privateer Captain Daniel Adams rescued the American prisoners and let the British go free. The Captain's decision created an international stir. Upon returning to Boston, the American privateer was banished for letting go the British crew and he and his family became Loyalist refugees in Nova Scotia.
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1783 – Launch of HMS Carnatic, a 74-gun Courageux-class third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy,
HMS Carnatic
was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 21 January 1783 at Deptford Wharf. The British East India Company paid for her construction and presented her to the Royal Navy.
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1788 - Arthur Phillip, commander of the First Fleet, and a party which included John Hunter, departed Botany Bay in three small boats to explore other bays to the north. Phillip discovered that Port Jackson, about 12 kilometres to the north, was an excellent site for a colony with sheltered anchorages, fresh water and fertile soil.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, marines, seamen, civil officers and free people (accounts differ on the numbers), and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival.
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1793 - Louis XVI of France executed
Louis XVI
(French pronunciation: [lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.
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1796 - pilot ship Cartier, a brig launched in 1787 for the Bengal Pilot Service, was captured by French privateer corvette Émilie, captained by privateer Robert Surcouf.
Cartier was a brig launched in 1787 for the Bengal Pilot Service as a pilot ship operating at Balasore Roads. The French privateer Robert Surcouf captured her, and then used her to capture the East Indiaman Triton on 29 January 1796. The British Royal Navy subsequently recaptured her.
The brig Cartier operated in Balasore roads, in the Indian Ocean. On 21 January 1796 the French privateer corvette Émilie, captained by Robert Surcouf, captured her.
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1800 - Transport ship HMS Weymouth (1795 - 26), Cdr. Ambrose Crofton, wrecked on the Bar of Lisbon
HMS Weymouth
was laid down as the East Indiaman Earl of Mansfield. The British Royal Navy purchased her on the stocks to use as a 56-gun fourth rate. She was launched in 1795 but never commissioned in the Royal Navy. She was transferred in February 1796 to the Transportation Board as a transport. Lieutenant Robert Passmore took command in June 1796. Commander Charles Ryder succeeded Passmore in July 1798, and Commander Ambrose Crofton replaced Ryder in August 1799.


1805 - HMS Doris (1795 - 36), Cptn. Patrick Campbell, wrecked on the Diamond Rock off Quiberon Bay.
HMS Doris
was a 36-gun Phoebe-class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, launched on 31 August 1795. which saw service in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Doris was built by Cleveley, of Gravesend.
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model of the HMS Phoebe (leadship of the class)


1807 - Boats of HMS Galatea (1794 - 32), Cptn. George Sayer, captured French corvette Lynx (1804 - 16) off the coast of Venezuela
HMS Galatea
was a fifth-rate 32-gun sailing frigate of the British Royal Navy that George Parsons built at Bursledon and launched in 1794. Before she was broken up in 1809 she captured numerous prizes and participated in a number of actions, first in the Channel and off Ireland (1794–1803), and then in the Caribbean (1802–1809), including one that earned her crew the Naval General Service Medal.
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1854 - RMS Tayleur, a full rigged iron clipper ship chartered by the White Star Line, ran aground and sank on her maiden voyage in 1854. Of more than 650 aboard, only 280 survived. She has been described as "the first Titanic"
RMS Tayleur
was a full rigged iron clipper ship chartered by the White Star Line. She was large, fast and technically advanced. She ran aground and sank on her maiden voyage in 1854. Of more than 650 aboard, only 280 survived. She has been described as "the first Titanic".
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1937 - SS Roosevelt, an American steamship of the early 20th century, beached and abandoned
SS Roosevelt
was an American steamship of the early 20th century. She was designed and constructed specifically for Robert Peary′s polar exploration expeditions, and she supported the 1908 expedition in which he claimed to have discovered the North Pole.
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1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, the First Lady of the United States.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571)
was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3 August 1958.
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1961 - USS George Washington (SSBN 598) completes the first operational voyage as a fleet ballistic missile submarine, staying submerged 66 days.
USS George Washington (SSBN-598)
was the United States's first operational ballistic missile submarine. It was the lead ship of her class of nuclear ballistic missile submarines, was the third United States Navy ship of the name, in honor of George Washington (1732–1799), first President of the United States, and the first of that name to be purpose-built as a warship.
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

22nd of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1645 – Birth of William Kidd, Scottish sailor and pirate hunter (d. 1701)
William Kidd
, also Captain William Kidd or simply Captain Kidd (c. 1645 – 23 May 1701), was a Scottish sailor who was tried and executed for piracy after returning from a voyage to the Indian Ocean. Some modern historians, for example Sir Cornelius Neale Dalton (see Books), deem his piratical reputation unjust.
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Captain Kidd, gibbeted, following his execution in 1701.


1761 – Launch of HMS Arrogant, a 74-gun Arrogant class third rate ship of the line
HMS Arrogant
was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 22 January 1761 at Harwich. She was the first of the Arrogant class ships of the line, designed by Sir Thomas Slade.
he took part in the Action of 8 September 1796 and in January 1799 was with the British squadron at the defence of Macau during the Macau Incident.
By 1804 she had been converted to a hulk at Bombay where she served as a receiving ship, sheer hulk, and floating battery. In 1810 she was condemned as unfit for further service. She was sold out of service in 1810
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The Arrogant, Intrepid and Virginie chasing French and Spanish Squadron off coast of China, 27 January 1799 (PAH9508)

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with quarter gallery decorations, and longitudinal half-breadth proposed for 'Defence (1763), Kent' (1762), 'Cornwall' (1761), and 'Arrogant' (1761), all 74-gun Third Rate, two deckers. Signed by Thomas Slade [Surveyor of the Navy, 1755-1771].

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Model of HMS Illustrious at Buckler's Hard


1783 - The Action of 22 January 1783 was a single ship action fought off the Chesapeake Bay
The Action of 22 January 1783 was a single ship action fought off the Chesapeake Bay during the American War of Independence. The British frigate Hussar, under the command of Thomas McNamara Russell, captured the French frigate Sybille, under the command of Kergariou-Locmaria. The circumstances of the battle included controversial violations of accepted rules of war regarding the flying of false flags and distress signals.
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1785 - Launch of spanish San Ildefonso, a 74 gun Ildefonso class ship of the line
San Ildefonso was a ship of the Spanish Navy launched in 1785. She was designed to be lighter than traditional Spanish vessels which had had difficulty matching the speed of ships of the Royal Navy. Though nominally a 74-gun ship the San Ildefonso actually carried 80 cannons and howitzers. She saw service against French and British vessels in the late 18th century, sailed twice to the Americas and was trapped in Cadiz by the British blockade. San Ildefonso was captured by the British third-rate HMS Defence at the Battle of Trafalgar and successfully weathered the storm afterwards to be taken into Royal Navy service as HMS Ildefonso.
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This is a plate from 'The Naval Chronicle' , 1806, subsequently extracted and hand-coloured. It shows the day after the Battle of Trafalgar, with the captured and dismasted Spanish 'San Ildefonso' on the right and on the left her captor, the 'Defence', riding at anchor in the wake of the post-battle storm near Cadiz, with other ships wrecked on the coast around Rota in the distance.


1794 – Launch of French Jemmapes, a Téméraire class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy
Jemmapes was a Téméraire class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy.
Laid down as Alexandre, she was renamed Jemmapes on 7 January 1793 in honour of the Battle of Jemappes. She took part in the Atlantic campaign of May 1794 and ultimately in the Glorious First of June. She was attacked and totally dismasted by HMS Queen, with the loss of 60, including her captain, and 55 wounded.
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Scale model of Achille, sister ship of French ship Jemmapes (1794), on display at the Musée de la Marine in Paris.


1794 - Action of 22 January 1794 - Sunda Strait campaign of January 1794
HEICS Britannia and HEICS Nonsuch captured French privateers Vengeur (34) and Resolu (26) off Zuften isles.

With the Royal Navy unable to provide forces to protect trade in the East Indies, the East India Company authorities in India decided to form a squadron from their own ships to patrol the region. Two East Indiamen, William Pitt and Britannia, and the country ship Nonsuch, were diverted from their regular route for the service, accompanied by the brig Nautilus (or possibly Viper), and under the overall command of Commodore Charles Mitchell, captain of William Pitt. On 2 January 1794 this force passed Singapore and entered the Malacca Strait, sailing eastwards in search of French raiders. As the British squadron travelled along the northern coast of Sumatra, two French privateers attacked the East India Company's trading post at Bencoolen on the southern coast. The privateers were the 30-gun Vengeur under Captain Corosin and the 26-gun Résolue under Captain Jallineaux, and on 17 January they approached the mouth of Rat Island Basin close to Bencoolen where the 32-gun East Indiaman Pigot lay at anchor. Pigot, under Captain George Ballantyne, had a crew of 102 men, but was completely unprepared for action. At 08:15 Vengeur opened fire at 150 yards (137 m), maintaining the battle for an hour and 45 minutes before hauling off so that Résolu could continue the combat. Ballantyne defended his vessel intelligently, positioning Pigot so that the French could only approach one at a time through the narrow mouth of the bay. This allowed him to drive off each ship in turn, the privateers falling back together at 10:20 with damaged rigging. Pigot too had suffered, with one man killed and sufficient damage to the rigging to require several weeks of repairs. After immediate repairs had been completed, Corosin abandoned Bencoolen and retreated to the Sunda Strait in search of weaker targets
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The Calcutta-trade merchantman 'Nonsuch' in two positions off the Kingsgate Gap


1809 - Action of 22 January 1809
HMS Cleopatra (1779 - 32), HMS Jason (1804 - 32) and HMS Hazard (1794 - 16) captured Topaze (1805 - 48), anchored under a small battery south of Point Noir, Guadeloupe.

The Action of 22 January 1809 was a minor naval engagement fought off the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe during the Napoleonic Wars. The action was fought as part of the blockade of Guadeloupe and neighbouring Martinique by a large British Royal Navy squadron, which was seeking to cut the islands off from contact and supplies from France by preventing the passage of shipping from Europe to the islands. The British blockade was part of their preparation for planned invasions during the next year.
The French made numerous efforts to supply their colonies during this period, attempting to use fast frigates to bring food and military stores to the Caribbean past the British blockades, themselves a response to Napoleon's Continental System, but often losing the vessels in the process. One such attempt was made by the French frigate Topaze, despatched from Brest to Cayenne with a large cargo of flour. Driven away from Cayenne by Portugal (allies of Britain, and fighting France themselves in be Peninsular War), who had recently captured the colony, Topaze took refuge under the gun batteries of Guadeloupe.
Discovered at anchor off Pointe-Noire on 22 January by the British brig HMS Hazard, Topaze was isolated and attacked by two British frigates, led by Captain Samuel Pechell in HMS Cleopatra. In the ensuing engagement, the British ships outnumbered and overwhelmed their opponent, capturing the ship and her cargo, despite heavy fire from a French gun battery that overlooked the anchorage. The British ships were drawn from a force gathered for the impending invasion of Martinique, which was launched six days after Topaze had been captured and successfully completed in a campaign lasting just over three weeks.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with half stern board outline, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for building 'Cleopatra' (1778), a 32-gun, Fifth Rate Frigate, at Bristol by Mr Hilhouse. Signed by John Williams [Surveyor of the Navy, 1765-1784].


1809 - HMS Primrose (18), James Mein, wrecked on the Manacle near Falmouth.
HMS Primrose (1807)
was a Royal Navy Cruizer-class brig-sloop built by Thomas Nickells (or Nicholls), at Fowey and launched in 1807. She was commissioned in November 1807 under Commander James Mein, who sailed her to the coast of Spain on 3 February 1808.
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1856 – Launch of French Audacieuse, an Ardente-class frigate of the French Navy
Audacieuse was an Ardente-class frigate of the French Navy.
She served between France and the Far East, notable ferrying ambassador Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros to China in 1857 and bringing guns from the Taku Forts to France.
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Audacieuse, drawn by Roux


1873 - The Northfleet, a British full rigged ship, is rammed by Spanish steamer Murillo and sinks 293 passengers and crew near Dungeness
The Northfleet was a British full rigged ship that is best remembered for her disastrous sinking in the English Channel in January 1873.
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Loss of the Northfleet (The Captain's Farewell) 1873 (PAF7747)


1891 – The Hapag liner Augusta Victoria starts in Ciuxhaven for a 3 month cruise.
Off-season pleasure cruises were therefore started in 1891, and Augusta Victoria's cruise in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including the Ballins themselves, is often stated to have been the first ever cruise

Augusta Victoria, later Auguste Victoria, placed in service in 1889 and named for Empress Augusta Victoria, wife of German Emperor Wilhelm II, was the name ship of the Augusta Victoria series and the first of a new generation of luxury Hamburg America Line ocean liners. She was the first European liner with twin propellers and when first placed in service, the fastest liner in the Atlantic trade. In 1897, the ship was rebuilt and lengthened and in 1904 she was sold to the Imperial Russian Navy, which renamed her Kuban.
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1906 – SS Valencia runs aground on rocks on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, killing more than 130.
SS Valencia
was an iron-hulled passenger steamer built as a minor ocean liner for the Red D Line for service between Venezuela and New York City. She was built in 1882 by William Cramp and Sons, one year after the construction of her sister ship Caracas. She was a 1,598 ton vessel (originally 1,200 tons), 252 feet (77 m) in length. In 1897, Valencia was deliberately attacked by the Spanish cruiser Reina Mercedes off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The next year, she became a coastal passenger liner on the U.S. West Coast and served periodically in the Spanish–American War as a troopship to the Philippines. Valencia was wrecked off Cape Beale, which is near Clo-oose, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, on 22 January 1906. Since her sinking killed 100 people (including all of the women and children aboard), some classify the wreck of Valencia as the worst maritime disaster in the "Graveyard of the Pacific", a famously treacherous area off the southwest coast of Vancouver Island.
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SS Valencia around 1900, showing much of her original Red D Line profile


1941 - Operation Berlin started
Operation Berlin
was a successful commerce raid performed by the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau between January and March 1941. The commander-in-chief of the operation was Admiral Günther Lütjens, who subsequently commanded the famous cruise of Bismarck and Prinz Eugen.
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

23rd of January

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1781 - HMS Culloden (1776 - 74), Cptn. Balfour, wrecked on the east end of Long Island in a gale.
HMS Culloden
was a 74-gun Culloden-class third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Deptford Dockyard, England, and launched on 18 May 1776. She was the fourth warship to be named after the Battle of Culloden, which took place in Scotland in 1746 and saw the defeat of the Jacobite rising.
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Inscribed in black ink 'Culloden man of war', lower left, and signed 'D Serres', lower right, in a browner ink.

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Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board decoration and name on the counter, sheer lines with inboard detail and stern quarter decoration and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Culloden' (1776), a 74-gun, Third Rate, two-decker as built at Deptford Dockyard.


1790 - The mutineers of the HMS Bounty burned the ship while she was moored at Pitcairn Island.
HMS Bounty,
also known as HM Armed Vessel Bounty, was a small merchant vessel that the Royal Navy purchased for a botanical mission. The ship was sent to the Pacific Ocean under the command of William Bligh to acquire breadfruit plants and transport them to British possessions in the West Indies. That mission was never completed due to a mutiny led by acting lieutenant Fletcher Christian. This incident is now popularly known as the mutiny on the Bounty. The mutineers later burned Bounty while she was moored at Pitcairn Island. An American adventurer rediscovered the remains of the Bounty in 1957; various parts of it have been salvaged since then.
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1795 – After an extraordinary charge across the frozen Zuiderzee, the French cavalry captured 14 Dutch ships and 850 guns, in a rare occurrence of a battle between ships and cavalry.
The Capture of the Dutch fleet at Den Helder on the night of 23 January 1795 presents a rare occurrence of a "naval" battle between warships and cavalry, in which a French Revolutionary Hussar regiment surprised a Dutch Republican fleet frozen at anchor between the 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) stretch of sea that separates the mainland port of Den Helder and the island of Texel. After a charge across the frozen Zuiderzee, the French cavalry captured 14 Dutch ships and 850 guns. A capture of ships by horsemen is an extremely rare feat in military history.
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Capture of the Dutch fleet by the French hussars


1798 - HMS Melampus (1785 - 36), Cptn. Graham Moore, captured French corvette Volage (1795 - 22), M. Desageneaux.
HMS Melampus
was a Royal Navy fifth-rate frigate that served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. She captured numerous prizes before the British sold her to the Dutch navy in 1815. With the Dutch she participated in a major action at Algiers, and then in a number of colonial punitive expeditions in the Dutch East Indies.
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Detail from the painting by Bristol artist Chris Woodhouse of the 36-gun Bristol-built frigate HMS Melampus, commissioned and purchased in 1990 by Bristol City Museum


1807 - HMS Orpheus (1780 - 32), Cptn. Thomas Briggs, wrecked on a coral reef in the West Indies
HMS Orpheus
was a 32–gun fifth rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1780, and served for more than a quarter of a century, before she was wrecked in 1807.
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1904 – Ålesund Fire
Norwegian coastal town Ålesund is devastated by fire, burnt down 850 houses, leaving 10,000 people homeless and one person dead. German Kaiser Wilhelm II dispatched four ships loaded with personnel, food, medicine, materials for shelters, and equipment. He funds the rebuilding of the town in Jugendstil style.

The Ålesund fire happened in the Norwegian city of Ålesund on 23 January 1904. It destroyed almost the whole city centre, built mostly of wood like the majority of Norwegian towns at the time
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1909 – RMS Republic, a passenger ship of the White Star Line, becomes the first ship to use the CQD distress signal after colliding with another ship, the SS Florida, off the Massachusetts coastline, an event that kills six people. The Republic sinks the next day.
RMS Republic
was a steam-powered ocean liner built in 1903 by Harland and Wolff in Belfast, and lost at sea in a collision in 1909 while sailing for the White Star Line. The ship was equipped with a new Marconi wireless telegraphy transmitter, and issued a CQD distress call, resulting in the saving of around 1,500 lives. Known as the "Millionaires' Ship" because of the number of wealthy Americans who traveled by her, she was described as a "palatial liner" and was the flagship of White Star Line's Boston service. This was the first important marine rescue made possible by radio, and brought worldwide attention to this new technology.
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1960 – The bathyscaphe USS Trieste breaks a depth record by descending to 10,911 metres (35,797 ft) in the Pacific Ocean.
Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about 10,911 metres (35,797 ft), in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific. On 23 January 1960, Jacques Piccard (son of the boat's designer Auguste Piccard) and US Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh achieved the goal of Project Nekton.
Trieste was the first manned vessel to have reached the bottom of the Challenger Deep.
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1961 – The Portuguese luxury cruise ship Santa Maria is hijacked by opponents of the Estado Novo regime with the intention of waging war until dictator António de Oliveira Salazar is overthrown.
The Santa Maria hijacking was carried out on 22 January 1961 when Portuguese and Spanish political rebels seized control of a Portuguese passenger ship, aiming to force political change in Portugal. The action was also known as Operation Dulcinea, the code name given by its chief architect and leader, Portuguese military officer, writer and politician Henrique Galvão, who had been exiled in Caracas, Venezuela since 1959. After United States naval intervention, the ship arrived in Brazil, and the hijacking ended on 2 February when the rebels were given political asylum there
 

Uwek

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24th of January

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1709 – Death of George Rooke, English admiral and politician (b. 1650)
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rooke (1650 – 24 January 1709) was an English naval officer. As a junior officer he saw action at the Battle of Solebay and again at the Battle of Schooneveld during the Third Anglo-Dutch War. As a captain, he conveyed Prince William of Orange to England and took part in the Battle of Bantry Bay during the Williamite War in Ireland.
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1761 - HMS Richmond (32), Cptn. Elphinstone, destroyed Felicite (32), Cptn. Donell (Killed in Action), off Flanders.
HMS Richmond
was the name ship of the six-vessel, 32-gun Richmond-class fifth-rate frigates of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1757 and served throughout the American Revolutionary War until the French 74-gun Bourgogne and the frigate Aigrette captured her on 11 September 1781 in the Chesapeake. She then served as Richemont.
Fate: The French burned her at Sardinia on 19 May 1793 to prevent the Spanish from capturing her.
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1794 - Action at Sunda Strait
The Sunda Strait campaign of January 1794 was a series of manoeuvres and naval actions fought between warships and privateers of the French Republic and a squadron of vessels sent by the British East India Company to protect trade in the region, later augmented by Dutch warships. The campaign developed as French forces based on Île de France reacted more quickly than the British forces in the Indian Ocean to the expansion of the French Revolutionary Wars on 1 February 1793. French privateers rapidly spread along the British trade routes in the Far East, becoming concentrated around the narrow Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies. These ships were soon joined by French Navy frigates and began to inflict losses on shipping in the region. The Royal Navy forces in the Indian Ocean were deployed elsewhere and so the East India Company, the private enterprise that ruled much of British India in the 1790s and maintained their own fleet and navy, raised a squadron of armed merchant ships to patrol the Strait and drive off the raiders.
The arrival of this British force on 2 January 1794 was initially a success, the squadron over-running and capturing two large and well-armed privateers on 22 January, not long after the French vessels had been beaten off during an attack on the British trading post at Bencoolen. On 24 January an action against a larger French squadron was fought in the Strait itself, but ended inconclusively and the squadrons divided, the British receiving the Dutch frigate Amazone as reinforcements. The French subsequently turned southwards out of the Strait and attacked Bencoolen again on 9 February, capturing an East Indiaman in the harbour before returning to Île de France with their prize.
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1805 – Four Repulse class 74 gun ships of the line were ordered
These were the HMS Valiant, HMS Elizabeth, HMS Cumberland and the
HMS Venerable
The Repulse-class ships of the line were a class of eleven 74-gun third rates, designed for the Royal Navy by Sir William Rule. The first three ships to this design were ordered in 1800, with a second batch of five following in 1805. The final three ships of the class were ordered towards the end of the Napoleonic War to a modified version of Rule's draught, using the new constructional system created by Sir Robert Seppings; all three were completed after the war's end.
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1807 – Launch of HMS Valiant, a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, exactly two years after the order
HMS Valiant
was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 24 January 1807 at Blackwall Yard.
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1870 - screw sloop of war USS Oneida sunk after a collision with british steamer Bombay
The second USS Oneida was a screw sloop-of-war in the United States Navy. During the Civil War, she destroyed the CSS Governor Moore and served in blockade operations. She was attached to the Asiatic Squadron from 1867–1870. She sank in 1870 outside Yokohama, Japan after collision with the British steamer Bombay. The Court of Inquiry found the officers of Oneida were responsible for the collision. Bombay's captain was blamed for not staying at the scene to render assistance - a decision that caused some controversy. Japanese fishing boats saved 61 sailors but 125 men lost their lives. The American government made no attempt to raise the wreck and sold it to a Japanese wrecking company. The company recovered many bones from the wreck and interred them at their own expense. The Japanese erected a memorial tablet on the grounds of Ikegami Temple in Tokyo and held a Buddhist ceremony in the sailor's memory in May 1889.
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The sinking of USS Oneida off Yokohama, Japan, 24 January 1870.


1915 – World War I: Battle of Dogger Bank
British Grand Fleet battle cruisers under Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty engage Rear-Admiral Franz von Hipper's battle cruisers

The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval engagement on 24 January 1915, near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea, during the First World War, between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet.
The British had intercepted and decoded German wireless transmissions, gaining advance knowledge that a German raiding squadron was heading for Dogger Bank and ships of the Grand Fleet sailed to intercept the raiders. The British surprised the smaller and slower German squadron, which fled for home. During a stern chase lasting several hours, the British caught up with the Germans and engaged them with long-range gunfire. The British disabled Blücher, the rearmost German ship, and the Germans put the British flagship HMS Lion out of action. Due to inadequate signalling, the remaining British ships stopped the pursuit to sink Blücher; by the time the ship had been sunk, the rest of the German squadron had escaped. The German squadron returned to harbour, with some ships in need of extensive repairs.
Lion made it back to port but was out of action for several months. The British had lost no ships and suffered few casualties; the Germans had lost Blücher and most of its crew, so the action was considered a British victory. Both navies replaced commanders who were thought to have shown poor judgement and made changes to equipment and procedures, to remedy failings observed during the battle.
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1935 - passenger cargo steam turbine-powered ship Mohawk sank after collision with Norwegian freighter Talisman
Mohawk was a passenger cargo steam turbine-powered ship built in 1925-1926 by Newport News Ship Building & Drydock Co. of Newport News for Clyde Steamship Company with intention of operating between New York and southern ports of the United States.
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

25th of January

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1782 - The Battle of St Kitts (aka The Battle of Frigate Bay)
The British fleet under Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood out manouvered and was attacked by a larger French fleet under the Comte de Grasse off Basse Terre, St. Kitts. Hood repulsed repeated attacks but could not prevent the loss of the Island.

The Battle of Saint Kitts, also known as the Battle of Frigate Bay, was a naval battle that took place on 25 and 26 January 1782 during the American Revolutionary War between a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood and a larger French fleet under the Comte de Grasse.
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1782 - HMS Solebay (1763 - 28) wrecked off Nevis
HMS Solebay
was a Mermaid-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy which saw active service between 1766 and 1782, during the latter part of the Seven Years' War and throughout the American Revolutionary War. After a successful career in which she captured seven enemy vessels, she was wrecked ashore on the Caribbean Island of Nevis.
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1797 - Action of 25 January 1797
The Action of 25 January 1797 was a minor naval battle of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought in the Gulf of Cádiz. The Spanish third-rate ship of the line San Francisco de Asís was attacked and pursued for several hours by a British squadron of three fifth-rates frigates and a sixth-rate corvetteunder George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway. After an intermittent but fierce exchange of fire, the British warships, badly damaged, were eventually forced to withdraw. The San Francisco de Asís, which suffered only minor damage, was able to return to Cádiz without difficulties. The commander of the ship, Captain Alonso de Torres y Guerra, was promoted for his success.
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1800 - HMS Brazen (1798 - 18), Cptn. J. Hanson, driven by a gale on to the Ave Rocks near Newhaven and wrecked.
HMS Brazen
was the French privateer Invincible General Bonaparte (or Invincible Bonaparte or Invincible Buonaparte), which the British captured in 1798. She is best known for her wrecking in January 1800 in which all but one of her crew drowned.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, stern board outline, and longitudinal half-breadth for Brazen (captured 1798), a captured French privateer prior to being fitted as a 16-gun Ship Sloop. The plans shows the ship with her original French name of 'Invincible General Bonaparte'. Note the pronounced 'V' shaped hull, indicating that she was built for speed. Signed by Edward Tippett [Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1793-1799].


1860 – Launch of HMS Prince of Wales, a 121-gun screw-propelled first-rate three-decker Ship of the Line
HMS Prince of Wales
was one of six 121-gun screw-propelled first-rate three-decker line-of-battle ships of the Royal Navy. She was launched on 25 January 1860.
In 1869 she was renamed HMS Britannia and under that name served at Dartmouth as a cadet training ship until 1905.
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1890 - Irex was a sailing vessel wrecked at Scratchell's Bay on the Isle of Wight by The Needles while on her maiden voyage.
Irex was a sailing vessel wrecked at Scratchell's Bay on the Isle of Wight by The Needles on 25 January 1890, while on her maiden voyage.
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1941 - The keel to USS Wisconsin (BB 64) is laid. Commissioned in April 1944, she serves during the later stages of World War II in the Pacific. She is now a museum battleship stationed in Norfolk, Va.
USS Wisconsin (BB-64)
is an Iowa-class battleship, the second ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. She was built at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and launched on 7 December 1943 (the second anniversary of the Pearl Harbor raid), sponsored by the wife of Governor Walter Goodland of Wisconsin.
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

26th of January

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1781 - Butterworth , launched in 1778 in France as the highly successful 32-gun privateer Américaine, was captured by HMS Prudente
Butterworth was launched in 1778 in France as the highly successful 32-gun privateer Américaine, of Granville. The British Royal Navy captured her early in 1781. She first appeared in a commercial role in 1784 as America, and was renamed in 1785 as Butterworth. She served primarily as a whaler in the Greenland whale fisheries. New owners purchased her in 1789. She underwent a great repair in 1791 that increased her size by almost 20%. She is most famous for her role in the "Butterworth Squadron", which took her and two ship's tenders on an exploration, sealing, otter fur, and whaling voyage to Alaska and the Pacific Coast of North America. She and her consorts are widely credited with being the first European vessels to enter, in 1794, what is now Honolulu harbour. After her return to England in 1795, Butterworth went on three more whaling voyages to the South Pacific, then Africa, and then the South Pacific again. In 1802 she was outward bound on her fourth of these voyage, this to the South Pacific, when she was lost.


1784 - Sévère, a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, wrecked in Table Bay at Cape of Good Hope
Career

Built as an Indiaman by Roth on the lines of a previous ship, Superbe, that had been sold to the Austrian East India Company, Sévère was purchased by the Crown in November 1778 and commissioned for the American Revolutionary War.
She was incorporated into Suffren's squadron. She took part in the Battle of Negapatam in 1782, under Captain Villeneuve-Cilart; during the battle, Villeneuve panicked and attempted to strike, but was prevented from doing so by officers Dieu and Kerlero de Rosbo. Sévère ended up causing damage to HMS Sultan.
Sévère was later armed en flûte, and was wrecked on 26 January 1784 at the Cape of Good Hope.


1787 – Launch of HMS Captain, a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy,
HMS Captain
was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 26 November 1787 at Limehouse. She served during the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars before being placed in harbour service in 1799. An accident caused her to burn and founder in 1813. Later that year she was raised and broken up.
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The 'Captain' capturing the 'San Nicolas' and the 'San José' at the Battle of Cape St Vincent, 14 February 1797

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1793 - Horatio Nelson appointed to command HMS Agamemnon (1781 - 64)
HMS Agamemnon was a 64-gun third-rate ship of the line of the British Royal Navy. She saw service in the Anglo-French War, French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and fought in many of the major naval battles of those conflicts. She is remembered as being Nelson's favourite ship, and was named after the mythical ancient Greek king Agamemnon, being the first ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name.
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Horatio, Lord Nelson, by John Hoppner

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1800 - HMS Brazen (18), James Hanson, was driven by a gale on to the Ave Rocks near Newhaven and was destroyed
HMS Brazen
was the French privateer Invincible General Bonaparte (or Invincible Bonaparte or Invincible Buonaparte), which the British captured in 1798. She is best known for her wrecking in January 1800 in which all but one of her crew drowned.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, stern board outline, and longitudinal half-breadth for Brazen (captured 1798), a captured French privateer prior to being fitted as a 16-gun Ship Sloop. The plans shows the ship with her original French name of 'Invincible General Bonaparte'. Note the pronounced 'V' shaped hull, indicating that she was built for speed. Signed by Edward Tippett [Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1793-1799].


1805 - HM brig Epervier (16), John Impey, captured the French privateer schooner L'Elizabeth (4)
HMS Epervier
was a French 16-gun Alcyon-class brig. HMS Egyptienne captured her in the Atlantic Ocean on 27 July 1803; she was taken into Royal Navyservice under her existing name. Before being broken up in 1811 she captured several prizes and was present at the Battle of San Domingo. Her crew received a clasp to the Naval General Service Medal for their participation in that battle and another for an action in December 1808. She was laid up in late 1810 and was sold in 1811.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board decoration and name in a cartouche on the stern counter, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth half-breadth for the Epervier (captured 1803), a captured French Brig, possibly as fitted as an 18-gun Brig Sloop. Signed by Nicholas Diddams [Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1803-1823].


1807 – Launch of HMS Porcupine, a Royal Navy Banterer-class post ship of 24 guns
HMS Porcupine
was a Royal Navy Banterer-class post ship of 24 guns, launched in 1807. She served extensively and relatively independently in the Adriatic and the Western Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars, with her boats performing many cutting out expeditions, one of which earned for her crew the Naval General Service Medal. She was sold for breaking up in 1816 but instead became the mercantile Windsor Castle. She was finally sold for breaking up in 1826 at Mauritius.
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Model of HMS Cyane (sistership)


1788 – The British First Fleet, led by Arthur Phillip, sails into Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) to establish Sydney, the first permanent European settlement on Australia.
Commemorated as Australia Day

The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, marines, seamen, civil officers and free people (accounts differ on the numbers), and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival.
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The First Fleet entering Port Jackson on 26 January 1788 by Edmund Le Bihan


1808 - William Bligh deposed as governor of NSW by 'Rum Rebellion' mutiny.
The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history. During the 19th century, it was widely referred to as "the Great Rebellion".
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A propaganda cartoon created within hours of William Bligh's arrest, portraying him as a coward


1826 – Launch of HMS Sulphur, a 10-gun Hecla-class bomb vessel of the British Royal Navy
HMS Sulphur
was a 10-gun Hecla-class bomb vessel of the British Royal Navy, famous as one of the ships in which Edward Belcher explored the Pacificcoast of the Americas.
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1866 - USS Wyandotte, originally USS Western Port, was a steamer acquired by the Navy as a gunboat for the Paraguay Expedition wrecked
USS Wyandotte
, originally USS Western Port, was a steamer acquired by the Navy as a gunboat for the Paraguay Expedition in 1858. When the crisis of the American Civil War occurred, she operated in support of the Union Navy blockade of Confederate waterways.
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The Paraguay Squadron (Harper's Weekly, New York, October 16, 1858).


1911 – Glenn Curtiss flies the first successful American seaplane.
The Curtiss Model E was an early aircraft developed by Glenn Curtiss in the United States in 1911.
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Curtiss a-1 pusher 1911, the United States Navy's first aircraft


1913 - The body of John Paul Jones is laid in its final resting place in the Chapel of the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.
John Paul Jones
(born John Paul; July 6, 1747 – July 18, 1792) was the United States' first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War. He made many friends and enemies—who accused him of piracy—among America's political elites, and his actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to this day. As such, he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the American Navy" (a sobriquet he shares with John Barry and John Adams).
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John Paul Jones's marble and bronze sarcophagus at the United States Naval Academy
 

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27th of January

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1663 – Birth of George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1733)
Admiral of the Fleet George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, KB, PC (27 January 1663 – 17 January 1733) of Southill Park in Bedfordshire, was a Royal Navy officer and statesman. While still a lieutenant, he delivered a letter from various captains to Prince William of Orange, who had just landed at Torbay, assuring the Prince of the captains' support; the Prince gave Byng a response which ultimately led to the Royal Navy switching allegiance to the Prince and the Glorious Revolution of November 1688.
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The Battle of Cape Passaro at which Byng commanded the British fleet


1695 - french Content (1686 - 66) and Trident (1688 - 52) captured by an English Squadron of six ships
On the 27th of January, a squadron of six frigates, commanded by Commodore James Killegrew, in the 60-gun ship Plymouth, being between Cape Bona, on the Barbary coast, and Pantellaria, discovered two large French ships, Which proved to be the Content, of sixty guns, Captain the Marquis du Chalard, and the Trident, fifty-two guns. Captain Count d'Aulnoy. The French, mistaking the frigates for merchant-ships, made sail towards them: but discovering their error, hauled to the wind and endeavoured to escape. Commodore Killegrew chased, and the Plymouth outsailing the other ships of the squadron, at 4h. p.m. got within gun-shot of the French ships, upon which she gallantly opened fire. For more than an hour this ship, unsupported, maintained a conflict with two powerful ships the wind being so light as to preclude the other ships from closing â€" during which time the brave commodore was killed by a cannonball The Falmouth, Captain Caleb Grantham, next got into action, but she also was alone for an hour. As soon as the four remaining frigates â€" Carlisle (Captain John Norris), Newcastle, Southampton (Captain Richard Kirby), and Adventure had arrived up, the French ships separated, but were pursued â€" the Content, by the Carlisle and Newcastle; and the Trident, by the Falmouth and Adventure. The French fought their ships well, and maintained a running fight throughout the night; but in the forenoon of the following day both surrendered, having lost many men, and being much disabled. The Trident, being leaky, was sent into Gorcjonti, and the Content was carried to Messina. The Plymouth suffered the most severely, having, in addition to the commodore, fourteen men killed and thirty wounded; besides being greatly damaged, and with the loss of her fore-topmast. The other five ships lost together about double that number. Commodore Killegrew was buried at Messina with military honours.

Content (1686 - 66), captured in 1695 by HMS Plymouth and taken into service as HMS Content and hulked in 1703.
Trident (1688 - 52), captured by HMS Plymouth in 1695 and taken in service as HMS Trydent. Later renamed Trident Prize, she was sunk as a breakwater in 1702 at Harwich.
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1770 - HMS Jamaica, a 10-gun (14-gun from 1749) two-masted Hind-class sloop of the Royal Navy, wrecked
HMS Jamaica
was a 10-gun (14-gun from 1749) two-masted Hind-class sloop of the Royal Navy, designed by Joseph Allin and built by him at Deptford Dockyard on the Thames River, England and launched on 17 July 1744. She and her sister Trial were the only sloops to be built in the Royal Dockyards between 1733 and 1748.
After more than 25 years service, she was wrecked off Cuba on 27 January 1770.
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1779 - Launch of french Terrible, a 110-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, lead ship of her class
In 1793, she took part in a Franco-Spanish fleet assembled before Cádiz under Admiral d'Estaing, but the end of the American War of Independence occurred before it saw action.
She took part in the Bataille du 13 prairial an 2, where she was dismasted by HMS Royal Sovereign. She later took part in the campaign of Winter 1794-1795, and in the Cruise of Bruix.
She was decommissioned in 1802, condemned in May 1804, and eventually broken up in October.
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1785 – Launch of HMS Gorgon, a 44-gun fifth-rate two-decker ship of the Adventure class of 911 tons, launched at Blackwall Yard in 1785 and completed as a troopship.
HMS Gorgon
was a 44-gun fifth-rate two-decker ship of the Adventure class of 911 tons, launched at Blackwall Yard in 1785 and completed as a troopship. She was subsequently converted to a storeship. She also served as a guardship and a hospital ship at various times before being broken up in 1817.
Troopship
Gorgon was fitted as a troopship at Portsmouth at a cost of £5,210, the work being completed on 15 December 1787. Lieutenant Charles Craven commissioned her in October 1787. She then was paid off one year later. One year after that, she was fitted for foreign service at an additional cost of £5,200 and recommissioned under Lieutenant William Harvey in October 1789.
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1799 - The Macau Incident was an inconclusive encounter between a powerful squadron of French and Spanish warships and a British Royal Navy escort squadron in the Wanshan Archipelago (or Ladrones Archipelago) off Macau
The Macau Incident was an inconclusive encounter between a powerful squadron of French and Spanish warships and a British Royal Navy escort squadron in the Wanshan Archipelago (or Ladrones Archipelago) off Macau on 27 January 1799. The incident took place in the context of the East Indies campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars, the allied squadron attempting to disrupt a valuable British merchant convoy due to sail from Qing DynastyChina. This was the second such attempt in three years; at the Bali Strait Incident of 1797 a French frigate squadron had declined to engage six East Indiamen on their way to China. By early 1799 the French squadron had dispersed, with two remaining ships deployed to the Spanish Philippines. There the frigates had united with the Spanish Manila squadron and sailed to attack the British China convoy gathering at Macau.
The British commander in the East Indies, Rear-Admiral Peter Rainier was concerned about the vulnerability of the China convoy and sent reinforcements to support the lone Royal Navy escort, the ship of the line HMS Intrepid under Captain William Hargood. These reinforcements arrived on 21 January, only six days before the allied squadron arrived off Macau. Hargood sailed to meet the French and Spanish ships, and a chase ensued through the Wanshan Archipelago before contact was lost. Both sides subsequently claimed that the other had refused battle, although it was the allied squadron which withdrew, Hargood later successfully escorting the China convoy safely westwards.


1801 - HMS Concorde (36), Cptn. Barton, engaged Bravoure about 75 miles west of Cape Finisterre.
Concorde had a narrow escape from a French squadron under Rear-Admiral Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume, which had sailed from Brest on 23 January 1801. The French sighted Concorde off Cape Finisterre on 27 January, and the 40-gun Bravoure was sent to chase her down. Concorde cast off a Swedish ship she was towing and drew the French frigate away from the main body of the fleet. Barton then turned and engaged her for forty minutes, silencing her guns. By now the main French fleet was fast approaching, and with his sails and rigging damaged, Barton did not attempt to take possession of Bravoure and instead made for a British port to report the encounter. Concorde had four men killed and 19 wounded in the engagement, while Bravoure had 10 killed and 24 wounded.
Concorde (originally Le Concorde) was a 32-gun frigate of the French Navy, lead ship of her class. Built in Rochefort in 1777, she entered service with the French early in the American War of Independence, and was soon in action, capturing HMS Minerva in the West Indies. She survived almost until the end of the war, but was captured by HMS Magnificent in 1783. Not immediately brought into service due to the draw-down in the navy after the end of the war, she underwent repairs and returned to active service under the White Ensign with the outbreak of war with France in 1793 as the fifth-rate HMS Concorde.
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Planset Review of the ancre monographie you can find here:


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1812 – Death of John Perkins, Anglo-Jamaican captain
Captain John Perkins (died 27 January 1812), nicknamed Jack Punch, was a British Royal Navy officer. Perkins was perhaps the first mulatto commissioned officer in the Royal Navy. He rose from obscurity to be one of the most successful ship captains of the Georgian navy. He captained a 10-gun schooner during the American War of Independence and in a two-year period captured at least 315 enemy ships.
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Battle of West Key 1801 courtesy of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London.


1813 - HMS Daring (12), Lt. William R. Pascoe, was run ashore on Tamara (one of the Loss Islands, off Guinea) and burnt when threatened by two French frigates, Arethuse and Rubis.
HMS Daring
was a 12-gun gun-brig of the Archer class of the British Royal Navy. She was launched in 1804 and in 1813 scuttled to avoid capture on the West Africa Station.


1816 – Death of Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, English admiral and politician (b. 1724)
Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood (12 December 1724 – 27 January 1816) was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he saw action during the War of the Austrian Succession. While in temporary command of Antelope, he drove a French ship ashore in Audierne Bay, and captured two privateers in 1757 during the Seven Years' War. He held senior command as Commander-in-Chief, North American Station and then as Commander-in-Chief, Leeward Islands Station, leading the British fleet to victory at Battle of the Mona Passage in April 1782 during the American Revolutionary War. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth, then First Naval Lord and, after briefly returning to the Portsmouth command, became Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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1942 – Battle off Endau
The Battle off Endau was a Second World War battle that took place off Endau on 26–27 January 1942. Part of the Battle of Malaya, it was the first notable naval engagement since the sinking of the battleship Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser Repulse on 10 December 1941, and the last effort by the Royal Navy to intercept Japanese convoy shipping around the Malay Peninsula.


1945 - The Action of 28 January 1945 was an inconclusive naval battle of the Second World War fought between two British Royal Navy light cruisers and three Kriegsmarine (German navy) destroyers near Bergen, Norway
The battle was the last of many actions between British and German warships off Norway during the war and the second-to-last surface engagement to be fought by the Kriegsmarine. It resulted in heavy damage to one of the German destroyers and light damage to another destroyer and both British cruisers.


1961 – The Soviet submarine S-80 sinks when its snorkel malfunctions, flooding the boat.
S-80 was a diesel-electric submarine of the Soviet Navy.
Its keel was laid down on 13 March 1950 at Krasnoye Sormovo as a Project 613 unit (NATO : Whiskey class). It was launched on 21 October, and delivered to Baku on the Caspian Sea on 1 November for tests, then transferred north via inland waterways in December. It was commissioned into the Northern Fleeton 2 December 1952, and operated there until mid-1957.
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

28th of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1596 – Death of Francis Drake, English captain and explorer (b. 1540)
Sir Francis Drake
(c. 1540 – 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, and was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation. With his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, he claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas,[4] an area that had previously been largely unexplored by western shipping.
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1794 – Launch of Spanish Príncipe de Asturias, a three-deck 112-gun ship of the line, named after Ferdinand, eldest surviving son of Charles IV of Spain.
The Príncipe de Asturias was a Spanish three-deck 112-gun ship of the line, named after Ferdinand, eldest surviving son of Charles IV of Spain. She was built in Havana in 1794 to designs by Romero Landa and launched on 28 January 1794. It was owned by the Spanish Navy.
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1797 – Launch of HMS Neptune, a 98-gun Neptune-class second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy.
HMS Neptune
was a 98-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. She served on a number of stations during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and was present at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
Neptune was built during the early years of the war with Revolutionary France and was launched in 1797. She almost immediately became caught up in the events of the mutiny at the Nore, and was one of a few loyal ships tasked with attacking mutinous vessels if they could not be brought to order. The mutiny died out before this became necessary and Neptune joined the Channel Fleet. She moved to the Mediterranean in 1799, spending the rest of the French Revolutionary Wars in operations with Vice-Admiral Lord Keith's fleet. After refitting, and spending time on blockades, she formed part of Lord Nelson's fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, and was heavily involved in the fighting, sustaining casualties of 10 killed and 34 wounded.
She was not fully repaired and returned to service until 1807, when she went out to the Caribbean. In 1809 she participated in the successful invasion of Martinique, and the subsequent battle with Troude's squadron. Returning to Britain towards the end of the wars, she was laid up in ordinary, and in 1813 became a temporary prison ship. She was finally broken up in 1818.
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1799 - HMS Proserpine (28), Cptn. James Wallis, struck sand bank in the river Elbe in bad weather and wrecked.
HMS Proserpine
was a 28-gun Enterprise-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1777 was wrecked in February 1799.
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1801- french Coquille-class frigate Dédaigneuse (1797 - 40) was taken by the British
The Dédaigneuse was a 40-gun Coquille-class frigate of the French Navy, launched in 1797. The Royal Navy captured her in 1801 and took her into service as HMS Dedaigneuse. She was hulked as a receiving ship in 1812 and sold in 1823.
French service
On 30 December 1800, as she was taking political prisoners at Cayenne to bring them back to France under Captain Prevost Lacroix, she spotted Tamar.
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lines & profile NMM, Progress Book, volume 5, folio 743, states that 'Dedaigneuse' (1801) arrived at Plymouth Dockyard on 20 February 1801, was docked on 29 July 1801 and her copper was replaced. She was undocked on 24 August, and sailed on 9 November 1801 having been fitted.


1841 - The Ross Sea was discovered by James Ross during his Antarctic-expedition with HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, starting the detailed cartography
The Ross expedition was a voyage of scientific exploration of the Antarctic in 1839 to 1843, led by James Clark Ross, with two unusually strong warships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. It explored what is now called the Ross Sea and discovered the Ross Ice Shelf. On the expedition, Ross discovered the Transantarctic Mountains and the volcanoes Erebus and Terror, named after his ships. The young botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker made his name on the expedition.
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HMS Erebus and HMS Terror in the Antarctic, by John Wilson Carmichael, 1847

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kit review - HMS TERROR" - scale 1:75 from Occre

HMS Terror History mentioned by Occre: In 1845, under the command of Sir John A. Franklin, the ships Terror and Erebus set off on an expedition to navigate the famous Northwest Passage. They were the first ships to be fitted out with auxiliary steam engines and were also reinforced with iron...
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1870 - City of Boston sailed from Halifax, Nova Scotia for Liverpool and disappeared
The SS City of Boston was a British iron-hulled single-screw passenger steamship of the Inman Line which disappeared in the North Atlantic Ocean en route from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool in January 1870.
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1946 - fishing and racing gaff rig schooner Bluenose wrecked near Haiti
Bluenose was a fishing and racing gaff rig schooner built in 1921 in Nova Scotia, Canada. A celebrated racing ship and fishing vessel, Bluenose under the command of Angus Walters became a provincial icon for Nova Scotia and an important Canadian symbol in the 1930s, serving as a working vessel until she was wrecked in 1946. Nicknamed the "Queen of the North Atlantic", she was later commemorated by a replica, Bluenose II, built in 1963. The name Bluenose originated as a nickname for Nova Scotians from as early as the late 18th century.
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1980 – USCGC Blackthorn collides with the tanker Capricorn while leaving Tampa, Florida and capsizes, killing 23 Coast Guard crewmembers.
USCGC Blackthorn (WLB-391)
was a 180-foot (55 m) seagoing buoy tender (WLB) which sank in 1980 in a collision near the Tampa Bay Sunshine Skyway Bridge, resulting in 23 crew member fatalities. An Iris-class vessel, she was built by Marine Ironworks and Shipbuilding Corporation in Duluth, Minnesota. Blackthorn's preliminary design was completed by the United States Lighthouse Service and the final design was produced by Marine Iron and Shipbuilding Corporation in Duluth. On 21 May 1943 the keel was laid, she was launched on 20 July 1943 and commissioned on 27 March 1944. The original cost for the hull and machinery was $876,403.
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

29th of January

please use the following link and you will find the details and all events of this day ..... in the following you will find some of the events



1616 - dutch Willem Cornelisz Schoutena and Jacob Le Maire are the first passing Cape Horn to the Pacific
Willem Cornelisz Schouten
(c. 1567 – 1625) was a Dutch navigator for the Dutch East India Company. He was the first to sail the Cape Horn route to the Pacific Ocean.
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1696 – HMS Sovereign of the Seas burnt by accident to the waterline
(some sources say 27th some 29th)

Sovereign of the Seas was a 17th-century warship of the English Navy. She was ordered as a 90-gun first-rate ship of the line of the English Royal Navy, but at launch was armed with 102 bronze guns at the insistence of the king. It was later renamed Sovereign, and then Royal Sovereign. The ship was launched on 13 October 1637 and served from 1638 until 1697, when a fire burnt the ship to the waterline at Chatham.
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The Morgan-Drawing by Willem van de Velde the Younger

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sternboard decoration, sheer lines with broadside decoration and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for the Sovereign of the Seas (1637), a 102-gun First Rate, three-decker. The plan refers the ship as the Royal Sovereign, which was her name after the 1659-60 rebuild.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with some decoration detail, sheer lines with stern quarter detail and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for Royal Sovereign (1637), a 102-gun First Rate, three-decker.

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1778 – Launch of HMS Actaeon, a 44-gun Roebuck-class frigate
The Roebuck-class ship was a class of twenty 44-gun sailing two-decker warships of the Royal Navy. The class carried two complete decks of guns, a lower battery of 18-pounders and an upper battery of 9-pounders. This battery enabled the vessel to deliver a broadside of 285 pounds. Most were constructed for service during the American Revolutionary War but continued to serve thereafter. By 1793 five were still on the active list. Ten were hospital ships, troopships or storeships. As troopships or storeships they had the guns on their lower deck removed. Many of the vessels in the class survived to take part in the Napoleonic Wars. In all, maritime incidents claimed five ships in the class and war claimed three.
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1790 – The first boat specializing as a lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne.
The first lifeboat station in Britain was at Formby beach, established in 1776 by William Hutchinson, Dock Master for the Liverpool Common Council.
The first non-submersible ('unimmergible') lifeboat is credited to Lionel Lukin, an Englishman who, in 1784, modified and patented a 20-foot (6.1 m) Norwegian yawl, fitting it with water-tight cork-filled chambers for additional buoyancy and a cast iron keel to keep the boat upright.
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1795 - french Auguste caught in a tempest off Brest and wrecked with the loss of most of her crew.
Auguste was an 80-gun ship of the line in the French Navy, laid down in 1777 and in active service from 1779. She tooks part in the Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War and later in the French Revolutionary Wars, notably fighting at the Combat de Prairial. She was lost with most hands during the Croisière du Grand Hiver in January 1795.
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1801 - HM Fireship Incendiary (16), Cptn. Richard Dalling Dunn, taken and destroyed off Cape Spartel by French Squadron under Rear-Admiral Ganteaume
HMS Incendiary
was an 8-gun Tisiphone-class fireship of the Royal Navy. She was present at a number of major battles during the French Revolutionary Wars, and captured, or participated in the capture, of several armed vessels. In January 1801 she was in the Gulf of Cadiz where she encountered Admiral Ganteume's squadron. French ship Indivisible was credited with the actual capture.
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lines & profile The drawing appears to be the design draught for 'Tisiphone' class fireships. The 'as built' sheer and profile of 'Comet', 1783, shows built-up bulwarks and other differences to this draught


1805 - HMS Kingfisher (18), Richard William Cribb, captured French privateer Deux Amis (6), Francis Dutrique, in the Caribbean
HMS Kingfisher
(or King's Fisher or Kingsfisher) was a Royal Navy 18-gun Merlin-class ship sloop, designed by William Rule, built by John King and launched in 1804 at Dover. She served during the Napoleonic Wars, first in the Caribbean and then in the Mediterranean before being broken up in 1816.
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1943 - The Battle of Rennell Island
begins when Japanese shore-based aircraft attack Task Force 18 cruisers and destroyers covering the movement of transports toward Guadalcanal. USS Chicago (CA 29) is torpedoed and heavily damaged by Japanese bombers and sinks the next day.

The Battle of Rennell Island (Japanese: レンネル島沖海戦) took place on 29–30 January 1943. It was the last major naval engagement between the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Guadalcanal Campaign of World War II. It occurred in the South Pacific between Rennell Island and Guadalcanal in the southern Solomon Islands.
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1944 - The battleship USS Missouri (BB 63) is christened.
Built at the New York Navy Yard, her keel was laid on Jan. 6, 1941. After her christening and launching Jan. 29, she is completed rapidly, commissioning on June 11 of the same year, the last battleship to enter active service in the U.S. Navy.
USS Missouri (BB-63)
("Mighty Mo" or "Big Mo") is an Iowa-class battleship and was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named after the U.S. state of Missouri. Missouri was the last battleship commissioned by the United States and is best remembered as the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended World War II.
Missouri was ordered in 1940 and commissioned in June 1944. In the Pacific Theater of World War II she fought in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and shelled the Japanese home islands, and she fought in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. She was decommissioned in 1955 into the United States Navy reserve fleets (the "Mothball Fleet"), but reactivated and modernized in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navy plan, and provided fire support during Operation Desert Storm in January/February 1991.
Missouri received a total of 11 battle stars for service in World War II, Korea, and the Persian Gulf, and was finally decommissioned on 31 March 1992 after serving a total of 16 years of active service, but remained on the Naval Vessel Register until her name was struck in January 1995. In 1998, she was donated to the USS Missouri Memorial Association and became a museum ship at Pearl Harbor.
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