21st of October - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
9 May 1902 – Launch of French cruiser Amiral Aube, a Gloire-class armored cruiser built for the French Navy in the early 1900s


The French cruiser Amiral Aube was a Gloire-class armored cruiser built for the French Navy in the early 1900s. She served in the English Channel and the Mediterranean during World War I. In early 1918, the ship was sent to Murmansk to support Allied forces during the when they intervened in the Russian Civil War. Amiral Aube was placed in reserve in 1919 and sold for scrap in 1922

Amiral_Aube_at_the_Quebec_Tercentenary_1908_LAC_3361859.jpeg

Amiral Aube at the Quebec Tercentenary, 1908

Design and description

Gloire_class_cruiser_diagrams_Brasseys_1912.jpg

Right elevation and plan of the Gloire-class armored cruisers

The Gloire-class ships were designed as enlarged and improved versions of the Gueydon-class armored cruisers by Emile Bertin. Her crew numbered 612 officers and men. The ship measured 139.8 meters (458 ft 8 in) overall, with a beam of 20.2 meters (66 ft 3 in). Amiral Aube had a draft of 7.7 meters (25 ft 3 in) and displaced 10,014 metric tons (9,856 long tons).

The ship had three propeller shafts, each powered by one vertical triple-expansion steam engine, which were rated at a total of 20,500 indicated horsepower(15,300 kW). Twenty-four Belleville water-tube boilers provided steam for her engines. She had a designed speed of 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h; 24.7 mph). She carried up to 1,590 long tons (1,620 t) of coal and could steam for 12,000 nautical miles (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at a speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).

Amiral Aube's main armament consisted of two 194 mm (7.6 in) guns mounted in single-gun turrets fore and aft. Her intermediate armament was eight 164 mm (6.5 in) guns. Four of these were in single gun turrets on the sides of the ship and the other four were in casemates. For anti-torpedo boat defense, she carried six 100 mm (3.9 in) guns in casemates and eighteen 47 mm (1.9 in) Hotchkiss guns. She was also armed with five 450-millimeter (17.7 in) torpedo tubes; two of these were submerged and the others were above water.

The waterline armored belt of the Gloire-class ships was 170 millimeters (6.7 in) thick amidships and tapered to 106 millimeters (4.2 in) towards the bow and stern. Above the main belt was a thinner strake of armor, 127 millimeters (5 in) thick that also tapered to 106 mm at the ends of the ship. The conning tower had armored sides 150 millimeters (5.9 in) thick. The main gun turrets were protected by 173 millimeters (6.8 in) of armor and the intermediate turrets by 120 millimeters (4.7 in). The flat part of the lower armored deck was 45 millimeters (1.8 in), but increased to 64 millimeters (2.5 in) as it sloped down to the sides of the ship.

Service history
Amiral Aube was laid down at the Chantiers de Penhoët shipyard in Saint-Nazaire on 24 May 1899[4] and was launched on 9 May 1902. The ship was completed on 17 April 1904. When World War I began, the cruiser was assigned to the Training Squadron which reinforced the 2nd Light Squadron at Brest. She patrolled the English Channel for the rest of 1914, before going to the Eastern Mediterranean the following year. In March 1918, Amiral Aube was sent to North Russia to support the Allied intervention there. She was placed in reserve in 1918, stricken on 4 April 1922 and sold for scrap on 15 September.


Armoured_cruiser_Gloire.png

Gloire in 1913


The Gloire-class cruisers were a group of five armored cruisers built for the French Navy during the first decade of the 20th century.

Unbenannt.JPG

Ships
  • Gloire, launched 27 June 1900. Decommissioned in 1922 and subsequently broken up.
  • Marseillaise, launched 14 July 1900. Decommissioned in 1929 and subsequently broken up.
  • Sully, launched June 1901. Wrecked in Halong Bay, Tonkin, French Indochina, 30 September 1905.
  • Condé, launched 12 March 1902. Decommissioned in 1933 and used as a target.
  • Amiral Aube, launched 9 May 1902. Decommissioned in 1922 and subsequently broken up.

Le_Marseillaise.jpg

The French cruiser Marseillaise, 1911.



 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
9 May 1918 - The Second Ostend Raid (officially known as Operation VS)
was the later of two failed attempts made during the spring of 1918 by the United Kingdom's Royal Navy to block the channels leading to the Belgian port of Ostend as a part of its conflict with the German Empire during World War I.



Due to the significant strategic advantages conferred by the Belgian ports, the Imperial German Navy had used Ostend as a base for their U-boat activities during the Battle of the Atlantic since 1915.

A successful blockade of these bases would force German submarines to operate out of more distant ports, such as Wilhelmshaven, on the German coast. This would expose them for longer to Allied countermeasures and reduce the time they could spend raiding. The ports of Ostend and Zeebrugge (partially blocked in the Zeebrugge Raid three weeks previously) provided sea access via canals for the major inland port of Bruges. Bruges was used as a base for small warships and submarines. As it was 6 mi (5.2 nmi; 9.7 km) inland, it was immune to most naval artillery fire and coastal raids, providing a safe harbour for training and repair.

The First Ostend Raid on 23 April 1918 was largely a failure, the blockships grounded too far from the channels to obstruct them. The second attempt also failed, due to heavy German resistance and British navigational difficulties in poor weather. In anticipation of a raid, the Germans had removed the navigation buoys and without them the British had difficulty finding the narrow channel into the harbour in poor weather. When they did discover the entrance, German resistance proved too strong for the operation to be completed as originally planned: the obsolete cruiser HMS Vindictive was sunk, but only partially blocked the channel.

Despite its failure, the raid was presented in Britain as a courageous and daring gamble that came very close to success. Three Victoria Crosses and numerous other gallantry medals were awarded to sailors who participated in the operation. British forces had moderate casualties in the raid, compared to minimal German losses.

1.JPG 2.JPG

Bruges
After the German Army captured much of Belgium following the Battle of the Frontiers in 1914, the Allied forces were left holding a thin strip of coastline to the west of the Yser. The remainder of the Belgian coast came under the occupation of German Marine Divisions, including the important strategic ports of Antwerp and Bruges. A network of canals connected Bruges with the coast at Ostend and Zeebrugge, through which small warships such as destroyers, light cruisers and submarines could travel and find a safe harbour from which to launch raids into the English Channel and along the coasts of southeast England. U-boats could also depart from Bruges at night, cutting a day off the journey to the Western Approaches, more easily avoiding the North Sea Mine Barrage and allowing U-boat captains to gain familiarity with the net and mine defences of the English Channel, through which they had to pass to reach the main battlegrounds of the Atlantic.

In 1915–1916, the German navy had developed Bruges from a small Flanders port into a major naval centre with large concrete bunkers to shelter U-boats, extensive barracks and training facilities for U-boat crews, and similar facilities for other classes of raiding warship. Bruges was therefore a vital asset in the German navy's increasingly desperate struggle to prevent Britain from receiving food and matériel from the rest of the world. The significance of Bruges was not lost on British naval planners and two previous attempts to close the exit at Ostend, the smaller and narrower of the Bruges canals, had ended in failure. On 7 September 1915, four Lord Clive-class monitors of the Dover Patrol had bombarded the dockyard, while German coastal artillery returned fire. Only 14 rounds were fired by the British with the result that only part of the dockyard was set on fire. In a bombardment on 22 September 1917, the lock gates were hit causing the basin to drain at low water.

Charles_John_De_Lacy_-_HMS_'Vindictive'_at_Zeebrugge,_23_April_1918.jpg

Charles John De Lacy - HMS 'Vindictive' at Zeebrugge, 23 April 1918

Two years passed before the next attempt on the Ostend locks. The First Ostend Raid was conducted in tandem with the similar Zeebrugge Raid led by Acting Vice-Admiral Roger Keyes on 23 April 1918; a large scale operation to block the wider canal at Zeebrugge. Both attacks largely failed, but while at Zeebrugge the operation came so close to success that it took several months for the British authorities to realise that it had been unsuccessful, at Ostend the attack had ended catastrophically. Both blockships intended to close off the canal had grounded over half a mile from their intended location and been scuttled by their crews under heavy artillery and long-range small arms fire, which caused severe casualties. Thus while Zeebrugge seemed to be blocked entirely, Ostend was open wide, nullifying any success that might have been achieved at the other port.

Planning
WWI_postcard_Ostende_hotel_and_beach.jpg

The beachside of the city of Ostende in 1915.



As British forces on the southeast coast of Britain regrouped, remanned and repaired following heavy losses at Zeebrugge, Keyes planned a return to Ostend with the intention of blocking the canal and consequently severing Bruges from the sea, closing the harbour and trapping the 18 U-boats and 25 destroyers present for months to come. Volunteers from among the force that had failed in April aided the planning with advice based on their experience on the previous operation. Among these volunteers were Lieutenant-Commander Henry Hardy of HMS Sirius, Commander Alfred Godsal, former captain of HMS Brilliant, and Brilliant's first lieutenant Victor Crutchley. These officers approached Commodore Hubert Lynes and Admiral Roger Keyes with a refined plan for a second attempt to block the port. Other officers came forward to participate and Keyes and Lynes devised an operational plan to attack the canal mouth at Ostend once again.

1920px-HMS_Vindictive,_1900.jpg

HMS Vindictive in 1900

Two obsolete cruisers—the aged HMS Sappho and the battered veteran of Zeebrugge, HMS Vindictive—were fitted out for the operation by having their non-essential equipment stripped out, their essential equipment reinforced and picked crews selected from volunteers. The ships' forward ballast tanks were filled with concrete to both protect their bows during the attack, and act as a more lasting obstacle once sunk. Vindictive was commanded by Godsal; her six officers and 48 crew were all volunteer veterans of the previous failed attempt by Brilliant. The two sacrificial cruisers were, as with the previous attack, accompanied by four heavy monitors under Keyes' command, eight destroyers under Lynes in HMS Faulknor and five motor launches. Like the blockships, the launches were all crewed by volunteers; mostly veterans of previous operations against the Belgian ports.

The plan was similar to the failed operation of three weeks previously. Weather dependent, under cover of a smoke screen, aerial bombardment and offshore artillery, the blockships would steam directly into the channel, turn sideways and scuttle themselves. Their advance would be covered by artillery fire against German shore positions from the heavy monitors at distance and at closer range by gunfire from the destroyers. This cover was vital because Ostend was protected by a very strong 11 in (280 mm) gun position known as the Tirpitz battery, named for the admiral. Once the operation had been concluded, the motor launches would draw along the seaward side of the blockships, remove the surviving crews and take them to the monitors for passage back to Britain. This operation was to thoroughly block the channel, and — coupled with the blockage at Zeebrugge (which the British authorities believed to be fully closed) — was to prevent use of Bruges by German raiding craft for months to come.

Attack on Ostend
All preparations for the operation were completed by the first week of May and on 9 May the weather was nearly perfect for the attack. The British armada had collected at Dunkirk in Allied-held France and departed port shortly after dark. Two minutes after midnight, the force suffered a setback when Sappho suffered a minor boiler explosion and had to return to Dunkirk, unable to complete the journey. Although this accident halved the ability of the force to block Ostend, Lynes decided to continue the operation, and at 01:30, the force closed on the port, making the final preparations for the assault. Torpedoes fired from motor launches demolished machine gun posts on the ends of the piers marking the canal, beginning the attack. Ten heavy bombers of the newly formed Royal Air Force then dropped incendiary bombs on German positions, but did not cause significant damage. In spite of the fog, air operations continued as planned under the overall direction of Brigadier-General Charles Lambe. At the same time as the aerial bombardment began, the long range artillery of the Royal Marine Artillery opened fire on Ostend from Allied positions around the Belgian town of Ypres.


"The star-shells paled and were lost as they sank in it; the beams of the searchlights seemed to break off short upon its front. It blinded the observers of the great batteries when suddenly, upon the warning of the explosions, the guns roared into action. It was then that those on the destroyers became aware that what had seemed to be merely smoke was wet and cold, that the rigging was beginning to drip, that there were no longer any stars – a sea-fog had come on."
British Admiralty Statement on the Ostend Raid.

In preparation for the attack, Godsal and Lynes had carefully consulted available charts of Ostend following the previous operation's failure caused by German repositioning of navigation buoys. This careful study was, however, rendered worthless by a sudden fog which obliterated all sight of the shore. Steaming back and forth across the harbour entrance in the fog as the monitors and German shore batteries engaged in a long range artillery duel over the lost cruiser, Godsal looked for the piers marking the entrance to the canal. As he searched, two German torpedo boats sailed from Ostend to intercept the cruiser, but in the heavy fog they collided and, disabled, limped back to shore. During this period, Godsal's motor launches lost track of the cruiser in the murk, and it was not until the third pass that Vindictive found the entrance, accompanied by only one of the launches. Heading straight into the mouth of the canal, guided by a flare dropped by the launch, Vindictive became an instant target of the German batteries and was badly damaged, the shellfire exacerbating the damage suffered in the earlier Zeebrugge Raid and seriously damaging Vindictive's port propeller.

Alfred Godsal intended to swing Vindictive broadside on into the channel mouth, but as he ordered the turn, the right screw broke down completely, preventing the cruiser from fully turning. Before this was realised on the cruiser's bridge, a shell fired from a gun battery on shore struck Commander Godsal directly, killing him instantly and shattering the bridge structure. Most of the bridge crew were killed or wounded by the blast, including First Lieutenant Victor Crutchley, who staggered to the wheel and attempted to force the ship to make the full turn into the channel. The damaged propeller made this maneuver impossible and the drifting cruiser floated out of the channel and became stuck on a sandbank outside, only partially obscuring the entranceway.

1280px-HMS_Vindictive_at_Ostend_after_the_Zeebrugge_Raid.jpg

HMS Vindictive sunk after the raid.

Evacuation of HMS Vindictive

"The engineer, who was the last to leave the engine-room, blew the main charges by the switch installed aft. Those on board felt the old ship shrug as the explosive tore the bottom plates and the bulkheads from her; she sank about six feet and lay upon the bottom of the channel. Her work was done."
British Admiralty Statement on the Ostend Raid.

Realising that further manoeuvring would be pointless, Crutchley ordered the charges to be blown and the ship evacuated. As Engineer-Lieutenant William Bury prepared to detonate the scuttling charges, Crutchley took a survey of the ship and ordered all survivors to take to the boats on the seaward side of the wreck. As men scrambled down the ship's flank away from the shells and machine-gun bullets spitting from the harbour entrance, Crutchley made a final survey with an electric torch looking for wounded men among the dead on the decks. Satisfied that none alive remained aboard, he too leapt onto the deck of a motor launch bobbing below. The rescue mission itself, however, was not going as planned. Of the five motor launches attached to the expedition, only one had remained with the cruiser in the fog; ML254 commanded by Lieutenant Geoffrey Drummond. The launch—like the cruiser—was riddled with bullets; her commander was wounded and her executive officer dead. Despite her sheltered position behind the cruiser, fire from shore continued to enfilade the launch and a number of those aboard, including Lieutenant Bury, suffered broken ankles as they jumped onto the heaving deck.

ML254 then began slowly to leave the harbour mouth, carrying 38 survivors of Vindictive's 55 crewmen huddled on deck, where they remained exposed to machine gun fire from the shore. As Drummond turned his boat seawards and proceeded back to the offshore squadron that was still engaged in an artillery duel with the German defenders, one of the missing launches, ML276 passed her, having caught up with the lost cruiser at this late stage. Drummond called to ML276's commander—Lieutenant Rowley Bourke—that he believed there were still men in the water and Bourke immediately entered the harbour to search for them. Drummond's launch proceeded to the rendezvous with the destroyer HMS Warwick, overweighted and sinking, so severe was the damage she had suffered.

Hearing cries, Bourke entered the harbour but could not identify the lost men. Despite heavy machine gun and artillery fire, Bourke returned to the scene of the wreck four times before they discovered two sailors and Vindictive's badly wounded navigation officer Sir John Alleyne clinging to an upturned boat. Hauling the men aboard, Bourke turned for the safety of the open sea, but as he did, two 6 in (150 mm) shells struck the launch, smashing the lifeboat and destroying the compressed air tanks. This stalled the engines and caused a wave of highly corrosive acid to wash over the deck, causing severe damage to the launch's hull and almost suffocating the unconscious Alleyne. Under heavy fire, the boat staggered out of the harbour and was taken under tow by another late-arriving motor launch. After the operation, Bourke's launch was discovered to have 55 bullet and shrapnel holes.

Offshore, as Warwick's officers, Keyes' staff and the survivors of Vindictive gathered on the destroyer's deck to discuss the operation, an enormous explosion rocked the ship causing her to list severely. Warwick had struck one of the defensive mines off Ostend and was now in danger of sinking herself. The destroyer HMS Velox was lashed alongside and survivors from Warwick, Vindictive and ML254 transferred across to the sound ship. This ragged ensemble did not reach Dover until early the following morning, with Warwick still afloat. British casualties were reported in the immediate aftermath as being eight dead, ten missing and 29 wounded. German losses were three killed and eight wounded.

1280px-HMS_Vindictive_damaged_superstructure_following_the_Zeebrugge_Raid_(27443396633).jpg

Vindictive's damaged superstructure

Aftermath
Despite German claims that the blockage did not impede their operations, the operation to close the Ostend canal seemed to have been at least partially successful. The channel was largely blocked and so Bruges was ostensibly closed off from the open sea, even if the position of the blockship meant that smaller ships could get through. In fact, the entire operation had been rendered moot before it even began, due to events at the wider canal in Zeebrugge. British assessments of that operation had proven optimistic and the channel there had not been properly closed. Small coastal submarines of the UC class had been able to pass through the channel as early as the morning after the Zeebrugge Raid and German naval engineers were able to dredge channels around the blockages at both ports over the coming weeks.

At Ostend, Vindictive did prevent larger warships passing through the channel, although smaller craft could still come and go at will. The larger warships in Bruges were trapped there for the remaining months of the war; the town was captured by the Allies in October 1918. The blockages at Ostend and Zeebrugge took several years to clear completely, not being totally removed until 1921. On a strategic scale the effects of the raids at Ostend and Zeebrugge on the battle of the Atlantic were negligible. Despite this, in Britain the Ostend Raid was feted as a success. Three Victoria Crosses and a host of lesser awards were given to the men involved. The Admiralty presented it as a fine example of daring and careful planning from the Royal Navy, providing a valuable morale boost at one of the most critical moments of the war.

HMS_Vindictive_Ostend_R01.jpg

HMS Vindictive memorial in Ostend



The story of HMS Vindictive at Ostend {sic}
Some of the ships and personnel involved in attacks upon the German submarine bases at Zeebrugge and Ostende in April and May 1918. HMS Vindictive was severely damaged in the Zeebrugge raid and was then used as a block ship to close the port of Ostende - this action being only partially successful. Identified personnel are Vice Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, Commodore Hubert Lynes CMG, Lieutenant Commander F H Sandford, RN, Commander G H Clark, RN and Commander Hamilton Benn, RNVR DSO, MP.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Ostend_Raid
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Vindictive_(1897)
 
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
9 May 1941 – World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy HMS Bulldog.
On board is the latest Enigma machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.


German submarine U-110
was a Type IXB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that operated during World War II. She was captured by the Royal Navy on 9 May 1941 and provided a number of secret cipher documents to the British. U-110's capture, later given the code name "Operation Primrose", was one of the biggest secrets of the war, remaining so for seven months. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was only told of the capture by Winston Churchill in January 1942.

U-110 | The Most Important Submarine Capture
The incredible tale of U-110 is told through rare archival footage and photos, captured documents, and interviews with German and British sailors.

Design
German Type IXB submarines were slightly larger than the original German Type IX submarines, later designated IXA. U-110 had a displacement of 1,051 tonnes (1,034 long tons) when at the surface and 1,178 tonnes (1,159 long tons) while submerged. The U-boat had a total length of 76.50 m (251 ft 0 in), a pressure hull length of 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in), a beam of 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower (3,240 kW; 4,340 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower (740 kW; 990 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.92 m (6 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h; 20.9 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots (13.5 km/h; 8.4 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 64 nautical miles (119 km; 74 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 12,000 nautical miles (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-110 was fitted with six 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and two at the stern), 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm (4.13 in) SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) SK C/30 as well as a 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight.

Service history
U-110's keel was laid down 1 February 1940 by DeSchiMAG AG Weser, of Bremen, Germany as yard number 973. She was launched on 25 August 1940 and commissioned on 21 November with KapitänleutnantFritz-Julius Lemp in command.

The boat was part of the 2nd U-boat Flotilla from her commissioning date until her loss. Lemp commanded U-110 for her entire career. In an earlier boat (U-30), he was responsible for the sinking of the passenger liner SS Athenia on the first day of the war. The circumstances were such that he was considered for court-martial. He continued, however, to be one of the most successful and rebellious commanders of his day.

Operational career
1st patrol

U-110 set out on her first patrol from Kiel on 9 March 1941. Her route to the Atlantic Ocean took her through the gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands. Her first victim was Erdona which she damaged south of Iceland on 16 March. She also damaged Siremalm on the 23rd. This ship only escaped after she was hit by a torpedo which failed to detonate, (although it left a large dent) and the U-boat's 105mm deck gun crew forgot to remove the tampion or plug in the muzzle before engaging their target. The resulting explosion on firing the first round wounded three men and compelled the boat to fire on the merchantman with the smaller 37 and 20 mm armament. Despite being hit, Siremalm successfully fled the scene, zig-zagging as she went.

U-110 arrived in Lorient on the French Atlantic coast on 29 March, having cut the patrol short due to damage from the exploding gun.

2nd patrol and capture
The boat departed Lorient on 15 April 1941. On the 27th, she sank Henri Mory about 330 nautical miles (610 km; 380 mi) west northwest of Blasket Islands, Ireland.

Her next quarry were the ships of convoy OB 318 east of Cape Farewell (Greenland). She successfully attacked and sank Esmond and Bengore Head, but the escort vessels responded. The British corvette, HMS Aubrietia, located the U-boat with ASDIC (sonar). Aubrietia and British destroyer Broadway then proceeded to drop depth charges, forcing U-110 to surface.

U-110_and_HMS_Bulldog.jpg

U-110 and HMS Bulldog

Operation Primrose (9 May 1941)
U-110 survived the attack, but was seriously damaged. HMS Bulldog and Broadway remained in contact after Aubrietia's last attack. Broadway shaped course to ram, but fired two depth charges beneath the U-boat instead, in an endeavour to make the crew abandon ship before scuttling her. Lemp announced "Last stop, everybody out", meaning "Abandon ship". As the crew turned out onto the U-boat's deck they came under fire from two attacking destroyers Bulldog and Broadway with casualties from gunfire and drowning. The British had believed that the German deck gun was to be used and ceased fire when they realised that the U-boat was being abandoned and the crew wanted to surrender.

Lemp realised that U-110 was not sinking and attempted to swim back to it to destroy the secret material, and was never seen again. A German eyewitness testified that he was shot in the water by a British sailor, but his fate is not confirmed. Including Lemp, 15 men were killed in the action, 32 were captured. Radio Officer, Georg Högel and the rest of the crew were held at Camp 23 (Monteith POW camp at Iroquois Falls, Northern Ontario, Canada), which is now the Monteith Correctional Complex.

Bulldog's boarding party, led by sub-lieutenant David Balme, got onto U-110 and stripped it of everything portable, including her Kurzsignale code book and Enigma machine. William Stewart Pollock, a former radio operator in the Royal Navy and on loan to Bulldog, was on the second boat to board U-110. He retrieved the Enigma machine and books as they looked out of place in the radio room. U-110 was taken in tow back toward Britain, but sank en route to Scapa Flow.

The documents captured from U-110 helped Bletchley Park codebreakers solve Reservehandverfahren, a reserve German hand cipher.

Enigmas.jpg

A selection of seven Enigma machines and paraphernalia exhibited at the U.S. National Cryptologic Museum. From left to right, the models are: 1) Commercial Enigma; 2) Enigma T; 3) Enigma G; 4) Unidentified; 5) Luftwaffe(Air Force) Enigma; 6) Heer (Army) Enigma; 7) Kriegsmarine (Naval) Enigma — M4.


800px-Muzeum_2_Wojny_Swiatowej_Gdansk_Enigma_cipher_machine.jpg

A four-rotor Kriegsmarine Enigma machine on display at the Museum of the Second World War, Gdańsk, Poland

Modern-day connections
The 2000 film U-571 was partially inspired by the capture of U-110.

In 2007, the submarine's chronometer was featured on the BBC programme Antiques Roadshow, from Alnwick Castle, in the possession of the grandson of the captain of the ship which captured her.


U-571 |2000| All Sea Battles [Edited] (WWII June 4, 1944)


HMS Bulldog (H91) was a B-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy (RN) from 1929 to 1931. Initially assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet, she was transferred to the Home Fleet in 1936. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939, the ship spent considerable time in Spanish waters, enforcing the arms blockade imposed by Britain and France on both sides of the conflict. Bulldog saw service throughout World War II on convoy escort duty during the Battle of the Atlantic and in the Arctic. Her most notable actions were the capture of a complete Enigma machine and codebooks from the German submarine U-110 in 1941, and sinking another German submarine in 1944. The surrender of the German garrisons of the Channel Islands was signed on 9 May 1945 aboard Bulldog. Redundant after the war, she was broken up for scrap in 1946.

HMS_Bulldog.jpg

Bulldog moored to a buoy on the east coast, 17 April 1945.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_submarine_U-110_(1940)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Bulldog_(H91)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-571_(film)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
9 May 1980 – In Florida, Liberian freighter MV Summit Venture collides with the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay, making a 1,400-ft. section of the southbound span collapse.
Thirty-five people in six cars and a Greyhound bus fall 150 ft. into the water and die.



The M/V Summit Venture was a bulk carrier built in 1976, in Nagasaki, Japan. She was 579.8 feet (176.7 m) long, beam of 85.5 feet (26.1 m), and displacement of 19,734 tons. She would cruise (loaded) at 13.5 knots at 100% power and 10.9 knots at 50% power.

Archived WTVT coverage: Sunshine Skyway Bridge tragedy
The Sunshine Skyway Bridge is an icon of the Tampa Bay area, but many new arrivals to Florida may be unaware of the tragedy that befell the span's predecessor.

1980 incident

The collapsed original bridge on May 9, 1980 after the Summit Venturecollision. Photo by St. Petersburg Times.

Summit Venture was involved in a fatal collision with a bridge in Tampa Bay, Florida, on May 9, 1980. While negotiating a required turn in the narrow channel during a storm, the radar failed, and the freighter struck one of the piers on the southbound span of the original Sunshine Skyway Bridge. 1,400 feet (430 m) of the steel cantilever highway bridge collapsed, causing a Greyhound bus, and six other vehicles, to fall 165 feet (50 m) into the bay. A total of 35 people died.

MAYDAY MAYDAY
This is the actual distress signal recording from that fateful morning.

The new Sunshine Skyway bridge, as of July, 2006.
The new Sunshine Skyway bridge, as of July, 2006.

The pilot of the Summit Venture on that day was John E. Lerro. He was cleared of wrongdoing by both a state grand jury and a Coast Guard investigation. In 2016 the book titled Skyway: The True Story of Tampa Bay's Signature Bridge and the Man Who Brought It Down shed new light on what transpired on the day of the accident. Although Capt. Lerro resumed his shipping duties soon afterward, he was forced to retire months later by the onset of multiple sclerosis, dying from complications caused by the disease on August 31, 2002, at the age of 59.

Wesley MacIntire was the only person who survived the fall. His vehicle hit the Summit Venture's deck before falling into Tampa Bay, allowing him to escape. He sued the company that owned the ship, and settled for $175,000 in 1984. He died in 1989, always regretting being the sole survivor among those that fell.

A new bridge was completed in 1987 to replace the old. Several safeguards were included in the design to prevent a repeat occurrence of the Summit Venture incident, such as the installation of massive concrete bumpers or "dolphins" around the main span's piers to mitigate collisions.

Return to service and subsequent demise
The Summit Venture, after having her hull repaired, continued service under the Liberian flag for another 13 years. Her last return to Tampa Bay was in 1990 for a Coast Guard inspection. The ship was sold to Greek interests in 1993, and rechristened Sailor 1, predominantly plying the waters off the west coast of the U.S. In 2004, the ship again traded hands and was sold to a Singapore firm. It was renamed the KS Harmony, and sailed in the Caribbean. It was then sold to Jian Mao Intl., renamed the Jian Mao 9 and was lost in a storm without loss of life off the coast of Vietnam in December 2010.


The Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge, often referred to as the Sunshine Skyway Bridge or simply the Skyway, is a cable-stayed bridge spanning the Lower Tampa Bay connecting St. Petersburg, Florida to Terra Ceia. The current Sunshine Skyway opened in 1987 and is the second bridge of that name on the site. It was designed by the Figg & Muller Engineering Group and built by the American Bridge Company and is considered a symbol of Florida.

The four-lane bridge carries Interstate 275 and U.S. Route 19, passing through Pinellas County, Hillsborough County, and Manatee County. It is a toll road, with a $1.50 toll assessed on two-axle vehicles traveling in either direction and collected via cash or the state's SunPass system.

The original bridge opened in 1954 and was the site of two major maritime disasters within a few months in 1980. In January 1980, the United States Coast Guard Cutter Blackthorn collided with the tanker Capricorn near the bridge, resulting in the sinking of the cutter and the loss of 23 crew members. In May 1980, the freighter MV Summit Venture collided with a bridge support during a sudden squall, resulting in the structural collapse of the southbound span and the deaths of 35 people when vehicles plunged into Tampa Bay. Within a few years, the damaged span was demolished, the surviving span was partially demolished and converted into a long fishing pier, and the current bridge was built.

History
Original bridge
The original two-lane bridge was built by the Virginia Bridge Company and opened to traffic on September 6, 1954, with a similar structure built parallel and to the west of it in 1969 to make it a four-lane bridge and bring it to Interstate Highway standards. Opening of the newer span was delayed until 1971 for reinforcing of the south main pier, which had cracked due to insufficient supporting pile depth.[9] The second span was used for all southbound traffic, while the original span was converted to carry northbound traffic.

Sunshine_Skyway_Bridge_3.JPG


The old bridge replaced a ferry from Point Pinellas to Piney Point. US 19 was extended from St. Petersburg to its current end north.

1980 collapse

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The collapsed original bridge on May 9, 1980, after the Summit Venture collision. Photo by St. Petersburg Times

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The southbound span (opened in 1971) of the original bridge was destroyed at 7:33 a.m. on May 9, 1980, when the freighter MV Summit Venture collided with a pier (support column) during a sudden squall, sending over 1,200 feet (370 m) of the bridge plummeting into Tampa Bay. The collision caused six cars, a truck, and a Greyhound bus to fall 150 feet (46 m) into the water, killing 35 people. One man, Wesley MacIntire, survived when his Ford Courier pickup truck landed on the deck of the Summit Venture before falling into the bay. He sued the company that owned the ship, and settled in 1984 for $175,000 ($422,000 today). Several other drivers - including former major league baseball player Granny Hamner - were able to stop their vehicles before reaching the gap in the roadway.

John Lerro, the harbor pilot who had been steering the ship, was later cleared of wrongdoing by both a state grand jury and a Coast Guard investigation. A microburst had suddenly hit the freighter with torrential rains and 70 mile per hour winds as it was in the middle of a turn in the shipping channel nearing the bridge, cutting visibility to near zero and temporarily rendering the ship's radar useless. Lerro put the ship's engines into full reverse and ordered the emergency dropping of the anchor as soon as he realized that the freighter was out of the channel, but the bow still hit two support piers with enough force to cause a portion of the roadway to collapse. The south main pier withstood the ship strike without significant damage, but a secondary pier to the south was not designed to withstand such an impact and failed catastrophically.

Aftermath
After the Summit Venture disaster, the southbound span was used as a temporary fishing pier and the northbound span was converted back to carry one lane in either direction until the current bridge opened. Before the old bridge was demolished and hauled away in barges, MacIntire (the only survivor in the collapse) was the last person to drive over it. He was accompanied by his wife, and when they reached the top of the bridge, they dropped 35 white carnations into the water, one for each person who died in the disaster. Both the main spans of both the intact northbound bridge and the damaged southbound bridge were demolished in 1993 and the approaches for both old spans were made into the Skyway Fishing Pier State Park. These approaches sit 1⁄2 mile (800 m) to the south and west of the current bridge. The approaches of the 1950 span were demolished in 2008.

Gov. Graham's idea for the design of the current bridge won out over other proposals, including a tunnel (deemed impractical due to Florida's high water table) and a simple reconstruction of the broken section of the old bridge that would not have improved shipping conditions. The new bridge's main span is 50% wider than the old bridge. The piers of the main span and the approaches for 1⁄4 mile (400 m) in either direction are surrounded by large concrete barriers, called "dolphins", that can protect the bridge piers from collisions by ships larger than the Summit Venture like tankers, container ships, and cruise ships.

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The current bridge (top) and the old bridges. The piers of the current bridge are protected by structural dolphins. The collapsed bridge is under demolition.

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Demolition of steel and concrete girders. Truncated pier visible was the one struck by Summit Venture




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV_Summit_Venture
https://floridapress.blog/2013/10/10/the-worst-ship-bridge-collision-in-u-s-history-happened-in-tampa-bay/
http://www.imageshck.org/1980-skyway-bridge-disaster/
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
Other Events on 9 May


1540 – Hernando de Alarcón sets sail on an expedition to the Gulf of California.

Hernando de Alarcón
(born c. 1500) was a Spanish explorer and navigator of the 16th century, noted for having led an early expedition to the Baja California Peninsula, during which he became one of the first Europeans to ascend the Colorado River from its mouth and perhaps the first to reach Alta California.
Little is known about Alarcón's life outside of his exploits in New Spain. He was probably born in the town of Trujillo, in present-day Extremadura, Spain, in the first years of the 16th century and traveled to the Spanish colonies in the Americas as a young man.

1540 expedition
By 1540, Mexico had been conquered and state-sponsored expeditions were being sent north in search of new wealth and the existence of a water passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Viceroy of New Spain Antonio de Mendoza commissioned Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to undertake a massive overland expedition with the purpose of finding the Seven Cities of Cibola, which were rumored to exist in the unexplored northern interior. The expedition was to be resupplied with stores and provisions delivered by ships traveling up the Sea of Cortés, the commander of which would be Alarcón.

Alarcón set sail from Acapulco with two ships, the San Pedro and the Santa Catalina, on May 9, 1540, and was later joined by the San Gabriel at St. Jago de Buena Esperanza, in Colima. His orders from Mendoza were to await the arrival of Coronado's land expedition at a certain latitude along the coast. The meeting with Coronado was never effected, though Alarcón reached the appointed place and left letters, which were soon afterwards discovered by Melchior Diaz, another explorer.

Alarcón eventually sailed to the northern terminus of the Gulf of California and completed the explorations begun by Francisco de Ulloa the preceding year. During this voyage Alarcón proved to his satisfaction that no open-water passage existed between the Gulf of California and the South Sea. Subsequently, on September 26, he entered the mouth of the Colorado River, which he named the Buena Guia. He was the first European to ascend the river for a distance considerable enough to make important observations. On a second voyage, he probably proceeded past the present-day site of Yuma, Arizona. A map drawn by one of Alarcón's pilots is the earliest accurately detailed representation of the Gulf of California and the lower course of the Colorado River.

Alarcón is almost unique among 16th-century conquistadores in that he reportedly treated the Indians he met humanely, as opposed to the often reckless and cruel behavior known from accounts of his contemporaries. Bernard de Voto, in his 1953 Westward the Course of Empire, observed: "The Indians had an experience they were never to repeat: they were sorry to see these white men leave." Alarcón wrote of his contact with the Yuma-speaking Indians along the Colorado. The information he compiled consisted of their practices in warfare, religion, curing and even sexual customs.

California Historical Landmark No. 568, on the west bank of the Colorado River near Andrade in Imperial County, California, commemorates Alarcón's expedition having been the first non-Indians to sight land within the present-day state of California



1784 - HMS Crocodile (24) wrecked in thick fog on Prawle Point, Devon

HMS Crocodile
(1781) was a 24-gun sixth rate launched in 1781 and lost in 1784.


1785 – Launch of HMS Squirrel, a Royal Navy 24-gun sixth rate, built in 1785 and broken up in 1817

HMS Squirrel
was a Royal Navy 24-gun sixth rate, built in 1785 and broken up in 1817.
On 3 March 1806, Squirrel and Mediator left Cork, escorting a convoy for the West Indies. The convoy was reported "all well" on 25 March at 27°30′N 20°30′W. Squirrel was going to escort 12 merchantmen on to Demerara, Berbice, and Surinam.
Squirrel, Lynx, and Driver captured three ships on 6 September: Snelle, Jager, and Engesende. Jalouse shared by agreement with Lynx and Driver in the proceeds.

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Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, the longitudinal half breadth as proposed (and approved) for building the Squirrel (1785), a 24-gun, Sixth Rate at Liverpool by Mr John Barton. Signed Edward Hunt (Surveyor of the Navy). Annotation in the top right: "A Copy of this Draught was sent to Mr Barton of Liverpool 2oth January 1783 for building Squirrel."

https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-350018;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=S


1812 – Launch of French Jahde, a Pallas-class frigate, in Rotterdam



1812 - HMS America (74), Cptn. Josias Rowley, HMS Leviathan (74) Cptn. Patrick Campbell, and HMS Eclair (18), Cptn. John Bellamy, carried the batteries at Languelia and captured or destroyed French convoy of 18 vessels.

HMS America
was a 74-gun Vengeur-class third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 21 April 1810 at Blackwall Yard.

j3307.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Contemporary copy of a plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Conquestadore' (1810), 'Armada' (1810), 'Vigo' (1810), 'Cressey' (1810), 'La Hogue' (1811), 'Vindictive' (1813), 'Poictiers' (1809), 'Vengeur' (1810), 'Edinburgh' (1811), 'Dublin' (1812), 'Duncan' (1811), 'Indus' (1812), 'Rodney' (1809), 'Cornwall' (1812), 'Redoutable' (1815), 'Anson' (1812), 'Agincourt' (1817), 'Ajax' (1809), 'America' (1810), 'Barham' (1811), 'Benbow' (1813), 'Berwick' (1809), 'Blenheim' (1813), 'Clarence' (1812), 'Defence' (1815), 'Devonshire' (1812), 'Egmont' (1810), 'Hercules' (1815), 'Medway' (1812), 'Pembroke' (1812), 'Pitt' (1816), 'Russell' (1822), 'Scarborough' (1812), 'Stirling Castle' (1811), 'Wellington' (1816), 'Mulgrave' (1812), 'Gloucester' (1812), all 74-gun Third Rate, two-deckers. The plan includes alterations for a rounded bow and circular stern

HMS Leviathan was a 74-gun Courageux-class third-rate ship of the line of the British Royal Navy, launched on 9 October 1790.

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Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Colossus' (1787), 'Leviathan' (1790), 'Carnatic' (1783), and 'Minotaur' (1793), all 74-gun Third Rate, two-deckers based on the lines for the captured French Third Rate 'Courageux' (captured 1761). Signed by John Williams [Surveyor of the Navy, 1765-1784] and Edward Hunt [Surveyor of the Navy 1778-1784]

The fourth HMS Eclair (1807) was an 18-gun Cruizer-class brig-sloop launched in 1807 and broken up in 1831.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the inboard profile for Redwing (1806), Ringdove (1806), Sparrowhawk (1807), and Eclair (1807), all 18-gun Brigs being built at Warren's, Brightlingsea. Initialled by John Henslow [Surveyor of the Navy, 1784-1806], and William Rule [Surveyor of the Navy, 1793-1813]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_America_(1810)
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-290970;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=A
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-325885;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=L


1859 - HMS Heron (12), William Henry Truscott, foundered between Ascension and Sierra Leone

HMS Heron (1847), a 482-ton 16-gun brig launched at Chatham Dockyard on 27 September 1847 and lost at sea off West Africa on 9 May 1859.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with half stern board outline, sheer lines with some inboard detail and framing detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for 16 gun First Class Brigs, specifically Albatross (1842), Bittern (1840), Elk (1847) and Heron (1847), all 16-gun Brigs

https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-318683;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=H


1860 - While off the Isle of Pines (now named Isla de la Juventud) near the south coast of Cuba, the screw gunboat USS Wyandotte captures the slaver William, which carries 570 Africans.

Captures slave ship William
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landing of a cargo of slaves from the slave ship Williams, after capture by the Wyandotte

On 9 May 1860, Wyandotte captured the barque William – a slave ship carrying 570 Africans at the time of her capture – off the Isle of Pines near the south coast of Cuba. She took her prize to Florida and arrived at Key West, Florida, on 12 May 1860. The ship landed the slaves on 16 May, turned the prize over to a United States Marshall on 22 May, and soon resumed her cruising.

USS Wyandotte, originally USS Western Port, was a steamer acquired by the Navy as a gunboat for the Paraguay Expedition in 1858. When the crisis of the American Civil War occurred, she operated in support of the Union Navy blockade of Confederate waterways.



1878 – Launch of The Danish ironclad Helgoland, a coast defence barbette ironclad

The Danish ironclad Helgoland was a coast defence barbette ironclad named for the Danish victory over the combined Prussian and Austro-Hungarian squadron at Battle of Heligoland during the Second Schleswig War in 1864.

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1882 – Birth of Henry J. Kaiser, American shipbuilder and businessman, founded Kaiser Shipyards (d. 1967)

Henry John Kaiser
(May 9, 1882 – August 24, 1967) was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyards, which built Liberty ships during World War II, after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel. Kaiser organized Kaiser Permanente health care for his workers and their families. He led Kaiser-Frazer followed by Kaiser Motors, automobile companies known for the safety of their designs. Kaiser was involved in large construction projects such as civic centers and dams, and invested in real estate. With his wealth, he established the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonprofit, non-partisan, charitable organization.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_J._Kaiser


1940 – World War II: The German submarine U-9 sinks the French coastal submarine Doris near Den Helder.

Doris was a Circé-class coastal submarine of the French Navy, in service from 1928 until May 1940, when she was sunk off the Dutch coast by the German coastal submarine U-9. The wreck was rediscovered by Dutch divers in 2003.

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Service
Doris was already obsolete by the beginning of the Second World War. The Circé-class was designed shortly after the First World War, around 1923. That was the year the shipyard at Toulon begun construction on Doris and her three sister ships. She was launched in 1927 and commissioned in 1928.

By the beginning of the Second World War the boat was part of the 10th French submarine flotilla, which was moved to English port of Harwich in April 1940 to reinforce the British Royal Navy. Doris, under captain Jean Favreul, crossed the English Channel on 14 April. During that time Doris suffered damage to the engine of the main gas compressor, responsible for producing the air to ascend after a dive. The machine could not be repaired in Harwich, nor could the work be done in France as there was no spare part; the original compressors had been designed and produced in Germany.

Despite being significantly crippled and unable to dive, Doris was ordered on 6 May 1940 to prepare for a sortie on patrol in the North Sea, north of the Frisian Islands, off the Dutch coast, guarding the east entrance to the English Channel, in anticipation of a possible German invasion of England. The captain and the crew openly admitted in their letters to their families that they were not expecting to come back. On 8 May the five British and seven French submarines, including Doris, departed to carry out their patrol. On the following night, shortly after midnight, Doris was torpedoed and sunk north west of the Dutch coast, 30 miles from Den Helder, by the German submarine U-9 (1935) under Wolfgang Lüth at 52°47.36′N 3°49.16′ECoordinates:
52°47.36′N 3°49.16′E. The entire crew of Doris, and three Royal Navy personnel, were lost.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_submarine_Doris_(1927)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_submarine_U-9_(1935)


1942 - Operation Bowery
USS Wasp (CV 7) launches 47 RAF Spitfires, British carrier HMS Eagle accompanies Wasp and launches 17 additional Spitfires.

Operation Bowery
was an Anglo-American operation in World War II to deliver Spitfire fighter aircraft to Malta ("Club Runs"). The aircraft were desperately needed to bolster the island's defence against strong Axis air raids.

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USS Wasp (CV-7) entering Hampton Roads on 26 May 1942

Background
The operation was substantially a repeat of the earlier Operation Calendar, in which the American aircraft carrier USS Wasp had flown off 48 British Spitfire fighter reinforcements to Malta. Aircraft, support personnel and airfields had inadequately prepared to receive the Spitfires and the Axis air forces were forewarned of the arrival of the new fighters. Many of the Spitfires had been destroyed on the ground by air attacks after their arrival on Malta. A repeat delivery (Operation Bowery) had been planned and its success had become even more important to the Allies.

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HMS Eagle accompanies Wasp on her second voyage to Malta

Bowery

USS Wasp returned to Glasgow on 29 April 1942, where she loaded 47 Spitfires Mk Vc at King George V dock at Shieldhall. The condition of the aircraft was no better than it had been for Calendar; the essential long-range fuel tanks still fitted badly and, consequently, leaked. Wasp's captain, Reeves, refused to continue loading until the fault had been fixed on some tanks and then agreed to perform the remaining work with his own personnel. This fault had been notified to the British authorities as it had affected Calendar and its recurrence was a serious embarrassment.

Wasp and her escorting force (Force W) sailed from Scapa Flow on 3 May. A further 17 Spitfires, delayed from previous "Club Runs", were transported by HMS Eagle, which joined Force W on 7/8 May from Gibraltar. On 9 May 1942, 64 Spitfires were flown off USS Wasp and HMS Eagle (61 arrived). One aircraft and its pilot was lost on takeoff.

Another, Canadian P/O Jerrold Alpine Smith, found after take-off that his long range fuel tank was u/s (failed to draw). Now incapable of reaching friendly territory, he jettisoned the tank and circled until the deck was clear before landing back on the WASP with full authorisation of the ship's Captain. His landing was the first ever for a Spitfire and was called "A Feat Unparalled" by Sir Hugh Lloyd, former Air Commander-in-Chief at Malta. P/O Smith was unofficially awarded the American Navy Wings aboard the WASP.
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Spitfire makes ready to take off from USS Wasp

HMS Welshman had been risked on a high speed run to Malta, carrying, apart from food and general stores, 100 spare Merlin aircraft engines and RAF ground crews trained on Spitfires. She was disguised as a French destroyer (Léopard) and travelled independently of the main Bowery force. Welshman was intercepted and inspected twice by German aircraft but maintained a peaceful appearance and was accepted as non-belligerent; a Vichy seaplane and shore station were less easily convinced but she continued to Cape Bon and Pantellaria, finally reaching Malta at sunrise on 10 May. She unloaded amidst the mayhem of the 10 May air raid (see below) and was damaged by falling debris. Despite this, she left Valletta on the same evening, arriving back at Gibraltar on 12 May.

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Spitfires and Wildcats aboard Waspon 19 April 1942.

Aftermath

On Malta, lessons had been learnt from the disaster of Operation Calendar and detailed preparations had been made to get the Spitfires airborne before they could become targets. On arrival, aircraft were dispersed into protected areas and rapidly refuelled and rearmed - one within six minutes of landing - and the newly arrived fighters were airborne, with fresh, experienced pilots, over Malta awaiting the air raid intended to destroy them. In the mêlée, the Italian formation (CANT bombers escorted by MC.202 fighters) was seen off and 47 German aircraft were destroyed or damaged, for the loss of three British. This air battle (sometimes dubbed the "Battle of Malta") abruptly ended daytime bombing of Malta.

The defenders, further reinforced by more aircraft deliveries during May and June and aided by the transfer of Luftwaffe aircraft to Russia, retained their initiative thereafter.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Bowery
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Eagle_(1918)


1945 - German submarine U 249 surrenders to PB4Y-1 Liberator from (FAW 7) off the Scilly Islands, England, becoming the first to do so after hostilities ceased in Europe.

German submarine U-249
was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 23 January 1943 at the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft yard at Kiel as yard number 683, launched on 23 October 1943 and commissioned on 20 November under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Rolf Lindschau.
In two patrols, she sank no ships.
She surrendered in May 1945 and was sunk in December as part of Operation Deadlight.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_submarine_U-249
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1746 – Launch of HMS Kent, a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy.


HMS Kent
was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. She was ordered from Deptford Dockyard on 10 May 1743 to be built to the 1741 proposals of the 1719 Establishment, and was launched on 10 May 1746. Her first commander was Thomas Fox, who had previously commanded HMS Newcastle.

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Chasing the convoys
In April 1747 Kent was part of a small squadron under Fox's overall command consisting of HMS Hampton Court, HMS Eagle, HMS Lion, HMS Chesterand HMS Hector, and accompanied by two fireships. They cruised between Ushant and Cape Finisterre in an attempt to intercept a large merchant fleet that was sailing from San Domingo to France. After a month at sea they encountered the convoy, which consisted of some 170 ships carrying a cargo of cochineal, cotton, indigo and other valuable commodities. Their escort was four French warships, which fled upon the approach of the British fleet. Fox's squadron captured 46 merchants, and dispersed the rest. Some were later captured by smaller British warships operating in the area.

Fox's court-martial
After this success Kent became part of a squadron under Rear Admiral Hawke, which was dispatched to intercept another French convoy, this time en route to the West Indies. During this period, Captain Fox's service appears to have been called into question, as Hawke requested that a court-martialbe brought against him. Fox was put on trial in Portsmouth on 25 November, which was presided over by Sir Peter Warren. Fox's charge was then read, stating that:

he did not come properly into the fight, did not do his utmost to engage, disable or damage the enemy, nor assist his majesty's ships who did.
Statements were collected from the other captains involved, which served to defend Fox's personal courage. According to their version of events Fox had had Kent engage the French ship Fougueux, followed by the Tonnant, eventually shooting away the Tonnant’s topmast. Kent had then passed ahead of Tonnant, her own 'braces, preventers and stoppers having all been shot away.'

The trial concluded on 21 December, and found Fox guilty of leaving the engagement with the Tonnant. They acquitted him of cowardice however, but declared that he had 'paid too much regard to the advice of his officers, against his better judgement'. Furthermore he, his first lieutenant and his master had misread the signal for 'close action' as meaning 'proceed to assistance of admiral'. Fox was dismissed from the command of Kent, and was later retired from the Navy at the rank of rear admiral in 1749.

Hulking
The rest of Kent’s service is unclear, but by 1760 she had been hulked in the East Indies and no longer appeared on the navy lists. At some point she seems to have been under the command of a Captain Charles Windham (or Wyndham), during which time a young William Locker served aboard her.

Notes
In 1755 Captain Henry Speke he was appointed captain of the Kent , where he made his name in the following action.

Chandannagar , formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar is a small city and former French colony located 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India. Located on the Hooghly River , the city has been able to maintain a separate identity different from all other cities and abide by her own characteristics. The total area is a meagre 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi) having a population of over 150,000. It was guarded by the Fort d'Orleans.

In 1756 war broke out between France and Great Britain , and Colonel Robert Clive of the British East India Company and Admiral Charles Watson of the British Navy bombarded and captured Chandannagar on 23 March 1757. The town's fortifications and many houses were demolished.

Henry Speke was captain of Watson's flagship Kent , a warship of 70 guns. In order to take the Fort d'Orleans guarding the town, the Kent and the Tiger managed to edge up the Hooghly river, although the French had tried to block it with sunken ships, booms and chains. When they were close to the Fort, they opened fire with all guns, but took a great punishment from the French in the process. On board with Captain Speke was his midshipman son Billy. They were both injured, Captain Speke less seriously, but Billy lost a leg due to his thigh being shattered by a cannon shot and died later, the result of blood poisoning after the necessary amputation.

Captain Henry Speke's naval career as related by "Biographia Navalis" by John Charrnock 1794, and other sources. J.D.Speake

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f9287_003.jpg

s1710.jpg

Scale: 1:48. A full hull model of a 70-gun, two-decker ship of the line (circa 1725). The model is decked. Fourteen ships of this type were built under the Establishment of 1719, including the ‘Kent’ (SLR0421). They, and the later ‘74s’ that replaced them, formed the backbone of the line in fleet actions. Their dimensions were typically about 151 by 41½ feet, and they weighed 1128 tons burden. They had a complement of 480 men. They carried twenty-six 24-pound guns on their gun decks, twenty-six 12-pounders and four 6-pounders on their upper decks, and fourteen 6-pounders on their quarterdecks

j3151.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer line swith some inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth proposed (and approved) for 'Kent' (1746), a 1741 Establishemnt 70-gun Third Rate, two-decker. Signed by Joseph Allin [Surveyor of the Navy, 1749-1755

f8890_001.jpg f8890_002.jpg f8890_003.jpg
Scale: 1:48. A block design model of a 70-gun, two-decker ship of the line (1725). The attached label reads ‘35C’ and ‘Ship of 70-guns about 1725’. Fourteen ships of this type were built under the Establishment of 1719, including the ‘Kent’ (SLR0421). They, and the later ‘74s’ that replaced them, formed the backbone of the line in fleet actions. Their dimensions were typically about 151 by 41½ feet, and they weighed 1128 tons burden. They had a complement of 480 men. They carried twenty-six 24-pound guns on their gun decks, twenty-six 12-pounders and four 6-pounders on their upper decks, and fourteen 6-pounders on their quarterdecks


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Kent_(1746)
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-323155;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=K
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;searchTerm=SLR0421
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1758 – Launch of French Fantasque, a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy.


The Fantasque was a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. She is famous for being captained by the French commander Pierre-André de Suffrenduring the American Revolutionary War.

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Fantasque was launched in May 1758 at Toulon. Fantasque was a member of Admiral Jean-François de La Clue-Sabran's fleet as it sailed from Toulon on 5 August 1759. Admiral La Clue and his captains were given orders only to be opened having passed through the Strait of Gibraltar. Once through the Strait, Admiral Edward Boscawen, ordered the British Mediterranean Fleet to sail in pursuit. Fantasque was the lead ship of the weaker column of La Clue's fleet and her captain chose to lead the column to the safety of the port at Cadiz, avoiding the closing British and the subsequent engagement, the Battle of Lagos.

The Fantasque was converted into a hospital ship in May 1780 for the movement of Rochambeau's troops from Brest to America, and was then converted into a transport. Now under Captain de Vaudoré, she was part of Des Touches's squadron engaged in action off the Chesapeake on 16 March 1781. She lasted in service until early 1784, when she was condemned at Lorient, but was then sent to Martinique wehere she became a hulk in November 1784

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Model of Protée, sister-ship of Fantasque


Fantasque class. Designed and built by Pierre-Blaise Coulomb; modified from Lion class design.

Fantasque 64 (launched 10 May 1758 at Toulon) - hulked 1784.
Altier 64 (launched 23 May 1760 at Toulon) - condemned 1770 and sold 1772 for commerce.

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A model of a 64-ship of the line on display at the Musée de la Marine is labelled as representing the 74-gun Protecteur, probably as the result of an error of Admiral Pâris. The model is probably that of the Protée (1748 - 1771)

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and a model in Haifa representing the Altier


 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1762 – Launch of HMS Lark, a 32-gun Richmond-class frigate fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy.


HMS Lark was a 32-gun Richmond-class frigate fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1762 and destroyed in Narragansett Bay in 1778, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Between 29 May and 18 July, the British captured a number of vessels: the sloops Sally and Fancy, snow Baron D'Ozell, Olive Branch, sloop Betsey, and schooner Sally. Lark shared the prize money with Kingfisher, Hope, Sphinx, and the Pigot galley.

French Admiral d'Estaing's squadron arrived in Narragansett Bay on 29 July 1778 to support the American army under General George Washington during the battle of Rhode Island. On 30 July, four French ships of the line entered Narrangansett Bay and positioned themselves north of Conanicut Island to support the American and French forces in the battle of Rhode Island. The arrival of the French vessels trapped several British vessels, Larkamong them. On 5 August 1778, as Lark lay off Newport, Captain Richard Smith had her set on fire and her cables cut. She then drifted on to shore. The Royal Navy ended up having to destroy ten of their own vessels in all.

The remains of Lark are now part of a site listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the "Wreck Sites of HMS Cerberus and HMS Lark."

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Lark and Cerberus wreck map

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Scale: 1:48. A contemporary full hull model of a ‘Richmond’-class 32-gun frigate (circa 1757), built in the Georgian style. The model is decked. Taken from the model, the vessel measured 129 feet along the gun deck by 34 feet in the beam, displacing 660 tons burden. It was armed with twenty-six 12-pounders on the upper deck, four 6-pounders on the quarterdeck and two 6-pounders on the forecastle. This type of vessel, an early ‘true frigate’, is similar to SLR0496. Although not identified with a particular ship, the dimensions represented are very close to those of the ‘Tweed’ (1759), but that ship probably had a round bow. A noticeable feature is the new style of figurehead. The familiar lion, which had been the standard form of bow decoration for smaller warships since about 1600, began to disappear after about 1750. It was commonly replaced by a human figure in classical dress. Frigates were fifth- or sixth-rate ships and so not expected to lie in the line of battle. With the advantage of superior sailing qualities over the larger ships of the line, they were used with the fleet for such tasks as lookout or, in battle, as repeating ships to fly the admiral’s signals. They also cruised independently in search of privateers


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Scale: 1:96. Plan showing the quarter deck, waist, forecastle, upper deck, lower deck, and fore & aft platforms with cable tier for Lark (1762), a 32-gun, Fifth Rate Frigate, as taken off at Chatham in May 1776. Initialled by Israel Pownoll [Master Shipwright, Chatham Dockyard, 1775-1779]


The Richmond-class frigates were 32-gun sailing frigates of the fifth rate produced for the Royal Navy. They were designed in 1756 by the Navy's Surveyor, William Bately, and were his equivalent of the Southampton-class frigates designed by Bately's co-Surveyor, Thomas Slade. They were faster ships than the Southamptons, and were weatherly craft, remaining dry even in high seas. Three ships were ordered to this design between 1756 and 1757, while a second batch of three ships was ordered between 1761 and 1762 to a slightly modified design.

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Ships in class
First batch

  • Richmond
    • Ordered: 12 March 1756
    • Built by: John Buxton, Deptford.
    • Keel laid: April 1756
    • Launched: 12 November 1757
    • Completed: 7 December 1757 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Burnt at Sardinia to avoid capture on 19 May 1793.
  • Juno
    • Ordered: 1 June 1756
    • Built by: William Alexander, Rotherhithe.
    • Keel laid: June 1756
    • Launched: 29 September 1757
    • Completed: 6 November 1757 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Burnt at Rhode Island to avoid capture on 5 August 1778.
  • Thames
    • Ordered: 11 January 1757
    • Built by: Henry Adams, Bucklers Hard.
    • Keel laid: February 1757
    • Launched: 10 April 1758
    • Completed: 29 May 1758 at Portsmouth Dockyard.
    • Fate: Taken to pieces at Woolwich Dockyard in September 1803.
Second (modified) batch
  • Lark
    • Ordered: 24 March 1761
    • Built by: Elias Bird, Rotherhithe.
    • Keel laid: 5 May 1761
    • Launched: 10 May 1762
    • Completed: 9 July 1762 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Burnt at Rhode Island to avoid capture on 5 August 1778.
  • Boston
    • Ordered: 24 March 1761
    • Built by: Robert Inwood, Rotherhithe.
    • Keel laid: 5 May 1761
    • Launched: 11 May 1762
    • Completed: 16 July 1762 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Taken to pieces at Plymouth Dockyard in May 1811.
  • Jason
    • Ordered: 30 January 1762
    • Built by: Robert Batson, Limehouse.
    • Keel laid: 1 April 1762
    • Launched: 13 June 1763
    • Completed: 19 September 1765 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Sold at Chatham Dockyard on 10 February 1785.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Lark_(1762)
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;searchTerm=Richmond_(1757
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1777 – Launch of USS Ranger, a sloop-of-war in the Continental Navy in active service in 1777–1780, the first to bear her name


USS Ranger
was a sloop-of-war in the Continental Navy in active service in 1777–1780, the first to bear her name. Built in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, she is famed for the one-ship guerilla campaign waged by her caption, Captain John Paul Jones, against the British during the American Revolution. In six months spent primarily in British waters she captured five prizes, staged a single failed attack on the English mainland at Whitehaven, and sent the Royal Navy seeking to run her down in the Irish Sea.

Jones was detached in Brest, France to take charge of Bonhomme Richard, turning over command of Ranger to his first officer, Lieutenant Thomas Simpson. Under Simpson Ranger went on to capture twenty-four more prizes abroad the Atlantic and along the U.S. coast during 1778 and 1779.

Sent to the South in late 1779 to aid the U.S. garrison at Charleston, South Carolina, during the British siege, she continued her predatory ways until ultimately forced to take station on the Cooper River, and was captured on May 11, 1780 with the fall of the city.

She was brought into the Royal Navy as HMS Halifax. Decommissioned in 1781 in Portsmouth, England, she was sold that year as a merchant ship.

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History
Ranger (initially called Hampshire) was launched 10 May 1777 by James Hackett, master shipbuilder, at the shipyard of John Langdon on what is now called Badger's Island in Kittery, Maine; Captain John Paul Jones in command.

Continental Navy
After fitting out, she sailed for France on 1 November 1777, carrying dispatches telling of General Burgoyne's surrender to the commissioners in Paris. On the voyage over, two British prizes were captured. Ranger arrived at Nantes, France, 2 December, where Jones sold the prizes and delivered the news of the victory at Saratoga to Benjamin Franklin. On 14 February 1778, Ranger received an official salute to the new American flag, the "Stars and Stripes", given by the French fleet at Quiberon Bay, the second to an American fighting vessel by a foreign power (the first salute was received by Andrew Doriawhen on 16 November 1776 she arrived at St. Eustatius and the Dutch island returned her 11-gun salute).

Ranger sailed from Brest 10 April 1778, for the Irish Sea and four days later captured a prize between the Scilly Isles and Cape Clear. On 17 April, she took another prize and sent her back to France. Captain Jones led a raid on the British port of Whitehaven, 23 April, spiking the guns of the fortress, but failing to burn the ships in the harbor. Sailing across the bay to St. Mary's Isle, Scotland, the American captain planned to seize the Earl of Selkirk and hold him as a hostage to obtain better treatment for American prisoners of war. However, since the Earl was absent, the plan failed. Several Royal Navy vessels were searching for Ranger, and Captain Jones sailed across the North Channel to Carrickfergus, Ireland, to induce HMS Drake of 14 guns, to come out and fight. Drake came out slowly against the wind and tide, and, after an hour's battle, the battered Drake struck her colors, with three Americans and five British killed in the combat. Having made temporary repairs, and with a prize crew on Drake, Ranger continued around the west coast of Ireland, capturing a stores ship, and arrived at Brest with her prizes on 8 May.

Captain Jones was detached to command Bonhomme Richard, leaving Lieutenant Simpson, his first officer, in command. Ranger departed Brest 21 August, reaching Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 15 October, in company with Providence and Boston, plus three prizes taken in the Atlantic.

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USS Ranger receiving the salute of the French fleet at Quiberon Bay, France, 14 February 1778.

The sloop departed Portsmouth on 24 February 1779 joining with the Continental Navy ships Queen of France and Warren in preying on British shipping in the North Atlantic. Seven prizes were captured early in April, and brought safely into port for sale. On 18 June, Ranger was underway again with Providence and Queen of France, capturing two Jamaicamen in July and nine more vessels off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Of the 11 prizes, three were recaptured, but the remaining eight, with their cargoes, were worth over a million dollars when sold in Boston.

Underway on 23 November, Ranger was ordered to Commodore Whipple's squadron, arriving at Charleston on 23 December, to support the garrison there under siege by the British. On 24 January 1780, Ranger and Providence, in a short cruise down the coast, captured three transports, loaded with supplies, near Tybee, Georgia. The British assault force was also discovered in the area. Ranger and Providence sailed back to Charleston with the news. Shortly afterwards the British commenced the final push. Although the channel and harbor configuration made naval operations and support difficult, Ranger took a station in the Cooper River, and was captured when Charleston fell on 11 May 1780.

Royal Navy
Ranger was taken into the British Royal Navy and commissioned under the name HMS Halifax. She was decommissioned in Portsmouth, England, in 1781, then sold as a merchant vessel for about 3 percent of her original cost.

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Ship model of Ranger.

Specifications
Ranger's specifications were:
  • Begun:January 11, 1777
  • Launched:May 10, 1777 into the Piscataqua River
  • Location:Rising Castle, now Badger's Island, Kittery, Maine
  • Departed:Nov 1, 1777
  • Builder:John Langdon
  • Designer:James Hackett
  • Yard Boss:Tobias Lear IV (father of Tobias Lear V, Secretary to President George Washington)
  • Officers:
    • John Paul Jones, Captain
    • Thomas Simpson, Portsmouth, 1st Lt.
    • Elijah Hall, Portsmouth, 2nd Lt.
    • Samuel Wallingford, Lt of Marines
    • Dr Ezrah Green, Dover, Surgeon
    • Mr Joseph Frazer, Sr Officer of Marines
    • Capt Matthew Parke
  • Crew:145 men including nearly half from Piscataqua area
  • Cost:$65,000 Continental dollars
  • Rating:Sloop of war
  • Rigging:Square rigged on all three masts with royals, topgallant, and a full set of studding sails
  • Arms:18 nine-pounder guns
  • Painting:Topside black with broad yellow stripe and masthead
  • Dimensions:(Recorded by Royal Navy after capture)
    • 97' 2" at gundeck (est 110' overall)
    • 77' 9" keel
    • 27' 8" beam
    • 12' depth of hold

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John Paul Jones recruiting poster for crewing Ranger was the first recruiting poster for what would become the United States Navy. It is understood that the promised payments were not as readily forthcoming as was to be expected.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Ranger_(1777)
http://www.navsource.org/archives/09/86/86293.htm
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1780 - Launch of HMS Ontario, a British warship that sank in a storm in Lake Ontario on 31 October 1780, during the American Revolutionary War.


HMS
Ontario
was a British warship that sank in a storm in Lake Ontario on 31 October 1780, during the American Revolutionary War. She was a 22-gun snow, and, at 80 feet (24 m) in length, the largest British warship on the Great Lakes at the time. The shipwreck was discovered in 2008 by Jim Kennard and Dan Scoville. Ontario was found largely intact and very well preserved in the cold water. Scoville and Kennard assert that "the 80-foot sloop of war is the oldest shipwreck and the only fully intact British warship ever found in the Great Lakes."

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History
Ontario was built in 1780 on Carleton Island, a major base in the St Lawrence River for the British during the Revolutionary War, but now part of New York. She was operated by the Royal Navy for the Provincial Marine in the capacity of an armed transport.

At the time, Ontario was the largest British warship to sail on the Great Lakes. She was launched just five months before she sank, and was used to ferry troops, supplies and prisoners from one remote part of New York to another. She never saw battle.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board outline, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth of Ontario (1780), a 16-gun Brig Sloop launched at Carleton Island, Lake Ontario, 10 May 1780. Signed by Jonathan Coleman [Master Shipwright, St. Johns, Lake Champlain, Canada]

Sinking
Ontario sank in a storm on 31 October 1780 while underway from Fort Niagara to Oswego. Approximately 130 men perished with ship, comprising an estimated 60 British soldiers of the 34th (Cumberland) Regiment of Foot, (comprising one officer, 34 other ranks, 4 women and 5 children from the regiment) a crew of about 40 Canadians and possibly up to 30 American prisoners of war. News of the sinking of the Ontario was kept quiet for a number of years to hide the military loss.

Search and discovery
Sophisticated side-scan sonar technology was used in the search of HMS Ontario in late May 2008. A promising wreck was found between Niagara and Rochester, NY in an area of Lake Ontario where the depth exceeds 492 feet (150 m). The sonar imagery clearly showed a large sailing ship resting upright at an angle, with two masts reaching up at least 70 feet (21 m) above the bottom of the lake. The high resolution images showed the remains of two crow's nests on each mast, strongly suggesting that the sunken vessel was the brig-sloop Ontario. Due to the depth limitations for diving on this shipwreck, a remotely operated underwater vehicle was deployed and confirmed the identity of the ship in early June 2008.

Kennard and Scoville believe that the cold, fresh water of Lake Ontario, combined with a lack of light and oxygen, have slowed decomposition and account for the ship being found largely intact, despite being on the bottom for 230 years. The shipwreck's discoverers have notified the New York State Office of Historic Preservation, however the exact location of the wreck has not been publicly disclosed. The wreck is still property of the United Kingdom and is a war grave.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Ontario_(1780)
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-336131;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=O
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1797 – Launch of USS United States, a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy and the first of the six original frigates authorized for construction by the Naval Act of 1794.


USS United States
was a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy and the first of the six original frigates authorized for construction by the Naval Act of 1794. Joshua Humphreys designed the frigates to be the young Navy's capital ships, and so United States and her sisters were larger and more heavily armed and built than standard frigates of the period. She was built at Humphrey's shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and launched on 10 May 1797 and immediately began duties with the newly formed United States Navy protecting American merchant shipping during the Quasi-War with France.

In 1861 United States was in port at Norfolk and was seized by the Virginia Navy and subsequently commissioned into the Confederate navy as CSS United States, but was later scuttled by Confederate forces. Union forces raised the scuttled ship, and retained control of the ship until she was broken up in 1865.

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by Geoff Hunt

Design and construction
Main article: Original six frigates of the United States Navy
During the 1790s American merchant vessels began to fall prey to Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean, most notably from Algiers. Congress's response was the Naval Act of 1794. The Act provided funds for the construction of six frigates; however, it included a clause stating that construction of the ships would cease if the United States agreed to peace terms with Algiers.

Joshua Humphreys' design was deep,long on keel and narrow of beam (width) for mounting very heavy guns. The design incorporated a diagonal scantling (rib) scheme to limit hogging while giving the ships extremely heavy planking. This gave the hull greater strength than those of more lightly built frigates. Humphreys developed his design after realizing that the fledgling United States could not match the navy sizes of the European states. He therefore designed his frigates to be able to overpower other frigates, but with the speed to escape from a ship of the line.

Originally designated as "Frigate A" and subsequently named United States by President George Washington, her keel was laid down in 1795 at Humphreys' shipyard in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Humphreys was assigned as her constructor and US Navy Captain John Barry as superintendent. As Philadelphia was at the time America's capital, many visitors walked through observing her construction as it progressed. Humphreys personally led President Washington and First Lady Martha on a tour. The President expressed his admiration of the great size of the ship. A less desirable visitor, Benjamin Franklin Bache (grandson of Benjamin Franklin) was physically assaulted by Clement Humphreys (Joshua's son) allegedly over Bache's opposition to the Federalist Party and his opposition newspaper, the Philadelphia Aurora.

Fearing sabotage, Humphreys was concerned about the open nature of his ship yard which allowed anyone to wander in. He requested from the War Department a number of guards which were posted to keep out visitors but to little effect.

Construction slowly continued until a peace treaty was announced between the United States and Algiers in March 1796. In accordance with the clause in the Naval Act, construction of United States was discontinued. President Washington requested instructions from Congress on how to proceed. Several proposals circulated before a final decision was reached allowing Washington to complete the three frigates nearest to completion; United States, Constellation and Constitution were chosen.

On 10 May 1797 she was the first American warship to be launched under the Naval Act of 1794,[3] and the first ship of the United States Navy. She was fitted out at Philadelphia during the spring of 1798 and, on 3 July ordered to proceed to sea. Relations with the French government had deteriorated, starting the Quasi-War.

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Armament
See also: Naval artillery in the Age of Sail
United States's nominal rating was that of a 44-gun ship. However, she usually carried over 50 guns. United States was originally armed with a battery of 55 guns: thirty-two 24-pounder (10.9 kg) cannon; twenty-two 42-pounder (19 kg) carronades; and one 18-pounder (8 kg) long gun.

Unlike modern naval vessels, ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns. Guns were portable and often exchanged between ships as situations warranted. Each commanding officer modified his vessel's armaments to his liking, taking into consideration factors such as the overall tonnage of cargo, complement of personnel aboard, and planned routes to be sailed. Consequently, a vessel's armament would change often during its career; records of the changes were not generally kept.

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The United States Congress authorized the original six frigates of the United States Navy with the Naval Act of 1794 on March 27, 1794, at a total cost of $688,888.82. These ships were built during the formative years of the United States Navy, on the recommendation of designer Joshua Humphreys for a fleet of frigates powerful enough to engage any frigates of the French or British navies yet fast enough to evade any ship of the line.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_United_States_(1797)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Original_six_frigates_of_the_United_States_Navy
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1800 – Launch of HMS Spencer, a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, at Bucklers Hard.


HMS Spencer
was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 10 May 1800 at Bucklers Hard. Her designer was the French émigré shipwright Jean-Louis Barrallier. She served in two major battles, Algeciras Bay and San Domingo, and in a number of other campaigns. She was broken up in 1822.

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Wartime career
Captain Henry D'Esterre Darby commissioned Spencer in June 1800.

Battle of Algeciras Bay
By July 1801 Spencer was at the Rock of Gibraltar in the squadron under the command of Rear Admiral James Saumarez in Caesar On 6 July Saumarez sailed from Gibraltar with Caesar, Pompee, Spencer, Venerable, Hannibal and Audacious with the intention of attacking Admiral Linois'ssquadron of three French line-of-battle ships and a frigate, which were lying a considerable distance from the batteries at Algeciras. As Venerable, the leading ship, approached the wind dropped and she was forced to anchor. Pompee managed to get into action but Hannibal grounded and was forced to strike. In the battle the British drove two of the French ships ashore and badly damaged the rest. The total loss in the British squadron was 121 killed, 240 wounded, and 14 missing. The Franco-Spanish force lost 317 men killed and some 3-500 wounded.

On 8 July a squadron of five Spanish ships-of-the-line, a French 74, three frigates and a large number of gunboats reinforced the French ships. Hard work repaired all the British ships at Gibraltar, except Pompee in time for them to follow the Franco-Spanish fleet when it sailed on 12 July. In the subsequent second phase of the Battle of Algeciras Bay, the two first rates Real Carlos and Hermenegildo fired upon each other during the night, caught fire and exploded, with tremendous loss of life. The British captured the third rate St Antoine. In 1847 the Admiralty authorized the issue of the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Gut of Gibraltar 12 July 1801" to all surviving claimants from the battle; 192 medals were issued.

Spencer joined Admiral Robert Calder's squadron in October 1801. In December she sailed in chase to the West Indies.

In May 1803 Captain Robert Stopford recommissioned Spencer. On 28 August Spencer recaptured the East Indiaman Lord Nelson. On 28 May she recaptured the Castle Douglas, and the next month, on the 10th, she recaptured the Lord North. On 20 November Spencer captured the Virgin del Brien Consiglio, and then nine days later, the Nostra Senora del Carmen, J. de Moro, Master.

San Domingo
Spencer joined Admiral Nelson off Toulon in August 1804. Spencer was then part of a squadron off Cadiz under Vice-admiral John Duckworth, when news reached Duckworth that two French squadrons had sailed from Brest in December 1805. Duckworth took his squadron to Barbados to search for them, eventually sighting Leissègues' squadron off San Domingo on 6 February 1806. Duckworth organised his ships into two lines, the weather line consisting of Superb, Northumberland and Spencer, while the lee line consisted of Agamemnon, Canopus, Donegal and Atlas. The lines moved to attack the French ships and the battle broke out.

Main article: Battle of San Domingo
During the battle, Superb badly damaged the French 74-gun Indivisible, leaving her adrift, her rigging shot off and her rudder destroyed. Spencer then took Indivisible. The battle was a victory for the Royal Navy, and Stopford and the other captains received a Naval Gold Medal for their actions. In 1847 the Admiralty authorized the issue of the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "St. Domingo" to all surviving claimants from the battle; 396 medals were issued.

Next, Stopford and Spencer participated in the British invasions of the Río de la Plata and Battle of Copenhagen.

Raid off Kristiansand
Spencer arrived off Kristiansand, Norway on 18 September 1807 with two other ships. The ships withdrew after they were fired on by Christiansholm Fortress. The ship's commander decided to occupy the abandoned Fredriksholm Fortress in the Kristiansand fjord, and demolish it. Charges were laid but after waiting some time for the explosion, men were sent back to check if the fuses had gone out. They had not, and four of the men were killed in the resulting explosion.

In April 1808 Captain John Quilliam took command and sailed Spencer in the Channel, where she served as the flagship for now Admiral Stopford.

War of 1812
Spencer underwent major repairs at Plymouth from October 1811 until March 1814. Captain Richard Raggett recommissioned her in January 1814 and during the American War of 1812-15 sailed her to North America escorting a convoy to Canada. Later in 1814 he patrolled in the Gulf of Maine. After a failed and embarrassing September attempt to gain ransom from a little coaster out of Boston, Raggett turned his wrath on lightly defended Cape Cod towns. Eastham coughed up over $1,200 and Brewster paid $4,000 to avoid bombardment. Bolder people resided in Barnstable and Orleans. The two towns rejected Raggett's demands and prepared to resist. Raggett decided to move on, but locals tagged his ship with the nickname "Terror of the Bay". Earlier, Spencer shared in the capture of the American brigantine Superb.

After a successful cruise in the summer of 1814 during which she captured the Royal Navy schooner Landrail, the American privateer Syren returned to the United States but as she approached the Delaware River the British blockading ships gave chase. To escape the boats of Spencer and Telegraph, on 16 November Syren ran ashore under Cape May. Her crew set her on fire before making their escape.

Post-war career
From August 1815, Spencer served as a guardship in Plymouth under the command of Captain William Robert Broughton. On 16 March 1817, Wolf, a tender to Spencer, captured two smuggling boats, the Albeona and the Two Brothers, and their cargo. Wolf was in company with the revenue cruiser Vigilant.[20][Note 2] In 1818 Captain Sir Thomas Hardy replaced Broughton.

Captain Samuel Rowley replaced Hardy in September. Spencer then served as the flagship for Rear Admiral Sir Josias Rowley at Cork.[4] Sir Thomas Lavie replaced Rowley in turn in December 1821.

Fate
Spencer was broken up at Plymouth in April 1822.

j3257.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth for building 'Spencer' (1800), a 74-gun Third Rate, two-decker, at Bucklers Hard by Messrs Adams. This plan was prepared from a proposal by Mr Barrallier, a French emigre. The plan also shows alterations to the rudder when 'Spencer' was in Plymouth Dockyard between August and November 1818. The suggested amendment to the rudder was made by the ship's Captain - Captain Samuel C. Rowley (appointed to the ship on 28 September 1818) [seniority: 29 April 1802]

j3258.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the inboard profile for building 'Spencer' (1800), a 74-gun Third Rate, two-decker, at Bucklers Hard by Messrs Adams. The plan includes pencil alterations to the position of the main and mizen masts, and the movement of deck beams

j2267.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the launching arrangements at Bucker's Hard, Beaulie, for Spencer (1800), a 74-gun, two-decker. The reverse has the measurements of the Spenser comparing the contract to the 'as built' dimensions



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Spencer_(1800)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1801 – Launch of French Héros, a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Rochefort from 1795 to 1801 by engineer Roland


Héros was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Rochefort from 1795 to 1801 by engineer Roland. She was one of the numerous Téméraire class ships designed by Jacques-Noël Sané.

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Career
She took part in the French occupation of Santo Domingo, notably ferrying Toussaint Louverture to France after his arrest.

She took part to the Battle of Trafalgar under Commander Poulain, and was one of the five French ships to survive the battle, although Poulain was killed at 13:15 and replaced by Lieutenant Conor. She took part to the counter-attack led by Julien Cosmao, and returned to Cádiz, where she stayed until she was captured by the Spanish in 1808.

The Capture of the Rosily Squadron took place on 14 June 1808, in Cadiz, Spain, nearly three years after the Battle of Trafalgar, during the uprising against the French invaders. Five French ships of the line and a frigate were still in the port, having remained there since the British victory. French Admiral Rosily, after an engagement with the Spanish lasting five days, surrendered his entire squadron with the four thousand seamen then on board.

Renamed Heroe, she was broken up at Ferrol in 1845.

Achille_mp3h9307.jpg

Scale model of Achille, sister ship of French ship Héros (1801), on display at the Musée de la Marine in Paris.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toussaint_Louverture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_the_Rosily_Squadron
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1807 - Battle of the Dardanelles


The naval Battle of the Dardanelles took place on 10–11 May 1807 during the Russo-Turkish War (1806–12, part of the Napoleonic Wars). It was fought between the Russian and Ottoman navies near the Dardanelles Strait.

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As the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, heavily depended on maritime supply, Russia's Vice-Admiral Dmitry Senyavin, in charge of ten ships of the line and a frigate, established a blockade of the Dardanelles on 6 March 1807. He maintained the blockade for two months, by the end of which period food riots broke out on the streets of Constantinople and Sultan Selim III was deposed. His successor, Mustafa IV, ordered his captains to break the blockade at any cost.

Pursuant to these orders, 8 ships of the line, 6 frigates and 55 smaller vessels under Kapudan Pasha Seyid Ali (who had fought against Senyavin two decades earlier in the Battle of Caliacria) slipped out of the Straits and prepared to land in the island of Tenedos, which served as a base for the Russian squadron in the Aegean. Senyavin decided to forestall Seyid Ali's plans and advanced against the Ottoman fleet.

After having to wait for two days against contrary winds, the wind shifted, blowing from Tenedos toward Imbros, where the Turkish fleet was moored, Senyavin ordered an immediate attack, although it was late afternoon. The Russians attacked as evening fell, continuing on into the night. After several hours of fighting, the Russians appeared victorious and the Turks had to retreat to the Dardanelles. Senyavin pursued them into the Straits and attempted to destroy three badly damaged Ottoman ships of the line, but the heavy fire of the shore batteries and darkness compelled him to give up the pursuit. Although about 1,000 Turkish sailors were killed or wounded and no Russian ship was sunk, the battle appeared indecisive. Senyavin continued to blockade the Dardanelles before engaging the Turks in the Battle of Monte Sancto a month later.

The book Naval wars in the Levant indicates that Senyavin allowed the Turks to attack Tenedos, while trying to approach from the southeast of this island to cut off their retreat to the Dardanelles, but was unable due to lack of wind, and the battle was a running battle, with the fleets ending up mixed together in the straits that night, eventually separating. Three Turkish ships of the line were left outside the straits, and these were attacked the next day, running aground just inside, but eventually were refloated, although they may not have been seaworthy.


 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1808 – Launch of French Ville de Varsovie, a Bucentaure-class 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, designed by Chaumont from original plans by Sané.


The Ville de Varsovie was a Bucentaure-class 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, designed by Chaumont from original plans by Sané.

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Built as Tonnant, she was renamed Ville de Varsovie ("City of Warsaw") while still under construction. At the time, Napoleon established the Duchy of Warsaw and made a considerable effort to mobilize Polish national sentiment on France's behalf.

She was commissioned on 18 June 1808 under captain Mahé, and was part of the Rochefort squadron.

A British party destroyed her by fire by after running aground during the Battle of the Basque Roads.


Robuste-Antoine_Roux.jpg

The Robuste, sister-ship of the Ville de Varsovie

The Bucentaure class was a class of 80-gun French ships of the line built to a design by Jacques-Noël Sané from 1802 onwards, of which at least 29 were ordered but only 21 ships were launched. They were a development from his earlier Tonnant class.

Ships in class
  • Bucentaure class 80-gun ships designed by Jacques-Noël Sané, a modification of the 80-ship Tonnant class listed above. 21 ships were launched to this design, of which 16 were afloat by the end of 1814
    • Bucentaure 80 (launched 13 July 1803 at Toulon) – Flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805, captured there by the British and wrecked in the subsequent storm
    • Neptune 80 (launched 15 August 1803 at Toulon) – Captured by the Spanish at Cadiz in June 1808, renamed Neptuno, BU 1820
    • Robuste 80 (launched 30 October 1806 at Toulon) – Driven ashore by the British and burnt near Frontignan in October 1809
    • Ville de Varsovie 80 (launched 10 May 1808 at Rochefort) – Captured and burnt by the British in the Battle of the Basque Roads in April 1809
    • Donawerth 80 (launched 4 July 1808 at Toulon) – BU 1824
    • Eylau 80 (launched 19 November 1808 at Lorient) – BU 1829
    • Friedland 80 (launched 2 May 1810 at Antwerp) – Transferred to the Dutch Navy in August 1814 and renamed Vlaming, BU 1823
    • Sceptre 80 (launched 15 August 1810 at Toulon) – Condemned 1828
    • Tilsitt 80 (launched 25 August 1810 at Antwerp) – Transferred to the Dutch Navy in August 1814 and renamed Neptunus, BU 1818
    • Auguste 80 (launched 25 April 1811 at Antwerp) – Transferred to the Dutch Navy in August 1814 and renamed Illustre, returned in September 1814, BU 1827
    • Pacificateur 80 (launched 22 May 1811 at Antwerp) – BU 1824
    • Illustre 80 (launched 9 June 1811 at Antwerp) – Transferred to the Dutch Navy in August 1814 and renamed Prins van Oranje,BU 1825.
    • Diadème 80 (launched 1 December 1811 at Lorient) – 86 guns from 1837; condemned 1856.
    • Conquérant 80 (launched 27 April 1812 at Antwerp) – Condemned 1831.
    • Zélandais 80 (launched 12 October 1813 at Cherbourg) – renamed Duquesne in April 1814, but reverted to Zélandais in March 1815 then Duquesne again in July 1815. Condemned 1858.
    • Magnifique 80 (launched 29 October 1814 at Lorient) – 86 guns from 1837; condemned 1837.
    • One further ship begun at Venice to this design was never launched – Saturne, which was broken up on the stocks by the Austrian occupiers.
1280px-French_ship_Duquesne_mg_5192.jpg

Duquesne-IMG_4945.jpg

Model of the Duquesne (1813-1836), a 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. Model on display at Toulon naval museum. Anonymous author, accession number 13 MG 30.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ship_Ville_de_Varsovie
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1808 - Start of 5 day engagement between HMS Wizard (16), Abel Ferris, and Requin (16) from off Toulon to Goulette near Tunis.


On May 10th, the Wizard, 16, Commander Abel Ferris, sighted and chased, to the south of Toulon, the Requin, 16, Commander C. E. Berar, and, after a long pursuit, engaged her in close action on the morning of the llth. The Requin fired high and inflicted sufficiently severe injuries to be able to draw away from her adversary. The British crew refitted their ship, and, on the morning of the 12th, were near enough to the Requin to open a long range fire. The firing killed the breeze, and the Requin drew ahead once more; but the Wizard stuck to her enemy all the 12th and 13th, now gaining and now losing ground, and exchanging shots whenever near enough for the guns to carry. On the 14th, however, the Requin entered the neutral harbour of Goletta in Tunis, and the pursuit ceased, having continued through 88 hours over 369 miles of sea. The Requin was ultimately taken on July 28th, to the north of Corsica, on her way back from Tunis to Toulon, by the Volage, 22, Captain Philip Lewis J - Rosenhagen, after a long chase. The Wizard's total loss was 1 killed and 5 wounded; the Requin's is unknown.

HMS Wizard (1805) was a brig-sloop launched 1805 and sold October 1816.

j4425.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board outline, sheer lines with scroll figurehead, longitudinal half-breadth for building Wizard (1805), a 16 (later 18) gun Brig Sloop at Ringmore by Mr Thomas Sutton. Signed by John Henslow [Surveyor of the Navy, 1784-1806] and William Rule [Surveyor of the Navy, 1793-1813]

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j4423.jpg

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the framing profile (disposition) for building Wizard (1805), a 16 (later 18) gun Brig Sloop at Ringmore by Mr Thomas Sutton. Signed by John Henslow [Surveyor of the Navy, 1784-1806] and William Rule [Surveyor of the Navy, 1793-1813]

pw0052.jpg

H.M. Brig Wizard off the Island of Maritimo [western Sicily] (PAF0052)


Le Requin (1806)
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https://threedecks.org/index.php?display_type=show_battle&id=780
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1862 – Launch of USS New Ironsides, a wooden-hulled broadside ironclad built for the United States Navy during the American Civil War.


USS
New Ironsides
was a wooden-hulled broadside ironclad built for the United States Navy during the American Civil War. The ship spent most of her career blockading the Confederate ports of Charleston, South Carolina, and Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1863–65. New Ironsides bombarded the fortifications defending Charleston in 1863 during the First and Second Battles of Charleston Harbor. At the end of 1864 and the beginning of 1865 she bombarded the defenses of Wilmington in the First and Second Battles of Fort Fisher.

Although she was struck many times by Confederate shells, gunfire never significantly damaged the ship or injured the crew.[2] Her only casualty in combat occurred when she was struck by a spar torpedo carried by the CSS David. Eight crewmen were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions during the Second Battle of Fort Fisher in 1865. The ship was destroyed by fire in 1865 after she was placed in reserve.

New_ironsides_sails.jpg

USS New Ironsides under steam and sail

Design and description
After the United States received word of the construction of the Confederate casemate ironclad, CSS Virginia, Congress appropriated $1.5 million on 3 August to build one or more armored steamships. It also ordered the creation of a board to inquire into armored ships. The U.S. Navy advertised for proposals for "iron-clad steam vessels of war" on 7 August and Gideon Welles, the Secretary of the Navy, appointed the three members of the Ironclad Board the following day. Their task was to "examine plans for the completion of iron-clad vessels". They evaluated 17 different designs, but recommended only three on 16 September.

The three ironclad ships differed substantially in design and degree of risk. The USS Monitor was the most innovative design by virtue of its low freeboard, shallow-draft iron hull, and total dependence on steam power. The riskiest element of its design was its rotating gun turret,[5] something that had not previously been tested by any navy. Its designer John Ericsson's guarantee of delivery in 100 days proved to be decisive in choosing his design despite the risk involved. The wooden-hulled USS Galena's most novel feature was her armor of interlocking iron rails. The New Ironsides was much influenced by the French ironclad Gloire and was the most conservative design of the three, which copied many of the features of the French ship. The well-known Philadelphia engine-building firm of Merrick & Sons made the proposal for New Ironsides, but they did not have a slipway so they subcontracted the ship to William Cramp & Sons. William Cramp claimed credit for the detailed design of the ship's hull, but the general design work was done by Merrick & Sons.

New Ironsides was 230 feet (70.1 m) long between perpendiculars and 249 feet 6 inches (76.0 m) long overall. She had a beam of 57 feet 6 inches (17.5 m) and a draft of 15 feet 8 inches (4.8 m). The ship displaced 4,120 long tons (4,190 t), 495 long tons (503 t) more than her designed displacement. To minimize her draft, New Ironsides was given a wide beam and a flat bottom. She had a rectangular ram that projected 6 feet (1.8 m) forward from her bow. The ship's crew consisted of 449 officers and men.

A two-piece articulated rudder was fitted to New Ironsides, but it proved unsatisfactory in service as the ship became more unmanageable as her speed increased. The rudder was blamed at the time, but the very full shape of the ship's hull aft was the most likely cause as it screened the rudder from the flow of water behind the hull. The ship's hull was coppered to reduce fouling.

H01557a.jpg

Ships of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron departing Hampton Roads, Virginia, en route to attack Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in December 1864. The ships present are (from left to right): a twin-turret monitor, probably USS Monadnock; the partially-dismasted USS New Ironsides; and an unidentified steam sloop of war.

Propulsion
New Ironsides had two simple horizontal two-cylinder direct-acting steam engines driving a single brass 13-foot (4.0 m) propeller. Steam was provided by four horizontal fire-tube boilers at a working pressure of 20–25 psi (138–172 kPa; 1–2 kgf/cm2). The engines produced 1,800 indicated horsepower (1,300 kW) which gave the ship a maximum speed around 6 knots (11 km/h; 6.9 mph). New Ironsides carried 350 long tons (360 t) of coal and her propeller could be disengaged to reduce drag while under sail alone. The ship was barque-rigged with three masts that were used only for long-distance voyages, and were removed, with their rigging, once on station. The best speed under sail and steam together was only about 7 knots (13 km/h; 8.1 mph).

Armament
The ship's main armament was originally going to consist of 16 smoothbore, muzzle-loading 9-inch (229 mm) Dahlgren guns mounted on the gun deck. However, the navy was less than impressed by the performance of 9-inch Dahlgrens during the Battle of Hampton Roads and wanted more powerful 11-inch (279 mm) guns. Accordingly, the design changed while the ship was under construction to accommodate fourteen 11-inch Dahlgren guns and two muzzle-loading 8-inch (203 mm), 150-pounder Parrott rifles. Two 5.1-inch (130 mm), 50-pound Dahlgren rifles were fitted on the upper deck as chase guns. They were replaced by 60-pound Dahlgren rifles by October 1864.

Each 11-inch gun weighed approximately 16,000 pounds (7,300 kg) and could fire a 136-pound (61.7 kg) shell at a range of 3,650 yards (3,340 m) at an elevation of 15°. The muzzle-loading Parrott rifles fired a 152-pound (68.9 kg) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,200 ft/s (370 m/s). The 17-caliber guns weighed 16,300 pounds (7,400 kg) each. The 50-pounder Dahlgren rifles weighed approximately 5,600 pounds (2,500 kg). The small size of the gun ports limited the guns, however, to a maximum elevation of 4.5° which reduced their range to less than 2,000 yards (1,800 m).

The existing wooden carriages for 11-inch guns were too long to fit in New Ironsides's cramped battery. A new iron carriage was built where the gun rode in a cradle that slid on iron rails. The new carriages pivoted at the gun ports to minimize the size of the ports. Two compressors, or clamps, were fitted to squeeze the rails and increase friction between the rails and the cradle, but these were not strong enough to handle the recoil force when the gun was fired. Two more compressors were fitted as well as rope breechings to restrain the guns, but neither was entirely satisfactory. The problem was not resolved until December 1862 when strips of ash wood were placed underneath the compressors; the friction of iron on wood was double that of iron on iron and the increased friction solved the problem.

H60273.jpg


Armor
New Ironsides had a complete waterline belt of wrought iron that was 4.5 inches (114 mm) thick; below the waterline it was reduced to 3 inches (76 mm). It reached 3 feet (0.9 m) above the waterline and 4 feet (1.2 m) below. Above the belt the 170-foot (51.8 m) battery was protected by 4.5-inch armor, but the bow and stern were left unprotected. Although not initially part of the design, transverse bulkheads were added during construction to protect the ends of the battery. They consisted of 2.5 inches (64 mm) of wrought iron backed by 12 inches (305 mm) of white oak. The deck was three inches of yellow pine beneath 1 inch (25 mm) of wrought iron. Mirroring French practice, the armor plates were secured to the ship's hull and deck by countersunk screws. The armor plates were cut with a groove on each side and an iron bar was inserted between each plate to better distribute the shock of impact. The side armor was backed by 21 inches (533 mm) of wood. A conning tower with three-inch sides was also added during construction. It was placed behind the funnel and the mainmast, and had no visibility directly forward. It was small and could only fit three people.

Each of the ship's gun ports was protected by two armored shutters, each 4 inches (102 mm) thick. Each shutter rotated on an axle at its top operated from inside the battery. In combat these shutters frequently cracked or broke when hit; rarely was a shutter jammed in either the open or closed position.

Construction
New Ironsides was named in honor of USS Constitution, which earned the nickname "Old Ironsides" during her engagement with HMS Guerrière in the War of 1812. As Constitution herself was still in commission, the name was unavailable for a new ship.

Merrick & Sons was awarded a $780,000 contract for the ship on 15 October 1861 for delivery in nine months. A $500 penalty was imposed for each day past 15 July 1862 that the ship was delayed. Commodore Charles Stewart sponsored the ship as she was launched on 10 May 1862. She was commissioned on 21 August, but the navy did not invoke the penalty for late delivery. On 27 September the navy paid Merrick & Sons $34,322.06 for "extras", presumably the armored bulkheads, shutters, and conning tower not included in the original specifications.

USS_New_Ironsides_by_Gutekunst.jpg

New Ironsides as she appeared on blockade duty.

1280px-First_Battle_of_Charleston_Harbor.jpg

Fort Sumter National Monument marker depicting the First Battle of Charleston Harbor The bow of the USS New Ironsides is on the left while Fort Sumter is in the background



http://www.navsource.org/archives/09/86/86045.htm
 

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10 May 1887 – Launch of HMS Buzzard, a Nymphe-class composite screw sloop


HMS Buzzard
was a Nymphe-class composite screw sloop and the fourth ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name.

H._M._S._Buzzard_Training_Ship,_London.png

HMS Buzzard at Blackfriars on the Thames in 1906

Design
Developed and constructed for the Royal Navy on a design by William Henry White, Director of Naval Construction, she was launched at Sheerness Dockyard on 10 May 1887.

Foreign service
The Nymphe-class sloops were ideal for service in the far distant outposts of the British Empire, and Buzzard was employed on the North America and West Indies Station. In early April 1902, under the command of Commander L. F. G. Tippinge, she left Bermuda for home waters, calling at Faial Island, before she arrived at Devonport on 20 April. She was paid off at Chatham on 13 May 1902.

p00040.jpg

Buzzard on the Thames in June 1907

Harbour training ship
In 1904 she was converted to a drill ship for the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve at Blackfriars, London, and in 1911 Buzzard relieved HMS President (formerly HMS Gannet of 1878) as headquarters ship, being renamed HMS President on 1 April 1911.

Disposal
As President she served until 23 January 1918, when she was lent to the Marine Society. She was sold to C A Beard for breaking on 6 September 1921, and was later re-sold to Dutch ship breakers.

p00042.jpg

A starboard quarter view of the RNVR Training Ship 'Buzzard' (1887) moored in the River Thames at the Embankment. The fore yards and main and mizzen topmasts have been removed. Lighters and barges can be seen alongside the wharves in the background on the Southwick side of the river

p00043.jpg

A port bow view of the barquentine-rigged RNVR Training Ship 'Buzzard' (1887) moored in the River Thames at the Embankment. The photograph was taken from a paddle steamer on the river at 1130


The Nymphe class was a class of four screw composite sloops built for the Royal Navy between 1885 and 1888. As built they were armed with four 4-inch guns and four 3-pounder guns.

Unbenannt1.JPG

Design
Built to a design by William Henry White, Director of Naval Construction, Nymphe and her sister ships were constructed of an iron frame sheathed with teak and copper (hence 'composite'), and powered by both sails and a steam engine delivering 1,570 to 2,000 indicated horsepower (1,170 to 1,490 kW) through twin screws.

HMS_Nymphe_(1888).jpg

HMS Nymphe, name ship of the Nymphe class

Employment
Although made obsolete by quickly changing naval technology, these sloops were ideal for operations in the far distant outposts of the British Empire in the late 19th century. Swallow served on the South Atlantic Station, Buzzard on the North America and West Indies Station and Nymphe on the Pacific Station. Daphne served on the China Station, and it was in June 1900 that she brought ammunition into Shanghai during the Boxer Rebellion. Nymphe and Buzzard survived until after World War I as harbour training ships.

Ships
Unbenannt.JPG


p00041.jpg

A starboard bow view of the RNVR Training Ship 'Buzzard' (1887) anchored in the River Thames at the Embankment. The fore yards and main and mizzen topmasts have been removed. Blackfriers Bridge can be seen in the background, and off 'Buzzard's' bow are barges moored with the wharves behind



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphe-class_sloop
https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-1016170;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=B
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 May 1900 – Launch of Russian Pobeda (Russian: Победа, lit. 'Victory'), the last of the three Peresvet-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy at the end of the nineteenth century.


Pobeda (Russian: Победа, lit. 'Victory') was the last of the three Peresvet-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy at the end of the nineteenth century. The ship was assigned to the Pacific Squadron upon completion and based at Port Arthur from 1903. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, she participated in the battles of Port Arthur and the Yellow Sea. Having escaped serious damage in these engagements, Pobeda was sunk by gunfire during the Siege of Port Arthur, and then salvaged by the Japanese and placed into service under the name Suwo (周防).

Rearmed and re-boilered by the Japanese, Suwo was reclassified by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) as a coastal defense ship in 1908 and served as a training ship for several years. She was the flagship of the Japanese squadron that participated in the Battle of Tsingtao at the beginning of World War Iand continued in that role until she became a gunnery training ship in 1917. The ship was disarmed in 1922 to comply with the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty and probably scrapped around that time.

Pobeda1904Port-Artur.jpg


Design and description
The design of the Peresvet class was inspired by the British second-class battleships (typically faster, but with thinner armor and smaller guns than first-class battleships) of the Centurion class. The British ships were intended to defeat commerce-raiding armored cruisers like the Russian ships Rossia and Rurik, and the Peresvet class was designed to support the armored cruisers. This role placed a premium on high speed and long range at the expense of heavy armament and armor.

Pobeda was 434 feet 5 inches (132.4 m) long overall, had a beam of 71 feet 6 inches (21.79 m) and a draft of 26 feet 3 inches (8.0 m). Designed to displace 12,674 long tons (12,877 t), she was almost 600 long tons (610 t) overweight and displaced 13,320 long tons (13,530 t). Her crew consisted of 27 officers and 744 enlisted men. The ship was powered by three vertical triple-expansion steam engines using steam generated by 30 Belleville boilers. The engines were rated at 14,500 indicated horsepower (10,800 kW), using forced draught, and designed to reach a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Pobeda, however, reached a top speed of 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h; 21.3 mph) from 15,578 indicated horsepower (11,617 kW) during her sea trialsin October 1901. She carried a maximum of 2,060 long tons (2,090 t) of coal, which allowed her to steam for 6,200 nautical miles (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) at a speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).

The ship's main battery consisted of four 10-inch (254 mm) guns mounted in two twin-gun turrets, one forward and one aft of the superstructure. The secondary armament consisted of eleven Canet 6-inch (152 mm) quick-firing (QF) guns, mounted in casemates on the sides of the hull and in the bow, underneath the forecastle. Smaller guns were carried for defense against torpedo boats. These included twenty 75-millimeter (3.0 in) QF guns, twenty 47-millimeter (1.9 in) Hotchkiss guns and eight 37-millimeter (1.5 in) guns. She was also armed with five 15-inch (381 mm) torpedo tubes, three above water and two submerged. The ship carried 45 mines to be used to protect her anchorage. Pobeda's waterline armor belt consisted of Krupp cemented armorand was 4–9 inches (102–229 mm) thick. The armor of her gun turrets had a maximum thickness of 9 inches and her deck ranged from 2 to 3 inches (51 to 76 mm) in thickness.

Construction and service
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Sister ship Peresvet at anchor in 1901

Pobeda (Victory) was ordered on 26 April 1898 from the Baltic Works and construction began on 30 May 1898 at the company's Saint Petersburgshipyard, well before the formal keel-laying ceremony on 21 February 1899. The ship was launched on 10 May 1900 and towed to Kronstadt on 31 August 1901 for fitting out. She made her machinery trials in October, well before she was completed the next year. She sailed to Reval (modern Tallinn) on 1 August to participate in the naval review held there a few days later to commemorate the visit of the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, to Russia. Pobeda entered service upon completing her artillery trials on October 1902, although she was not officially accepted until 10 March 1903, at a cost of 10,050,000 rubles. She had already sailed from Libau on 13 November 1902 and arrived at Port Arthur on 13 June 1903 for assignment to the Pacific Squadron.


The Peresvet class was a group of three pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy around the end of the 19th century. Peresvetand Pobeda were transferred to the Pacific Squadron upon completion and based at Port Arthur from 1901 and 1903, respectively. All three ships were lost by the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05; Peresvet and Pobeda participated in the Battles of Port Arthur and the Yellow Sea and were sunk during the Siege of Port Arthur. Oslyabya, the third ship, sailed to the Far East with the Second Pacific Squadron to relieve the Russian forces blockaded in Port Arthur and was sunk at the Battle of Tsushima with the loss of over half her crew.

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Right elevation and deck plan as depicted in Brassey's Naval Annual1902

Peresvet and Pobeda were salvaged after the Japanese captured Port Arthur and incorporated into the Imperial Japanese Navy. Peresvet was sold back to the Russians during World War I, as the two countries were by now allies, and sank after hitting German mines in the Mediterranean in early 1917 while Pobeda, renamed Suwo, remained instead in Japanese service and participated in the Battle of Tsingtao in late 1914. She became a gunnery training ship in 1917. The ship was disarmed in 1922 to comply with the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty and probably scrapped around that time.

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Oslyabya leaving Revel, October 1904

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Oslyabya leaving Bizerte, Tunisia, 1903


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Pobeda
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peresvet-class_battleship
 
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