26th of January - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
28 September 1768 - Launch of HMS Prudent, a Exeter-class Ship of the Line


HMS Prudent was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 28 September 1768 at Woolwich.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sternboard outline, modified inboard profile with one waterline, and longitudinal half-breadth for Prudent (1768), a 64-gun Third Rate, two-decker, as built and launched at Woolwich Dockyard on 28 September 1768. The alterations, mainly around the bow and head relate to her as first designed and then as built.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/81324.html#X1X4dKeFGdbA02yY.99


She is listed as being on harbour service in 1779, though she was back in regular service later in the American Revolutionary War as in 1782 she participated in the Battle of St. Kitts.

Prudent was sold out of the service in 1814.

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Plan showing the body plan with stern decoration, sheer lines with stern quarter decoration, and longitudinal half-breadth for Prudent (1768), Europa [also spelt Europe] (1765), and Trident (1768). From Tyne & Wear Archives Service, Blandford House, Blandford Square, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4JA.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/382892.html#MbG408PjKJP4215v.99



The Exeter-class ships of the line were a class of four 64-gun third rates, designed for the Royal Navy by William Bateley.

Design
The draught for Exeter was based upon the Richmond-class frigates of 1757.

Ships
Builder: Henniker, Chatham
Ordered: 13 January 1760
Launched: 26 July 1764
Fate: Burned, 1785
Builder: Adams, Lepe, Hampshire
Ordered: 16 December 1761
Launched: 21 April 1765
Fate: Broken up, 1814
Builder: Plymouth Dockyard
Ordered: 4 December 1762
Launched: 20 April 1768
Fate: Sold out of the service, 1816
Builder: Woolwich Dockyard
Ordered: 7 January 1762
Launched: 28 September 1768
Fate: Sold out of the service, 1814


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Prudent_(1768)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exeter-class_ship_of_the_line
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
28 September 1799 - HMS Blanche (1786 - 32), Cptn. John Ayscough, wrecked after grounding several times in the Texel


HMS Blanche was a 32-gun Hermione-class fifth rate of the Royal Navy. She was ordered towards the end of the American War of Independence, but only briefly saw service before the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793. She enjoyed a number of successful cruises against privateers in the West Indies, before coming under the command of Captain Robert Faulknor. He took the Blanche into battle against a superior opponent and after a hard-fought battle, forced the surrender of the French frigate Pique. Faulknor was among those killed on the Blanche. She subsequently served in the Mediterranean, where she had the misfortune of forcing a large Spanish frigate to surrender, but was unable to secure the prize, which then escaped. Returning to British waters she was converted to a storeship and then a troopship, but did not serve for long before being wrecked off the Texel in 1799.

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Construction and commissioning
Blanche was ordered from the yards of Thomas Calhoun and John Nowlan, of Bursledon on 9 August 1782 and laid down there in July the following year.[2] She was launched on 10 July 1786 and proceeded to Portsmouth where she was coppered in August. She was then laid up for some time, before commissioning in January 1789. Work to fit her for sea had been completed by 25 April that year.

Career
Blanche's first period of service took her to the Leeward Islands in May 1789, under the command of Captain Robert Murray, but she had returned to Britain by June 1792, when she was paid off.[2] A brief period of refitting at Deptford lasted from July to October, before she returned to the Leeward Islands under the command of Captain Christopher Parker.[2] Parker undertook several successful cruises while in the West Indies in 1793, capturing the 12-gun Vengeur on 1 October, the 20-gun Revolutionnaire on 8 October and the 22-gun Sans Culotte on 30 December.[2] Command of the Blanche passed to Captain Robert Faulknor in 1794, who continued Parker's work by capturing a large schooner at La Désirade on 30 December 1794, with the loss of two killed and four wounded.

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This painting, by English artist John Thomas Baines (1820–75), refers to an incident between the British frigate ‘Blanche’ and the French vessel ‘Pique’ off Guadeloupe in the early hours of 5 January 1795. In the course of the violent and extended action the English captain, Robert Faulknor, was killed, but the demasted ‘Pique’ finally had to surrender. The painting, which is signed and dated, shows the ‘Pique’ in a port-broadside view, totally demasted, her bowsprit lashed to the ‘Blanche’s’ stern, shown port-quarter view on the left of the ‘Pique’. The ‘Blanche’ is firing through her stern windows, raking the ‘Pique’, which still wears her ensign on the staff. The ‘Blanche’ has only her foremast standing and is towing the ‘Pique’ before the wind. By focusing on the two ships in the middle ground, but reducing the depiction of human activity aboard the vessels, and by merging the calmly rippled sea and the cloudy sky in a grey tonality as a backdrop, the artist manages to portray the devastation of the scene effectively.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/11970.html#3IfGCDmPpXI0dwUv.99


Battling the Pique
Faulknor then proceeded to patrol off Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe, where the 36-gun French frigate Pique was known to be refitting. The French ship came out of the harbour on 4 January, and the two frigates spent several hours manoeuvring and circling each other, trying to gain an advantage. The battle started early on the morning of 5 January, with the two ships closing and exchanging broadsides, before Pique turned and ran afoul of Blanche, with her bowsprit caught across her port quarter. While the French made several attempts to board, which were repulsed, the crew of Blanche attempted to lash the bowsprit to their capstan, but during the attempt Captain Faulknor was killed by a musket ball to the heart. Pique then broke away from Blanche and came round her stern, this time colliding on the starboard quarter. Blanche's men quickly lashed the bowsprit to the stump of their mainmast, which held her fast. Heavy volleys of musket fire were now exchanged between the two ships, while the men of Blanche attempted to manoeuvre their guns into a position to fire on the trapped Frenchman. They eventually had to blow away part of Blanche's woodwork to achieve this. They now raked the Pique until she was forced to surrender, over five hours since the battle had begun. Casualties for the British were eight killed, including Captain Faulknor, and 21 wounded.Pique had lost 76 killed and 110 wounded. The two ships were joined later that morning by the 64-gun HMS Veteran, which helped exchange and secure the prisoners and tow the ships to port. Pique was taken into the Royal Navy, as HMS Pique. In 1847 the Admiralty authorized the award of the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Blanche 4 Jany. 1795" to all surviving claimants from the action.

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La Blanche towing la Pique, a French prize, 1795
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/100683.html#f4L63evtQh7BUvRD.99


Later career
Captain Charles Sawyer took command of Blanche in January 1795, and captured a small privateer off Saint Lucia on 17 April. Blanche returned to Portsmouth for a refit in late 1795, before sailing to the Mediterranean in December.

In 1796 a court martial dismissed Sawyer from his vessel and from the service. Sawyer had lost control of Blanche and the respect of his crew due to his increasingly blatant homosexual relations with two young midshipmen, his coxswain, and another seaman. Blanche's first lieutenant, Archibald Cowan, eventually wrote to Captain George Cockburn, senior captain of the fleet. The charges were "odious misconduct, and for not taking public notice of mutinous expressions muttered against him"; the court martial dismissed Sawyer from His Majesty's service on 17 October 1796, ruling that he was "incapable of ever serving in any military capacity whatever."

Even before the court martial verdict, Admiral John Jervis in June placed Blanche under the command of Captain D’Arcy Preston. On 19 December Blanche was involved in an action with HMS Minerve against the Spanish frigates Santa Sabina and Ceres. The Minerve captured Santa Sabina, but though the Blanche forced Ceres to surrender, she was unable to secure her prize, which subsequently escaped.

Command passed to Captain Henry Hotham in 1797, who continued Blanche's successful cruises by capturing the 14-gun privateer Coureur on the Lisbon station on 20 November, followed by the 6-gun privateer Bayonnais on 27 December that year.

Fate
Blanche was paid off in August 1798 and fitted out as a storeship the following year. She was further converted to a troopship and commissioned under Commander John Ayscough. While under his command she grounded in the entrance to the Texel on 28 September 1799 and was declared a constructive total loss



HMS Pique was a 38-gun fifth rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She had formerly served with the French Navy, initially as the Fleur-de-Lys, and later as the Pique. HMS Blanche captured her in 1795 in a battle that left the Blanche's commander, Captain Robert Faulknor, dead. HMS Pique was taken into service under her only British captain, David Milne, but served for just three years with the Royal Navy before being wrecked in an engagement with the French ship Seine in 1798. The Seine had been spotted heading for a French port and Pique and another British ship gave chase. All three ships ran aground after a long and hard-fought pursuit. The arrival of a third British ship ended French resistance, but while the Seine and Jason were both refloated, attempts to save Pique failed; she bilged and had to be abandoned.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Blanche_(1786)
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-296476;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=B;start=0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Pique_(1795)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
28 September 1840 - Launch of HMS London , a 90-gun Rodney-class second rate Ship of the Line


HMS London was a two-decker 90-gun second-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 28 September 1840 at Chatham Dockyard.

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HMS London in Zanzibar circa 1876.

In 1854, London took part in the bombardment of Fort Constantine at Sevastopol during the Crimean War, where she sustained damage.

In 1858 she was converted to screw propulsion, and reduced to 72 guns.

By 1873, she was a hulk, serving as a depot ship in Zanzibar Bay, off the east coast of Africa. In March 1878 she was recommissioned, and involved in the suppression of the slave trade in the area, serving as a central depot for many smaller steam screw boats; she functioned as a repair depot, a hospital and a storage ship. At this time there were Africans from West Africa (Kroomen or Krumen) and East Africa (Seedies or Sidis) serving on board. There were also Zanzibari and Arab interpreters and cooks from Portuguese Goa (India).

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HMS London depicted in Zanzibar, 1881.

Captained by Charles J Brownrigg, this vessel and her crew made several patrols aimed at hindering the slave trade and, on 3 December 1881, caught up with a slave dhowcaptained by Hindi bin Hattam. This dhow had around 100 slaves on board and was transporting them between Pemba and Zanzibar. Captain Brownrigg led a boarding party to release the slaves but bin Hattam's men then attacked the sailors, killing Brownrigg and some of his party before sailing away. Sir Lloyd William Mathews led a force to Wete on Pemba and, after a short battle, took a mortally wounded bin Hattem (Hindi-bin-Khartoum) prisoner before returning to Zanzibar.

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Scale 1:48. Plan showing the inboard profile with Seppings' diagonal bracing for 'Nile' (1839), 'Rodney' (1833), 'London' (1840), all 92-gun Second Rate, two-deckers. The plan includes alterations to the bulkheads in the hold, and to the position of the steering wheel, ladders and capstan, all dated December 1833. Later alterations to move the masts on Rodney date from 1845.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/80050.html#H3KH02trt2fj7rOp.99


large (8).jpg Scale 1:48. Plan showing a 'three-timber' framing profile (disposition) for 'London' (1840), a 92-gun Second Rate, two-decker, to be built at Chatham Dockyard. This plan was superceded by a 'two-timber' framing plan, dispatched to Chatham in January 1827 (see ZAZ0257). The plan illustrates the method of creating the frames and how they are to be joined, using a detailed key and colour code. The dark brown colourwash shows the single timber frames, while the light brown represents frames made with three timbers which make the sides of the ports. The red colourwash shows the frames under the upper deck gunports, and the yellow timbers over the ports are to be bolted together in the same manner as the frame timbers. Signed by Robert Seppings [Surveyor of the Navy, 1813-1832].
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/80046.html#pIAfdDJcrJOJH5kD.99


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In late 1881, while the vessel was at Zanzibar, it has suffered damage of a nature such that repairs were urgently required. The type of wood desired to make the repairs was teak, which "could not readily be procured in the open market." The Sultan was however known to have a store of the desired timber and so he was requested to assist with supplying it. This he did and the repairs done. However, the Sultan refused to accept any payment for the supplies. In the eyes of the commander of HMS London, it put the British Royal Navy "in an awkward position" because it would be very difficult to make similar requests in the future.

The final entry in the ship's log is dated 22 January 1883. Captain Luxmoore writes "Paid ship off" "Sent ships company to transport Windsor Castle in passage to England".

In 1884 she was sold and broken up

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The Rodney-class ships of the line were a class of 3 two-deck 90-gun second rates, designed for the Royal Navy by Sir Robert Seppings.

Ships
Builder: Pembroke Dockyard
Launched: 18 June 1833
Fate: Broken up, 1882
Builder: Plymouth Dockyard
Launched: 28 June 1839
Fate: Burnt, 1956
Builder: Chatham Dockyard
Launched: 28 September 1840
Fate: Sold, 1884


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_London_(1840)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodney-class_ship_of_the_line
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;authority=vessel-326796;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=L;start=0
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
28 September 1994 – The cruise ferry MS Estonia sinks in the Baltic Sea, killing 852 people.


MS Estonia, previously Viking Sally (1980–1990), Silja Star (1990–1991), and Wasa King (1991–1993), was a cruise ferry built in 1979/80 at the German shipyard Meyer Werft in Papenburg. The ship sank in 1994 in the Baltic Sea in one of the worst maritime disasters of the 20th century. It is the second-deadliest European shipwreck disaster to have occurred in peacetime and the deadliest peacetime shipwreck to have occurred in European waters, with 852 lives lost.

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Construction
The ship was originally ordered from Meyer Werft by a Norwegian shipping company led by Parley Augustsen with intended traffic between Norway and Germany. At the last moment, the company withdrew their order and the contract went to Rederi Ab Sally, one of the partners in the Viking Line consortium (SF Line, another partner in Viking Line, had also been interested in the ship).

Originally the ship was conceived as a sister ship to Diana II, built in 1979 by the same shipyard for Rederi AB Slite, the third partner in Viking Line. When Sally took over the construction contract, the ship was lengthened from the original length of approximately 137 metres (449 ft) to approximately 155 metres (509 ft) and the superstructure of the ship was largely redesigned.

Meyer Werft had constructed a large number of ships for various Viking Line partner companies during the 1970s. The construction of the ship's bow consisted of an upwards-opening visor and a car ramp that was placed inside the visor when it was closed. An identical bow construction had also been used in Diana II.

Sinking

Nationality of the victims - Deaths
Sweden - 501
Estonia - 285
Latvia - 17
Russia - 11
Finland - 10
Norway - 6
Denmark - 5
Germany - 5
Lithuania - 3
Morocco - 2
Belarus - 1
Canada - 1
France - 1
Netherlands - 1
Nigeria - 1
Ukraine - 1
United Kingdom - 1
Total fatalities - 852


One of Estonia's inflatable life rafts, filled with water.

The Estonia disaster occurred on Wednesday, 28 September 1994, between about 00:55 and 01:50 (UTC+2) as the ship was crossing the Baltic Sea, en route from Tallinn, Estonia, to Stockholm, Sweden. Estonia was on a scheduled crossing with departure at 19:00 on 27 September. She had been expected in Stockholm the next morning at about 09:30. She was carrying 989 people: 803 passengers and 186 crew. Most of the passengers were Scandinavian, while most of the crew members were Estonian (several Swedish passengers were of Estonian origin). The ship was fully loaded, and was listing slightly to starboard because of poor cargo distribution.

According to the final disaster report, the weather was rough, with a wind of 15 to 20 metres per second (29 to 39 kn; 34 to 45 mph), force 7–8 on the Beaufort scale and a significant wave height of 4 to 6 metres (13 to 20 ft) compared with the highest measured significant wave height in the Baltic Sea of 7.7 metres (25.3 ft). Esa Mäkelä, the captain of Silja Europa who was appointed on-scene commander for the subsequent rescue effort, described the weather as "normally bad", or like a typical autumn storm in the Baltic Sea. All scheduled passenger ferries were at sea. The official report says that while the exact speed at the time of the accident is not known, Estonia had very regular voyage times, averaging 16 to 17 knots (30 to 31 km/h; 18 to 20 mph). The chief mate of the Viking Line cruiseferry Mariella tracked Estonia's speed by radar at approximately 14.2 knots (26.3 km/h; 16.3 mph) before the first signs of distress, while the Silja Europa's officers estimated her speed at 14 to 15 knots (26 to 28 km/h; 16 to 17 mph) at midnight.

The first sign of trouble aboard Estonia was when a metallic bang was heard, caused by a heavy wave hitting the bow doors around 01:00, when the ship was on the outskirts of the Turku archipelago, but an inspection—limited to checking the indicator lights for the ramp and visor—showed no problems. Over the next 10 minutes, similar noises were reported by passengers and other crew. At about 01:15, the visor in which the ship's bow door opened separated, and the ship immediately took on a heavy starboard list (initial 30 to 40 degrees, but by 01:30, the ship had rolled 90 degrees) as water flooded into the vehicle deck. Estonia was turned to port and slowed before her four engines cut out completely.

M/S Estonia Mayday Call With Subtitles, Tribute


At about 01:20 a weak female voice called "Häire, häire, laeval on häire", Estonian for "Alarm, alarm, there is alarm on the ship", over the public address system, which was followed immediately by an internal alarm for the crew, then one minute later by the general lifeboat alarm. The vessel's rapid list and the flooding prevented many people in the cabins from ascending to the boat deck. A Mayday was communicated by the ship's crew at 01:22, but did not follow international formats. Estonia directed a call to Silja Europa and only after making contact with her did the radio operator utter the word "Mayday". In English, the radio operator on Silja Europa, chief mate Teijo Seppelin replied: "Estonia, are you calling mayday?" After that, the voice of third mate Andres Tammes took over on Estonia and the conversation shifted to Finnish. Tammes was able to provide some details about their situation but due to loss of power, he could not give their position, which delayed rescue operations somewhat. Some minutes later power returned (or, somebody on the bridge managed to lower himself to the starboard side of the bridge to check the marine GPS, which will display the ship's position even in blackout conditions), and the Estonia was able to radio their position to Silja Europa and Mariella. The ship disappeared from the radar screens of other ships at around 01:50, and sank at 59°23′N 21°42′E in international waters, about 22 nautical miles (41 km; 25 mi) on bearing 157° from Utö island, Finland, to the depth of 74 to 85 metres (243 to 279 ft) of water. According to survivor accounts the ship sank stern first after taking a list of 90 degrees.

Zero Hour - The Sinking of The Estonia 720p HD (Discovery)


Rescue effort
Search and rescue followed arrangements set up under the 1979 International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (the SAR Convention), and the nearest Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre MRCC Turku coordinated the effort in accordance with Finland's plans. The Baltic is one of the world's busiest shipping areas, with 2,000 vessels at sea at any time, and these plans assumed the ship's own boats and nearby ferries would provide immediate help and that helicopters could be airborne after an hour. This scheme had worked for the relatively small number of accidents involving sinkings, particularly as most ships have few people on board.


Super Puma OH-HVG of the Finnish Border Guard flying.

Mariella, the first of five ferries to reach the scene of the accident, arrived at 02:12. MRCC Turku failed to acknowledge the Mayday immediately and Mariella's report was relayed by Helsinki Radio as the less urgent pan-pan message. A full-scale emergency was only declared at 02:30. Mariella winched open liferafts into the sea onto which 13 people on Estonia's rafts successfully transferred, and reported the location of other rafts to Swedish and Finnish rescue helicopters, the first of which arrived at 03:05. The former took survivors to shore, while the latter—Finnish border guard helicopters Super Puma OH-HVG and Agusta Bell 412 OH-HVD—chose the riskier option of landing on the ferries. The pilot of OH-HVG stated that landing on the ferries was the most difficult part of the whole rescue operation; despite that, this single helicopter rescued 44 people, more than all the ferries. Isabella saved 16 survivors with her rescue slide.

Of the 989 on board, 138 were rescued alive, one of whom died later in hospital. Ships rescued 34 and helicopters 104; the ferries played a much smaller part than the planners had intended because it was too dangerous to launch their man-overboard (MOB) boats or lifeboats. The accident claimed 852 lives (501 Swedes, 285 Estonians, 17 Latvians, 10 Finns and 44 people of other nationalities: 1 from each of Belarus, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Ukraine and the United Kingdom, 2 from Morocco, 3 from Lithuania, 5 from Denmark, 6 from Norway, 10 from Germany, 11 from Russia). Most died by drowning and hypothermia, as the water temperature was 10–11 °C/50–52 °F. One prominent victim of the sinking was the Estonian singer Urmas Alender. 94 bodies were recovered; 93 within 33 days of the accident, the last was found 18 months later. By the time the rescue helicopters arrived, around a third of those who escaped the Estonia had died of hypothermia, while fewer than half of those who had managed to leave the ship were eventually rescued. The survivors of the shipwreck were mostly young, of strong constitution, and male. Seven over 55 years of age survived; there were no survivors under age 12. About 650 people were still inside the ship when it sank, and believed to remain there. The commission estimate up to 310 passengers reached the outer decks, 160 of whom boarded the liferafts or lifeboats essential for survival.

Causes of the disaster
The casualties "had an immense impact on the world concept of ferry safety" and led to changes in safety regulations as well as in liferaft design, much as the Titanic disaster did in 1912.

Official investigation and report
The wreck was examined and videotaped by remotely operated underwater vehicles and by divers from a Norwegian company, Rockwater A/S, contracted for the investigation work. The official report indicated that the locks on the bow door had failed from the strain of the waves and the door had separated from the rest of the vessel, pulling the ramp behind it ajar. The bow visor and ramp had been torn off at points that would not trigger an "open" or "unlatched" warning on the bridge, as is the case in normal operation or failure of the latches. The bridge was also situated too far back on the ferry for the visor to be seen from there. While there was video monitoring of the inner ramp, the monitor on the bridge was not visible from the conning station. The bow visor was under-designed, as manufacturing and approval process did not consider the visor and its attachments as critical items regarding ship safety.The first metallic bang was believed to have been the sound of the visor's lower locking mechanism failing, and subsequent noises were the visor 'flapping' against the hull as the other locks failed, before tearing free and exposing the bow ramp. The subsequent failure of the bow ramp allowed water into the vehicle deck, which was identified as the main cause of the capsizing and sinking: RORO ferries with their wide vehicle decks are particularly vulnerable to capsizing if the car deck is even slightly flooded because of free surface effect: the fluid's swirling motion across such a large area hampers the boat's ability to right itself after rolling with a wave. The same effect caused the capsizing of the Herald of Free Enterprise seven years earlier.

The report was critical of the crew's actions, particularly for failing to reduce speed before investigating the noises emanating from the bow, and for being unaware that the list was being caused by water entering the vehicle deck. There were also general criticisms of the delays in sounding the alarm, the passivity of the crew, and the lack of guidance from the bridge.

Recommendations for modifications to be applied to similar ships included separation of the condition sensors from the latch and hinge mechanisms.[JAIC 8]



Changes stemming from the disaster
In 1999, special training requirements in crowd and crisis management and human behaviour were extended to crew on all passenger ships, and amendments were made to watch-keeping standards. Estonia's distress beacons or EPIRBs required manual activation, which did not happen. Had they been activated automatically, it would have been immediately obvious that the ship had sunk and the location would have been clear. All EPIRBs were subsequently required to deploy automatically and the accident was "instrumental in the move to legislate Voyage Data Recorders". New International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) liferaft regulations for rescue from listing ships in rough water were introduced, though launching such craft, even in training exercises, remains dangerous for the crew.

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New designs, the "citadel concept" once again influenced by Estonia, aim to ensure damaged ships have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat, though cost will determine if any are built. SOLAS 90, which came into effect in 2010, specifies existing passenger ships' stability requirements and those in North West Europe must also be able to survive 50 centimetres (20 in) of water on the car deck.

Allegations of military connection
Alternative theories exist about the cause of the sinking. German journalist Jutta Rabe and the left-wing magazine New Statesman claim that laboratory tests on debris recovered illegally from Estonia's bow yielded trace evidence of a deliberate explosion, which they allege was concealed by the Swedish, British, and Russian governments to cover up an intelligence operation smuggling military hardware via the civilian ferry. Members of the Joint Accident Investigation Commission denied these claims, saying that the damage seen on the debris occurred during the visor's detachment from the vessel. The JAIC cited results from Germany's Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, which found that Jutta Rabe's samples did not prove an explosion occurred.

In the autumn of 2004, a former Swedish customs officer claimed on Sveriges Television that Estonia had been used to transport military equipment in September 1994. The Swedish and Estonian governments subsequently launched separate investigations, which both confirmed that non-explosive military equipment was aboard the ship on 14 and 20 September 1994. According to the Swedish Ministry of Defence, no such equipment was on board at the day of the disaster, and previous investigations by the Swedish Customs Service found no reports of any anomalous activity around the day of the disaster.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_Estonia
 
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
Other Events on 28 September


1066 – William the Conqueror lands in England, beginning the Norman conquest.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_conquest_of_England


1538 - Battle of Preveza

The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies. It occurred in the same area in the Ionian Sea as the Battle of Actium, 31 BC. It was one of the three largest sea battles that took place in the sixteenth century Mediterranean.

Battle_of_Preveza_(1538).jpg
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza (1538)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Preveza


1542 – Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo of Portugal arrives at what is now San Diego, California.

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (born 1497, died January 3, 1543) was a Spanish explorer born in Palma del Rio, Córdoba, Spain, although he is also claimed by tradition as a native of Portugal. Among other things he was a maritime navigator known for exploring the West Coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire. Cabrillo was the first European to navigate the coast of present-day California. He is best known for his exploration of the coast of California in 1542–1543. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo served under the command of Pánfilo de Narváez and aided him in the conquest of Cuba about 1518.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Rodríguez_Cabrillo


1781 – American Revolution: American forces backed by a French fleet begin the siege of Yorktown.

The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York,[a]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Yorktown#cite_note-9 ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, the siege proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in the North American theater, as the surrender by Cornwallis, and the capture of both him and his army, prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict. The battle boosted faltering American morale and revived French enthusiasm for the war, as well as undermining popular support for the conflict in Great Britain.

1280px-Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis.jpg
Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, depicts the British surrendering to Benjamin Lincoln, flanked by French (left) and American troops. Oil on canvas, 1820.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Yorktown


1785 – Launch of HMS Nassau was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Ardent-class

HMS Nassau was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 28 September 1785 by Hilhouse in Bristol.
One of her first ship's surgeons is thought to be John Sylvester Hay. He died young but he was the father of the actress Harriett Litchfield.
During the Nore Mutiny she was commanded by Captain Edward O'Bryen. She was converted for use as a troopship in 1797. Nassau was wrecked in 1799

Ardent_class_silhouette.png
Silhouette of the ship-of-the-line Nassau

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Nassau_(1785)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardent-class_ship_of_the_line


1791 – Launch of French Fortunée, a (12-pounder-armed) 32-gun frigate of the Félicité class

Fortunée, 32 guns (launched 28 September 1791 at Le Havre) – burnt 1794 to avoid capture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Félicité-class_frigate


1795 – Launch of french Résistance, a 50-gun Résistance class, design by Pierre Degay, with 30 x 24-pounder guns and 20 x 12-pounder guns

Two ships of this class were built
Vengeance, 50 (launched 8 November 1794 at Paimboeuf, Nantes) – captured by British Navy 1800, becoming HMS Vengeance.
Résistance, 50 (launched 28 September 1795 at Paimboeuf, Nantes) – captured by British Navy 1797, becoming HMS Fisgard.


1799 - HMS Fox (1799 - 18), Lt. James Woolridge, wrecked in St. George's Sound, Gulf of Mexico. The crew were stranded on the reef for 32 days.

HMS Fox (1799) was a 14-gun schooner purchased in 1799 and wrecked later that year off Dog Island, Apalachee Bay, Florida. There were no lives lost despite the fact that they had to wait for 33 days with little food and water before they were rescued.


1805 - Nelson joins Collingwood in blockading Cadiz

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trafalgar


1807 - HMS Louisa (14), Lt. Joseph Hoy, engaged French privateer Le Marsouin (14)


1810 - Boats of HMS Rambler (14), Robert Hall, defeated French Dragoons and took a privateer in the river at Barbate that they were protecting.


1822 - Under Commodore David Porters West India Squadron, the sloop of war USS Peacock raids a pirate camp at Funda Bay, burning two pirate boats, capturing five others, while also liberating "89 sacks of coffee concealed in the woods...."

Pirates were ravaging West Indian shipping in the 1820s and on 3 June 1822, the Peacock became flagship of Commodore David Porter’s West India Squadron, that rooted out the pirates. The Peacock served in the expedition that included the Revenue Marine schooner Louisiana and the British schooner HMS Speedwell. The trio broke up a pirate establishment at Bahia Honda Key , 28–30 September capturing four vessels. They burnt two and prize crews took the other two to New Orleans. Eighteen of the captured pirate crew members were sent to New Orleans for trial. The Peacock captured the schooner Pilot on 10 April 1823 and another sloop 16 April. In September, "malignant fever" necessitated a recess from activities, and the Peacock pulled into Norfolk, Virginia on 28 November.

1280px-USS_Peacock_in_ice,_1840.jpg
The US Navy sloop USS Peacock was stuck in the ice in January 1840, shortly after the first confirmed sighting of the Antarctic continent by a US Navy ship. She was lost on the Columbia river in July 1841.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Peacock_(1813)


1844 – Launch of french Psyché, a 40-gun Psyché class frigate, design by Mathurin-François Boucher, with 22 x 30-pounder guns, 14 x 30-pounder carronades and 4 x 30-pounder shell guns):

Psyché, (launched 28 September 1844 at Brest) – deleted 15 July 1867.


1850 - Flogging on Navy and merchant marine ships is abolished by an appropriation bill by Congress, which President Millard Fillmore signs into law.


1861 - During the Civil War, the side-wheel steamer USS Susquehanna captures Confederate schooner San Juan bound for Elizabeth City, N.C., with a cargo of salt, sugar, and gin.

USS Susquehanna, a sidewheel steam frigate, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Susquehanna River, which rises in Lake Otsego in central New York and flows across Pennsylvania and the northeast corner of Maryland emptying into the Chesapeake Bay.

1024px-USS_Susquehanna_sidewheel_steam_frigate_by_Gutekunst,_1860s.jpg
USS Susquehanna (1850)

Her keel was laid down by the New York Navy Yard in 1847. She was launched on 5 April 1850; and was commissioned on 24 December 1850, Captain John H. Aulick in command.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Susquehanna_(1850)
 

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29 September 1625 - Battle of San Juan


The Battle of San Juan was fought on 29 September 1625, and was an engagement of the Eighty Years' War. A Dutch expedition under the command of Boudewijn Hendricksz attacked the island of Puerto Rico, but despite besieging San Juan for several months, was unable to capture it from Spain.

1024px-La_recuperación_de_la_isla_de_Puerto_Rico_por_el_gobernador_de_la_isla,_Juan_de_Haro._P...jpg
Seventeenth-century Spanish painting commemorating Hendricksz's defeat at San Juan de Puerto Rico. By Eugenio Caxés, Museo del Prado.

Battle
On 24 September 1625, 17 Dutch ships arrived at San Juan de Puerto Rico, whose Spanish governor — naval and military veteran Juan de Haro y Sanvitores — had been in office less than a month. Nevertheless, he got ready to receive the enemy as best he could preparing El Morro's battery to close the main entrance to the San Juan Bay, and sending his predecessor, Juan de Vargas, to nearby Boquerón with militia to hinder any landings in the Escambrón Inlet.

Hendricksz implemented a bold plan. At 1:00 P.M. the next day the entire Dutch fleet sailed directly into San Juan’s harbor:
Roode Leeuw, Witte Leeuw, Leyden, Blauwe Leeuw, Goude Valck, Utrecht, Nieuw Nederlandt, Hoop van Dordrecht, Kleyne Tijger, Hoorn, Medemblik, Gouden Molen, Vlissingen, West Kappel, Goude Sonne, Koningin Hester, and Jonas.

1920px-Hendricksz_1625_attack_on_San_Juan,_Puerto_Rico.jpg
Hendricksz 1625 attack on San Juan, Puerto Rico

They exchanged shots with the harbor castle, inflicting superficial damage and killing four Spaniards, before gaining a safe anchorage within the roadstead off Puntilla Point, beyond range of de Haro’s artillery. However, shoals prevented an immediate disembarkation of troops. The delay allowed Spanish civilians to flee inland, while the governor marshaled his slender strength within San Felipe del Morro citadel. He installed six additional bronze 12-pounders in its embrasures and mustered 330 men, of which 220 were effective. He also had abundant supplies.

On 26 September, Hendricksz led 700–800 men ashore and occupied the empty city. Two days later the Dutch also occupied the small, wooden El Cañuelo fort, which stood on a rock islet in the harbour. The main citadel proved impossible to storm, so the Dutch began digging saplines and installing a six-gun battery atop Calvario Heights by 29 September. At 9:00 A.M. the next day Hendricksz called upon de Haro to surrender. de Haro rejected the offer so action resumed. Capt. Jan Jasperz de Laet of West Kappel exited the harbour on 1 October to chase away a Spanish ship arriving with supplies. On the night of Friday, 3–4 October, the Spaniards sallied out of their citadel in two companies of 40 men apiece under Capts. Sebastián de Avila and Andrés Botello, but accomplished little.

Castillo_san_felipe_del_moro.jpg
Castillo San Felipe del Morro. Despite concerted effort, Boudewijn Hendricksz was unable to overcome the fortress.

They enjoyed better fortune at noon on 5 October, when 50 men under Capt. Juan de Amézqueta y Quixano of the Puerto Rican militia destroyed the advance Dutch works, killing a captain, a sergeant, and eight sappers. Guerrillas from the interior under Capt. Andrés Vázquez Botello de Carrera also began plaguing the besiegers. On the night of 5 October they killed Nieuw Nederlandt’s captain and a 20-man boat party in the harbor. Ten days later they destroyed a similar force up Bayamón River.

By October 16 the guerrillas had grown so bold as to recapture El Cañuelo. A force of 30 men in two launches arrived and killed two of its Dutch occupiers, capturing another 14. Faced with this increased pressure, Hendricksz found himself trapped inside the harbor. He again called upon de Haro to capitulate on 21 October, threatening to burn the city, but was again rebuffed. Hendricksz then put San Juan to the torch, and the Dutch reembarked at 10:00 A.M. the next day, hotly pursued by Puerto Rican units. The invaders now had to run the gauntlet of Spanish artillery in order to escape, which led them to hesitate for a full fortnight before they finally fled on 2 November.

Aftermath
The 30-gun, 450-ton Medemblik ran aground and was left behind for the exultant Spanish. Juan de Amézqueta boarded her and extinguished the slow fuse that was burning toward her magazine. De Haro was unable to savor the victory because a cannon had exploded near him during these final exchanges, spraying him with two dozen fragments that eventually killed him. Hendricksz, meanwhile, retired to San Francisco Bay for a month to recover from the setback. In addition to the loss of Medemblik, numerous other Dutch vessels had sustained damage, and 200 men have perished (as opposed to 17 Spanish fatalities during the siege). Hendricksz nonetheless detached his five best vessels on a privateering cruise toward Santo Domingo before attempting to lead his entire fleet west again in late November. Driven back by storms, he cruised south toward Isla Margarita (Venezuela), despite advance warnings having preceded him.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Juan_(1625)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boudewijn_Hendricksz
 

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29 September 1757 – Launch of HMS Juno, a 32 gun frigate , Richmond-class


HMS Juno was a 32-gun Richmond-class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1757 and served throughout the American Revolutionary War until scuttled in 1778 to avoid capture.

1280px-The_Royal_Navy_(1907)_(14753192786).jpg
HMS Juno

The Richmond-class frigates were 32-gun sailing frigates of the fifth rate produced for the Royal Navy. They were designed in 1756 by the Navy's Surveyor, William Bately, and were his equivalent of the Southampton-class frigates designed by Bately's co-Surveyor, Thomas Slade. They were faster ships than the Southamptons, and were weatherly craft, remaining dry even in high seas. Three ships were ordered to this design between 1756 and 1757, while a second batch of three ships was ordered between 1761 and 1762 to a slightly modified design.

large.jpg
Scale: 1:48. A plan showing the longitudinal half-breadth for the upper deck and lower deck, full plan for the platforms for 'Juno' (1757), a 32-gun Fifth Rate Frigate.

Ships in class
First batch

  • HMS Richmond
    • Ordered: 12 March 1756
    • Built by: John Buxton, Deptford.
    • Keel laid: April 1756
    • Launched: 12 November 1757
    • Completed: 7 December 1757 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Burnt at Sardinia to avoid capture on 19 May 1793.

large (1).jpg
Scale: 1:48. A contemporary full hull model of a ‘Richmond’-class 32-gun frigate (circa 1757), built in the Georgian style. The model is decked. Taken from the model, the vessel measured 129 feet along the gun deck by 34 feet in the beam, displacing 660 tons burden. It was armed with twenty-six 12-pounders on the upper deck, four 6-pounders on the quarterdeck and two 6-pounders on the forecastle. This type of vessel, an early ‘true frigate’, is similar to SLR0496. Although not identified with a particular ship, the dimensions represented are very close to those of the ‘Tweed’ (1759), but that ship probably had a round bow. A noticeable feature is the new style of figurehead. The familiar lion, which had been the standard form of bow decoration for smaller warships since about 1600, began to disappear after about 1750. It was commonly replaced by a human figure in classical dress. Frigates were fifth- or sixth-rate ships and so not expected to lie in the line of battle. With the advantage of superior sailing qualities over the larger ships of the line, they were used with the fleet for such tasks as lookout or, in battle, as repeating ships to fly the admiral’s signals. They also cruised independently in search of privateers.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/66458.html#cA0Gj8FDUL3DwQhj.99

large (2).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the lower deck plan and orlop deck with fore & aft platforms for Richmond (1757), a 32-gun, Fifth Rate Frigate. NMM, Progress Book, volume 2, folio 332 shtates that 'Richmond' (1757) arrived at Deptford Dockyard on 29 January 1771 and was docked on 4 March 1771. She was undocked on 24 December 1772 and sailed to Chatham Dockyard on 17 April 1773 having undergone "a great repair" at the cost of £10,510.6.4. The Progress Boook also records "Surveyed in a Dock 8th April 1771, found to want between Midling [sic] and Large Repair. Estimate for the Hull £4,357 and 6 Months Time."
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/82985.html#zzbjfKgq159X0QGo.99

large (3).jpg
  • HMS Juno
    • Ordered: 1 June 1756
    • Built by: William Alexander, Rotherhithe.
    • Keel laid: June 1756
    • Launched: 29 September 1757
    • Completed: 6 November 1757 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Burnt at Rhode Island to avoid capture on 5 August 1778.
  • HMS Thames
    • Ordered: 11 January 1757
    • Built by: Henry Adams, Bucklers Hard.
    • Keel laid: February 1757
    • Launched: 10 April 1758
    • Completed: 29 May 1758 at Portsmouth Dockyard.
    • Fate: Taken to pieces at Woolwich Dockyard in September 1803.
Second (modified) batch
  • HMS Lark
    • Ordered: 24 March 1761
    • Built by: Elias Bird, Rotherhithe.
    • Keel laid: 5 May 1761
    • Launched: 10 May 1762
    • Completed: 9 July 1762 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Burnt at Rhode Island to avoid capture on 5 August 1778.
  • HMS Boston
    • Ordered: 24 March 1761
    • Built by: Robert Inwood, Rotherhithe.
    • Keel laid: 5 May 1761
    • Launched: 11 May 1762
    • Completed: 16 July 1762 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Taken to pieces at Plymouth Dockyard in May 1811.
  • HMS Jason
    • Ordered: 30 January 1762
    • Built by: Robert Batson, Limehouse.
    • Keel laid: 1 April 1762
    • Launched: 13 June 1763
    • Completed: 19 September 1765 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Sold at Chatham Dockyard on 10 February 1785.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Juno_(1757)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richmond-class_frigate
 

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29 September 1758 – Birth of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, English admiral (d. 1805)


Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, and unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive British naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica and most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife. He was shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar near the port city of Cádiz in 1805.

800px-HoratioNelson1.jpg
Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott

Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer himself. He rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was particularly active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where his attack was defeated and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, and was forced to return to England to recuperate. The following year, he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen. He subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle was Britain's greatest naval victory, but during the action, Nelson, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral.

1024px-Turner,_The_Battle_of_Trafalgar_(1822).jpg
The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) shows the last three letters of the signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty" flying from Victory

Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures. The significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being regularly quoted, paraphrased and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, London, and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains highly influential.

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Nelson is shot on the quarterdeck, painted by Denis Dighton, c. 1825

1920px-Daniel_Maclise_-_The_Death_of_Nelson_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
The Death of Nelson by Daniel Maclise (Houses of Parliament, London)

Early life

Captain Maurice Suckling

Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine Suckling. He was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole (1723–1809) then 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton. His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham, Suffolk, and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749. Nelson's aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough, Norfolk and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.

Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, and also attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich. His naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS Raisonnable as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.

Early naval career
HMS Raisonnable had been commissioned during a period of tension with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore guardship HMS Triumph and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the West Indiamen Mary Ann of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert, Purrier and Horton, in order to gain experience at sea; he sailed from Medway, Kent, on 25 July 1771 sailing to Jamaica and Tobago, returning to Plymouth on 7 July 1772. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Suckling's longboat, which carried men and dispatches to and from the shore. Nelson then learned of a planned expedition under the command of Constantine Phipps, intended to survey a passage in the Arctic by which it was hoped that India could be reached: the fabled North-East Passage. At his nephew's request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass. The expedition reached within ten degrees of the North Pole, but, unable to find a way through the dense ice floes, was forced to turn back. By 1800 Lutwidge began to circulate a story that while the ship had been trapped in the ice, Nelson had seen and pursued a polar bear, before being ordered to return to the ship. Lutwidge's later version, in 1809, reported that Nelson and a companion had given chase to the bear, but on being questioned why, replied that "I wished, Sir, to get the skin for my father."

Nelson briefly returned to Triumph after the expedition's return to Britain in September 1773. Suckling then arranged for his transfer to HMS Seahorse, one of two ships about to sail for the East Indies.


Captain Horatio Nelson, painted by John Francis Rigaud in 1781, with Fort San Juan—the scene of his most notable achievement to date—in the background. The painting itself was begun and nearly finished prior to the battle, when Nelson held the rank of lieutenant; when Nelson returned, the artist added the new captain's gold-braided sleeves.
Nelson sailed for the East Indies on 19 November 1773 and arrived at the British outpost at Madras on 25 May 1774. Nelson and Seahorse spent the rest of the year cruising off the coast and escorting merchantmen. With the outbreak of the First Anglo-Maratha War, the British fleet operated in support of the East India Company and in early 1775 Seahorse was dispatched to carry a cargo of the company's money to Bombay. On 19 February, two of Hyder Ali's ketches attacked Seahorse, which drove them off after a brief exchange of fire. This was Nelson's first experience of battle. The rest of the year he spent escorting convoys, during which he continued to develop his navigation and ship handling skills. In early 1776 Nelson contracted malaria and became seriously ill. He was discharged from Seahorse on 14 March and returned to England aboard HMS Dolphin. Nelson spent the six-month voyage recuperating and had almost recovered by the time he arrived in Britain in September 1776. His patron, Suckling, had risen to the post of Comptroller of the Navy in 1775, and used his influence to help Nelson gain further promotion. Nelson was appointed acting lieutenant aboard HMS Worcester, which was about to sail to Gibraltar.

Worcester, under the command of Captain Mark Robinson, sailed as a convoy escort on 3 December and returned with another convoy in April 1777. Nelson then travelled to London to take his lieutenant's examination on 9 April; his examining board consisted of Captains John Campbell, Abraham North, and his uncle, Maurice Suckling. Nelson passed, and the next day received his commission and an appointment to HMS Lowestoffe, which was preparing to sail to Jamaica under Captain William Locker. She sailed on 16 May, arrived on 19 July, and after reprovisioning, carried out several cruises in Caribbean waters. After the outbreak of the American War of Independence Lowestoffe took several prizes, one of which was taken into Navy service as the tender Little Lucy. Nelson asked for and was given command of her, and took her on two cruises of his own. As well as giving him his first taste of command, it gave Nelson the opportunity to explore his fledgling interest in science. During his first cruise, Nelson led an expeditionary party to the Caicos Islands, where he made detailed notes of the wildlife and in particular a bird – now believed to be the white-necked jacobin. Locker, impressed by Nelson's abilities, recommended him to the new commander-in-chief at Jamaica, Sir Peter Parker. Parker duly took Nelson onto his flagship, HMS Bristol. The entry of the French into the war, in support of the Americans, meant further targets for Parker's fleet and it took many prizes towards the end of 1778, which brought Nelson an estimated £400 in prize money. Parker appointed him as Master and Commander of the brig HMS Badger on 8 December.

Nelson and Badger spent most of 1779 cruising off the Central American coast, ranging as far as the British settlements at British Honduras (now Belize), and Nicaragua, but without much success at interception of enemy prizes. On his return to Port Royal he learned that Parker had promoted him to post-captain on 11 June, and intended to give him another command. Nelson handed over the Badger to Cuthbert Collingwood while he awaited the arrival of his new ship, the 28-gun frigate HMS Hinchinbrook, newly captured from the French. While Nelson waited, news reached Parker that a French fleet under the command of Charles Hector, comte d'Estaing, was approaching Jamaica. Parker hastily organized his defences and placed Nelson in command of Fort Charles, which covered the approaches to Kingston. D'Estaing instead headed north, and the anticipated invasion never materialised. Nelson duly took command of the Hinchinbrook on 1 September.

Hinchinbrook sailed from Port Royal on 5 October 1779 and, in company with other British ships, proceeded to capture a number of American prizes. On his return to Jamaica in December, Nelson began to be troubled by a recurrent attack of malaria, but remained in the West Indies in order to take part in Major-General John Dalling's attempt to capture the Spanish colonies in Central America, including an assault on the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception, also called Castillo Viejo, on the San Juan River in Nicaragua. Hinchinbrook sailed from Jamaica in February 1780, as an escort for Dalling's invasion force. After sailing up the mouth of the San Juan River, Nelson, with some one thousand men and four small four-pounder cannon, obtained the surrender of Castillo Viejo and its 160 Spanish defenders after a two-week siege. The British blew up the fort when they evacuated six months later after suffering many deaths due to disease and Nelson was praised for his efforts. Parker recalled Nelson and gave him command of the 44-gun frigate HMS Janus. Nelson had however fallen seriously ill in the jungles of Costa Rica, probably from a recurrence of malaria, and was unable to take command. During his time of convalescence he was nursed by a black "doctoress" named Cubah Cornwallis, the mistress of a fellow captain, William Cornwallis. He was discharged in August and returned to Britain aboard HMS Lion, arriving in late November. Nelson gradually recovered over several months, and soon began agitating for a command. He was appointed to the frigate HMS Albemarleon 15 August 1781.

much more of his life in wikipedia ......


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horatio_Nelson,_1st_Viscount_Nelson
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
29 September 1792 – French 80-gun ship Deux Frères was renamed as HMS Juste


Deux Frères (literally Two Brothers) was an 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy.

1024px-Deux_vaisseaux_francais_capturés_au_combat_de_Prairial_en_1794.jpg
This print is one of a series depicting the six French ships captured by the British fleet under Admiral Lord Howe at the Battle of the First of June, 1794, which took place 400 (nautical) miles west of the French island of Ushant. This plate, the first in the series, portrays L'Amerique (America, 74 guns), left, and Le Juste (80 guns) from their stern quarter at anchor at Spithead, the port to which Howe returned with his six prizes after the battle.

She was funded by a don des vaisseaux donation from the two brothers of King Louis XVI. The ship was laid down at Brest in July 1782, and launched on 17 September 1784, based on a design by Antoine Groignard, and built by Jacques-Augustin Lamothe. On 29 September 1792, she was renamed Juste.

HMS Queen Charlotte captured Juste at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794. Captain William Cayley commissioned her in the Royal Navy as HMS Juste in August 1795. In October Captain the Honourable Thomas Pakenham replaced Cayley and commissioned Juste for service in the Channel. Captain Sir Henry Trollope replaced Pakenham in June 1799. In 1801 she was commanded by Captains Herbert Sawyer, Richard Dacres — under whom she took part in Rear-Admiral Robert Calder's pursuit of Honoré Ganteaume's fleet to the West Indies — and Sir Edmund Nagle.

Fate
In April 1802 Juste was laid up in ordinary at Plymouth. Juste was broken up there in February 1811


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ship_Deux_Frères
 

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29 September 1808 - HMS Maria gun brig, Lieut. James Bennett (Killed in Action), captured by French corvette Departement des Landes (22) off Point Antigua, Grand Terre, Guadeloupe. The French ran her on shore and left her a wreck.


HMS Maria was a gun-brig the Royal Navy purchased in 1807 and commissioned at Antigua in 1808. On 29 September 1808 the French corvette Départment des Landes captured her. The French burnt Maria in February 1809 at Martinique to prevent her recapture.

History
The Royal Navy commissioned her at Antigua in the West Indies in April 1808 under the command of Lieutenant James Bennett.

Action of 29 September
On 29 September she was sailing off Guadeloupe when she encountered the French corvette Départment des Landes, of 22 guns (sixteen 24-pounder carronades, four 12-pounder guns, and two 9-pounder guns on the quarterdeck), plus a large swivel on the forecastle. Départment des Landes had a crew of at least 160 men and boys, commanded by Captain Joseph-François Raoul.

Unable to maneuver, Maria took two broadsides. The French called on Bennett to surrender, which he refused. Three grapeshot from the next broadside killed him. The master, Joseph Dyason, then continued the combat but eventually had to strike. Maria had suffered six men killed, including Bennett, and nine wounded. The French had suffered at most a couple of men wounded. After the French had gotten all their prisoners off Maria, the prize crew had to run her aground at Guadeloupe to prevent her from sinking due to the damage she had sustained. The French provided a cartel to Dominica to permit Dyason to report the loss to Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane.

French service
The French later refloated Maria and took her into the French Navy under her existing name. The French burnt her at Martinique in February 1809 to prevent the British from capturing her during their invasion of Martinique.


Départment des Landes was a corvette of the French Navy, launched in 1804. She was damaged in 1814 and subsequently decommissioned. She was finally broken up around 1829-30.

Origins
Départment des Landes was built to a design by Pierre Rolland (cadet). The Ministry of Marine originally ordered her on 21 February 1803 under the name Égérie. However, on 13 August the Département des Landes offered to give the government a corvette. The Ministry ordered a corvette that day at Bayonne, but on 20 January 1804 cancelled the order. Instead, the Department took responsibility for the payment to complete Égérie, and the corvette was named for the Department.

Career
On 19 July 1805 Départment des Landes was part of a squadron of four vessels under François-André Baudin that captured HMS Blanche off Puerto Rico, three days after they had left Martinique. The other three were the 40-gun French frigate Topaze, the 18-gun corvette Torche, and the 16-gun Faune.

On 14 August, the 74-gun, third rate Goliath was in the Channel Fleet when she saw a sail to eastward and three sail to westward. The lone sail was Faune, which trailed behind her squadron and had lost contact with it. Goliath sailed east, meeting up with HMS Camilla and assisting her in chasing and capturing Faune, which struck when the much more powerful Goliath came in range.

The three remaining ships proceeded, but on the 16th, Torche was lagging behind and in danger of behind caught by Goliath, which had been joined by HMS Raisonnable. Deeming that waiting for Torche entailed accepting battle against the overwhelming British forces, Baudin ordered his squadron to take whatever actions were necessary for their security. Goliath caught up with Torche, which struck after a few shots from Goliath. Topaze and Départment-des-Landes escaped.

On 29 September Départment des Landes,under the command of Captain Joseph-François Raoul,[8] was sailing off Guadeloupe when she encountered HMS Maria, a gun-brig of 16 guns.

Unable to maneuver, Maria took two broadsides. The French called on Lieutenant James Bennett, Maria's captain, to surrender. He refused and three grapeshot from the next broadside killed him. The master, Joseph Dyason, then continued the combat but eventually had to strike. Maria had suffered six men killed, including Bennett, and nine wounded. The French had suffered at most a couple of men wounded. After the French had gotten all their prisoners off Maria, the prize crew had to run her aground to prevent her from sinking due to the damage she had sustained. The French provided a cartel to Dominica to permit Dyason to report the loss to Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane. The French later refloated Maria and she was taken into the French Navy under her existing name.

Fate
Départment des Landes was entering Brest on 13 September 1814 when she struck a rock. She was refloated but did not sail again. The French Navy decommissioned her on 30 November. She was condemned at Brest in 1820 and removed from the list of active warships. The Ministry of Marine ordered her broken up on 29 October 1829. She was subsequently broken up between December 1829 and February 1830.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Maria_(1807)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_corvette_Départment_des_Landes_(1804)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
Other Events on 29 September


1704 – Launch of french Parfaite, 40 guns Sylvie-class frigate at Toulon – wrecked November 1718 off Cyprus.

Sylvie class, designed by François Coulomb with 22 x 12-pounder, 16 x 6-pounder and 2 x 4-pounder guns:
Sistership: Sylvie, 40 guns, purchased on the stocks for the Navy and launched 30 November 1703 at Toulon – sold 1706.


1712 - Battle of Rügen .By the outbreak of the Great Northern War General-Admiral Gyldenløve and the fleet were ready for the confrontation, but to no avail. The allied fleets of Sweden, Britain and the Dutch Republic sailed into the Øresund, and, since they severely outnumbered the Danish fleet (61 ships of the line against 21), prevented the Danish fleet from interdicting the Swedish troop transports. Under the cover of these combined fleets, Charles XII of Sweden put troops ashore and bombarded Copenhagen, thus ending the early Danish participation in the Great Northern War.

Gyldenløve's fleet which succeeded in destroying a large number of Swedish transport ships at Rügen on 29 September 1712

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Tordenskjold
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulrik_Christian_Gyldenløve,_Count_of_Samsø
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seeschlacht_vor_Rügen_(1712)


1760 - a xebecca the Cavalla Bianca ( Ottoman Empire) wrecked on Chimney Rocks, Penzance. The crew of Algerian corsairs and Turkish soldiers were delighted to find they were wrecked in Cornwall rather than Spain and they were repatriated to Algiers aboard a British warship. Davies Gilbert retells a contemporary account from witnesses of the Algerine cosair running aground a little further to the west on the beach towards Newlyn. The captain thought the ship was in the Atlantic Ocean at about the latitude of Cádiz. Eight of those onboard drowned


1784 – Launch of spanish Santa Ana 112 guns at Ferrol - Stricken 1812[7]

Santa Ana class (also called los Meregildos)


1795 - HMS Southampton (32) engaged Vestale.

HMS Southampton was the name ship of the 32-gun Southampton-class fifth-rate frigates of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1757 and served for more than half a century until wrecked in 1812.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Southampton_(1757)


1803 – Birth of Mercator Cooper, American captain and explorer (d. 1872)

Mercator Cooper (September 29, 1803[1] – spring 1872) was a ship's captain who is credited with the first formal American visit to Edo (now Tokyo), Japan and the first formal landing on the mainland East Antarctica.
Both events occurred while sailing ships out of Sag Harbor, New York.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercator_Cooper


1803 - Boats of HMS Antelope (50), Commodore Sir Sidney Smith, reconnoitre the enemy fleet in the Texel. At daylight they were pursued by two schooners and five rowing gun vessels and, when the latter became separated, they attacked and sank one before the cutters could reach them.

HMS Antelope (1802) was a 50-gun fourth rate launched in 1802. She was used as a troopship from 1818, was placed on harbour service from 1824 and was broken up in 1845.


1803 - HMS Leda (38), Cptn. Robert Honeyman, drove ashore 2 gun-vessels off Boulogne.

On 29 September Captain Honyman and his squadron attacked a division of 26 enemy gun boats. The engagement lasted several hours until the gunboats took refuge off the pier in Boulogne. Honyman wanted to have his bomb vessels engage them, but winds and tide were unfavorable. The next day 25 more French gunboats arrived. However, before they could join the division that had arrived the night before, the British were able to drive two on shore where they were wrecked. The British suffered no casualties or material damage though a shell did explode in Leda's hold. Fortunately, this did little damage and caused no casualties.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Leda_(1800)


1806 – East Indiaman Britannia launched

Britannia was launched in 1806 as an East Indiaman for the British East India Company. She made only one voyage for the company before a gale wrecked her in January 1809.
Captain Jonathan Birch received a letter of marque on 3 November 1806. He sailed Britannia from Portsmouth on 26 February 1807, bound for Bombay and China. He returned from that voyage on 1 July 1808.
Birch and Britannia were in the Downs on 24 January 1809, prior to setting out on a second voyage to the east, this time to Madras and China.
The next day, 25 January, a howling gale tore her from her moorings off Deal, Kent and she wrecked on the Goodwin Sands off the South Foreland. Seven of her crew drowned. The EIC valued her cargo at £57,091; the total loss, vessel plus cargo, was £117,820.
The gale also wrecked the Indiaman Admiral Gardner and the brig Apollo. Only one man of Apollo's crew of 20 survived. Boatmen from Deal were able to rescue almost the entire crew from Admiral Gardner. A few days later Lloyd's List reported that all three wrecked vessels had gone to pieces.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Britannia_(1806_EIC_ship)


1812 - HMS Barbadoes (28), Cptn. Thomas Huskisson, and 2 of the convoy she was escorting wrecked on Sable Island, Bermuda.

HMS Barbadoes (1804), a fifth rate frigate, formerly the French privateer Braave


1812 - Capture of 4 French vessels at Valencia by HMS Minstrel (18), John Strutt Peyton.


1812 - Attack on Mittau, Riga by flotilla of Russian and British gunboats.


1825 – Launch of French Surveillante, 60 gun frigate

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveillante-class_frigate


1829 - USS Hornet (20) lost in gale of Tampico, Mexico


1829 - The brig-sloop USS Hornet is driven from her anchorage off Tampico, Mexico by a gale. She is never seen again and her crew of 140 is lost.

The third USS Hornet was a brig-rigged (later ship-rigged) sloop-of-war in the United States Navy. During the War of 1812, she was the first U.S. Navy ship to capture a British vessel.

USS_Hornet_(1805,_brig).jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Hornet_(1805)


1854 - The sloop-of-war USS Albany departs Aspinwall, Columbia (now Colon, Panama) for New York with a crew of 193. She is never seen again.

USS Albany, the first United States Navy ship of that name, was built in the 1840s for the US Navy. The ship was among the last of the wooden sloops powered by sail and saw extensive service in the Mexican War. Before and after her combat service, Albany conducted surveillance and observation missions throughout the Caribbean. In September 1854, during a journey along the coast of Venezuela, Albany was lost with all hands on 28 or 29 September 1854. Included among the 250 men lost were several sons and grandsons of politically prominent men.

1024px-Albany-sloop-Currier-Ives.jpeg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Albany_(1846)


1863 – Launch of USS Kansas gunboat

USS Kansas (1863) was a gunboat constructed for the Union Navy during the middle of the American Civil War. She was outfitted with heavy guns and assigned to the Union blockade of the waterways of the Confederate States of America. She was the first U.S. Navy ship to be named Kansas and was the first of a class of 836-ton screw steam gunboats, At war's end, she continued serving her country by performing survey work and defending American interests in Cuba until sold in 1883.

USS_Kansas_rev.jpg
USS Kansas on the James River, Virginia, circa February–April 1865. Note her white smokestack, and three officers seated on shore.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Kansas_(1863)


1906 - USS Connecticut (BB 18) is commissioned. During World War I, USS Connecticut is employed as a training ship off the United States East Coast and in the Chesapeake Bay. In the first half of 1919, she serves as a transport, making four trans-Atlantic voyages to bring home veterans from France.

USS Connecticut (BB-18), the fourth United States Navy ship to be named after the state of Connecticut, was the lead ship of her class of six battleships. Her keel was laid on 10 March 1903; launched on 29 September 1904, Connecticut was commissioned on 29 September 1906 as the most advanced ship in the U.S. Navy.

USS_Connecticut_BB-18_underway.jpg
Connecticut underway sometime before World War I

Connecticut served as the flagship for the Jamestown Exposition in mid-1907, which commemorated the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Jamestown colony. She later sailed with the Great White Fleet on a circumnavigation of the Earth to showcase the US Navy's growing fleet of blue-water-capable ships. After completing her service with the Great White Fleet, Connecticut participated in several flag-waving exercises intended to protect American citizens abroad until she was pressed into service as a troop transport at the end of World War I to expedite the return of American Expeditionary Forces from France.

For the remainder of her career, Connecticut sailed to various places in both the Atlantic and Pacific while training newer recruits to the Navy. However, the provisions of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty stipulated that many of the older battleships, Connecticut among them, would have to be disposed of, so she was decommissioned on 1 March 1923 and sold for scrap on 1 November 1923.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)


1917 – Launch of HMS Syringa, a Anchusa-class sloop

The twenty-eight Anchusa-class sloops were built under the Emergency War Programme for the Royal Navy in World War I as the final part of the larger "Flower class", which were also referred to as the "Cabbage class", or "Herbaceous Borders".
They were single screw fleet sweeping vessels (sloops) with triple hulls at the bow to give extra protection against loss when working.
The Anchusa class of corvettes or convoy sloops were completed in 1917 and 1918. They were a small class of convoy protection ships built to look like merchant ships for use as Q-ships in World War I.
Two members of the Anchusa group, HMS Chrysanthemum and HMS Saxifrage (renamed HMS President in 1922), survived to be moored on the River Thames for use as Drill Ships by the RNVR until 1988, a total of seventy years in RN service. HMS President (1918) was sold and preserved, and is now one of the last three surviving warships of the Royal Navy built during the First World War, (along with the 1914 Light cruiser HMS Caroline in Belfast, and the 1915 Monitor HMS M33 in Portsmouth dockyard).

One of the class, the HMS President is still existing

1024px-20040918-027-thames-ship.jpg
HMS President on the River Thames in London

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anchusa-class_sloop


1936 - Battle of Cape Espartel

The Battle of Cape Spartel (Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican destroyers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_Espartel


1956 - Launch of USS Ranger (CV-61), Forrestal-class carrier

The seventh USS Ranger (CV/CVA-61) was one of four Forrestal-class supercarriers built for the United States Navy in the 1950s. Although all four ships of the class were completed with angled decks, Ranger had the distinction of being the first US carrier built from the beginning as an angled-deck ship.
Commissioned in 1957, she served extensively in the Pacific, especially the Vietnam War, for which she earned 13 battle stars. Near the end of her career, she also served in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf.
Ranger appeared on television in The Six Million Dollar Man and Baa Baa Black Sheep, and in the films Top Gun, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (standing in for the carrier Enterprise), and Flight of the Intruder.
Ranger was decommissioned in 1993, and was stored at Bremerton, Washington until March 2015. She was then moved to Brownsville for scrapping, which was completed in November 2017.

800px-USS_Ranger_(CV-61)_departing_San_Diego,_in_February_1987_(NH_97689-KN).jpg
USS Ranger (CV-61) departing from San Diego, 1987

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Ranger_(CV-61)
 

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28/29 September 1780 at 11pm - danish Printz Friderich (1761) run aground east of Laesoe and the disaster begun

Friderich1.jpg

stay tuned - you will see more in short time
 

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30 September 1652 – English ship Antelope wrecked off Jutland


The Antelope was a 56-gun great frigate of the navy of the Commonwealth of England, launched at Woolwich Dockyard in 1652. Notwithstanding the term "frigate", this was the largest of the warships ordered by the Commonwealth, and was eventually classed as a second rate.

The Antelope was fitted out in July 1652, and sailed from Woolwich in August. She was commissioned under Captain Andrew Ball, and deployed to the Danish coast to convoy merchantmen from the Sound. She sailed for home on 27 September but was wrecked off Jutland at around 3 o'clock in the morning of 30 September 1652, in bad weather. Most of her crew were saved.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_ship_Antelope_(1651)
 

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30 September 1681 - Action of 30 September 1681 near Cape St Vincent - a victory for the Spanish over Brandenburg


The Action of 30 September 1681 was a 2-hour fight that took place on 30 September 1681 near Cape St Vincent, and was a victory for the Spanish over Brandenburg, which suffered 10 dead and 30 wounded.

Kurbrandenburgi_Navy.jpg
The Brandenburg Navy on the Open Sea; (vorn links die Friedrich Wilhelm zu Pferde, im Bildhintergrund links außen die Berlin, in der Bildmitte vorn die Jacht des Kurfürsten, zwischen der Friedrich Wilhelm zu Pferde und der kurfürstlichen Jacht das Heck der Dorothea und die Rother Löwe, rechts im Vordergrund die Markgraf von Brandenburg, und ganz rechts die Kurprinz)

The Action
The Brandenburg squadron, mistakenly believing to have encountered a Spanish convoy of merchant ships returning fully laden with precious metals, spices, and luxuries from the Americas, attacked the far superior Spanish warship squadron that had been sent out in search of the suspected raiders, but retreated into the safety of the Portuguese port of Lagos when their mistake became clear. While the Branderburgers repaired their damage in Lagos, the Spanish merchant convoy safely slipped into Cádiz.

Ships involved
Spain
Brandenburg (Adlers)
  • Markgraf von Brandenburg 50 guns (formerly Spanish Carolus Secundus, captured the previous year)
  • Fuchs 20 guns
  • Rother Löwe 20 guns
  • Einhorn 12 guns
  • Prinzess Maria 12 guns
  • Wasserhund 10 guns
Total : 6 ships, 124 guns.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_30_September_1681
 

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30 September 1757 – Launch of HMS Actaeon, a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate frigate


HMS Actaeon was a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Her crewing complement was 200 and, when fully equipped, she was armed with 24 nine-pounder cannons, supported by four three-pounders and twelve 1⁄2-pounder swivel guns.

Carysfort_cropped.jpg
Actaeon was built to the same design as HMS Carysfort, (pictured)

Construction
Actaeon was designed by Sir Thomas Slade, a naval architect and newly appointed Surveyor of the Navy. Slade's plans specified construction of a 28-gun sixth-rate, one of 19 vessels forming part of the Coventry-class of frigates. As with others in her class she was loosely modelled on the design and dimensions of HMS Tartar, launched in 1756 and responsible for capturing five French privateers in her first twelve months at sea. The vessel was part of a second batch in the Coventry-class, with design modifications including a square stern and a hull made from fir rather than oak. The use of fir was an experiment in ship design. Admiralty expected that fir-built craft would be cheaper and quicker Rocco strict, and might also sail more swiftly in light winds. The disadvantages of fir were a propensity to rot faster than oak, and a tendency to splinter when impacted by cannon fire.

Orders from Admiralty to build the Coventry-class vessels were made after the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, and at a time in which the Royal Dockyards were fully engaged in constructing or fitting-out the Navy's ships of the line. Consequently, and despite some Navy Board misgivings, contracts for Coventry-class vessels were intended to be issued to private shipyards, with an emphasis on rapid completion of the task. However only one offer was received, from shipwright Thomas Stanton of Rotherhithe, and Admiralty rejected his fee of £9.0 per ton burthen as being too high for a fir-built ship. Instead, Admiralty directed the Navy Board to make room for building Actaeon at Chatham Royal Dockyard, with the work ultimately assigned to Chatham's master shipwright John Lock. The keel was laid down 26 May 1757 and work proceeded swiftly, with the vessel ready to be launched by 30 September.

Design and crew
As built, Actaeon was 118 ft 2.75 in (36.0 m) long with a 97 ft 3 in (29.6 m) keel, a beam of 33 ft 7.5 in (10.249 m), and a hold depth of 10 ft 6 in (3.2 m).[4]She was the smallest vessel in the Coventry-class, measuring 584 81⁄94 tons burthen compared to an average of 590 tons. Construction and fit-out cost £11,228.17s, including provision of 24 nine-pounder cannons located along her gun deck, supported by four three-pounder cannons on the quarterdeckand twelve 1⁄2-pounder swivel guns ranged along her sides.

She was named in July 1757 after Actaeon, a hero from Greek mythology. The choice of name followed a trend initiated in 1748 by John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, in his capacity as First Lord of the Admiralty, of using figures from classical antiquity as descriptors for naval vessels. A total of six Coventry-class vessels were named in this manner; a further ten were named after geographic features including regions, English or Irish rivers, or towns.

In sailing qualities Actaeon was broadly comparable with French frigates of equivalent size, but with a shorter and sturdier hull and greater weight in her broadside guns. She was also comparatively broad-beamed with ample space for provisions and the ship's mess, and incorporating a large magazine for powder and round shot. Taken together, these characteristics would enable Actaeon to remain at sea for long periods without resupply. She was also built with broad and heavy masts, which balanced the weight of her hull, improved stability in rough weather and made her capable of carrying a greater quantity of sail. The disadvantages of this comparatively heavy design were a decline in manoeuvrability and slower speed, somewhat mitigated by the lightness of her fir-built frame.

Her designated complement was 200, comprising two commissioned officers – a captain and a lieutenant – overseeing 40 warrant and petty officers, 91 naval ratings, 38 Marines and 29 servants and other ranks. Among these other ranks were four positions reserved for widow's men – fictitious crew members whose pay was intended to be reallocated to the families of sailors who died at sea.

Naval career
Commissioning
Actaeon was commissioned in September 1757 under Captain Michael Clements. It was Clements' first independent command, though he had distinguished himself six months earlier as first lieutenant aboard HMS Unicorn, taking control of that vessel upon the death of its captain, and guiding it to victory over two French privateers. His first duties aboard Actaeon were to oversee her fitting out at Chatham Dockyard, and to gather a crew so that she could put to sea. The fitout proceeded apace and was completed by the end of the year but there were difficulties with the crew; as a new captain aboard a new vessel, Clements struggled to attract skilled seafarers as volunteers and was forced to content himself with what could be supplied by the press gang. He was disappointed with the outcome, noting in a letter to Admiralty that only twelve among Actaeon's two hundred men had sufficient experience to competently handle the sails. Discipline was also an issue; with Clements forced to publicly deny allegations that one of Actaeon's marines was visibly drunk on duty.

Basque Roads

The Basque Roads off La Rochelle: scene of Actaeon's first enemy engagement in 1757

Actaeon finally put to sea in early March 1758, and was assigned to protect a flotilla of British troopships en route to Senegal as part of a British expedition to seize France's African possessions. In late March, she was reassigned to a ten-vessel squadron under Admiral Edward Hawke, which was hunting French merchant convoys near the port of Rochefort. One such convoy was sighted near the Île de Ré on April 4, but escaped before the British could draw near. However, later that day a second convoy was discovered in the nearby Basque Roads, comprising seven French naval vessels and forty merchant craft. Hawke ordered his squadron to engage but the water was too shallow for any of his ships to draw near; for their part the French made sail to flee towards the port of La Rochelle. In their haste, a number of the French vessels ran aground and could only be refloated after their crews had thrown their guns and stores overboard. The French marked the locations of this discarded equipment with buoys, but these were removed by Actaeon's crew. Around 80 buoys were destroyed before the ebbing tide forced the British boats away from the shore.

The destruction of the buoys represented Actaeon's only engagement of the expedition; but the loss of this large quantity of equipment represented a setback to the French war effort. Hawke subsequently returned to England, leaving Actaeon and five other vessels from the squadron to hold position outside the Basque Roads. While on this station, Clements observed that the routine business of cleaning of Actaeon's fir-built hull had left the planking "extremely ragged" despite only one year at sea.

Blockade duty
Actaeon finally departed the Basque Roads in June 1758, joining a squadron of 22 ships of the line, under Admiral George Anson, which was loosely blockading the port of Brest. The French fleet at Brest remained in port, and Acateon was able to roam along the coastline in search of privateers. In mid-July she secured her first enemy capture when, in company with the 64-gun Alcide, she forced the surrender of the 24-gun French privateer Le Robuste. Elements of Anson's squadron returned to Plymouth by 19 July, with Actaeon remaining off Brest with a smaller flotilla under Admiral Charles Saunders.

On 23 November she was close to the shore when her crew sighted a French fleet comprising five ships of the line, five frigates and around sixty merchant vessels, attempting to escape the blockade. Clements immediately made sail to alert Saunders, but the French vessels passed out of sight before the message was delivered. Saunders gave orders for a general chase in the direction the French had gone, but there was no sign. The British hunt was further delayed when Clements mistakenly signaled pursuit of a distant group of ships, which proved on close inspection to be from unaligned Spain. The British squadron returned to Brest, but the blockade was subsequently abandoned as several ships were in need of repair or resupply. Actaeon returned to England in company with the squadron, making port in December 1758.

In early 1759 command of the frigate passed to Captain Maximilian Jacobs, and in November to Captain Paul Ourry. Actaeon was then joined to a squadron under the overall command of Admiral George Rodney, stationed in the English Channel. On 8 November, Actaeon succeeded in capturing two more prizes; the 12-gun privateer Le Phoenix in November, and the privateer La Grivois a month later.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Actaeon_(1757)
 

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30 September 1780 - HMS Pearl (32), Cptn George Montagu, took French frigate Esperance (28) off Bermuda.


The Action of 30 September 1780 was a minor naval engagement off the Bermudas, where HMS Pearl captured the L'Espérance, a French frigate of 32 guns launched in 1779.


large (1).jpg
Shortly after commissioning the British ship ‘Pearl’ Captain George Montagu was cruising off Fayal in the Azores when early in the morning he saw and chased a sail. After several hours he was able to open fire and a two hour fight ensued. The other ship eventually struck and it turned out to be the Spanish frigate ‘Santa Monica’. Though the Spanish ship was less strongly armed, Montagu’s crew was very raw since only ten of the men having been in a man-of-war before. In the painting, the ‘Pearl’ is in the centre foreground and is shown in the process of raking the ‘Santa Monica’ in the left of the picture. In the right distance are two more British frigates. The painting is signed ‘Tho. Whitcombe 1805’.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/12192.html#rpKw3a2m4JKWLwF0.99

HMS Pearl under the command of George Montagu was sent out to North America, and on 30 September 1780, soon encountered a frigate off the Bermudas. As Pearl closed Montagu cleared for action and engaged close for two hours, then maintained a running fight for a further two hours and more when the frigate struck.

The prize turned out to be the French frigate L'Espérance of about 850 tons of thirty two guns consisting of twelve and six pounders, nearly 200 men and with a valuable cargo heading from Cape Francois to Bordeaux. L'Espérance lost 20 killed and 24 wounded as well as the crew & marines captured, while Pearl's losses were six killed and ten wounded. The captured French frigate was put into Royal Naval service and renamed HMS Clinton.


HMS Pearl was a 32-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Niger-class in the Royal Navy. Launched at Chatham Dockyard in 1762, she served in British North America until January 1773, when she sailed to England for repairs. Returning to North America in March 1776, to fight in the American Revolutionary War, Pearl escorted the transports which landed troops in Kip's Bay that September. Towards the end of 1777, she joined Richard Howe's fleet in Narragansett Bay and was still there when the French fleet arrived and began an attack on British positions. Both fleets were forced to retire due to bad weather and the action was inconclusive. Pearl was then dispatched to keep an eye on the French fleet, which had been driven into Boston.

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Pearl was present when the British captured the island of St Lucia in December 1778 and was chosen to carry news of the victory to England, capturing the 28-gun frigate Santa Monica off the Azores on her return journey. Pearl joined Admiral Marriot Arbuthnot's squadron in July 1780, capturing the 28-gun frigate Esperance while stationed off Bermuda in September and, in the following March, took part in the first battle of Virginia Capes, where she had responsibility for relaying signals. At the end of the war in 1782, Pearl returned to England where she underwent extensive repairs and did not serve again until 1786, when she was recommissioned for the Mediterranean.

Taken out of service in 1792, Pearl was recalled in February 1793, when hostilities resumed between Britain and France. On her return to America, she narrowly escaped capture by a French squadron anchored between the Îles de Los and put into Sierra Leone for repairs following the engagement. In 1799, Pearl joined George Elphinstone's fleet in the Mediterranean where she took part in the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. In 1802, she sailed to Portsmouth where she served as a slop ship and a receiving ship before being sold in 1832.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_30_September_1780
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
30 September 1785 – Launch of HMS Circe, a 28 gun Enterprise-class frigate


HMS Circe was a 28-gun Enterprise-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1785 but not completed or commissioned until 1790. She then served in the English Channel on the blockade of French ports before she was wrecked in 1803.

large (2).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines and longitudinal half breadth for Pomona (1778), then Pegasus (1779), then Mercury (1779), and wih pencil alterations for Hussar (1784), Rose (1783), Dido (1784), Thisbe (1783), Alligator (1787), Circe (1783), Lapwing (1785), all 28-gun, Sixth Rate Frigates. Signed by John Williams [Surveyor of the Navy, 171765-1784]. The top ship is not 'Laurel' as listed in the annotation on the right, as this plan predates her ordering by over one year.
Read more at http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/83173.html#kXOoUhlajulK3PYd.99

Career
The Circe was first commissioned in September 1790 under the command of Captain George Oakes. She was paid off in October 1791. Captain A. H. Gardiner commissioned her in April 1792.

French Revolutionary Wars
Joseph Sydney Yorke was promoted to post-captain on 4 February 1793 and given command of Circe, then part of a squadron under Admiral Richard Howe. He patrolled off the French port of Brest. In March Circe took the French ships Diane, Vaudreuil and Jeune Felix. Circe shared the prize money for Diane and Vaudreuil with Druid. On 18 March Circe captured the Danish brig Pelican.

Then in May Circe took the French privateers Didon (or Dido) and Auguste (or 1 Auguste).[5] Didon was armed with 14 guns and had a crew of 100 men. Auguste was armed with 18 and had a crew of 160. Lastly, Circe captured the privateer Coureur (or Courier), of 10 guns and 84 men. She shared with Aimable in the prize money for Courier, which they had captured on 26 May.

With Nymphe, Circe captured the corvette L'Espiegle on 20 November. Espiegle was pierced for 16 guns, and was manned with 100 men under the command of Mons. Pierre Biller, Enseign de Vaisseau.[8] The Royal Navy took Espiegle into service under her existing name.

Circe played a minor, supporting role at the Action of 20 October 1793 and consequently shared with Crescent in the prize money for Réunion.[9] At some point Circe and Phaeton recaptured the brig Venus and sloop Ant, "laden with Butter". On 24 May 1794, Circe recaptured the brig Perseverance, while in company with the rest of the squadron under the command of Rear-Admiral Montagu.

In October 1794 Captain Peter Halkett took command of Circe. In May 1797, due to the exertions of her officers, Circe's crew did not join the Spithead and Nore mutinies. Halkett received orders to put out to sea, which he did, leaving Yarmouth and sailing, together with some hired armed vessels to protect merchant trade. He continued to cruise until his supplies were almost exhausted and then he sailed Circeinto the Humber. He then waited at Hull until the mutiny was over. Halkett received the "thanks of the Admiralty and the freedom of the town of Hull for the conduct of his ship during the alarming period." On 23 August 1795, Circe captured the Swedish corn vessel, Auguste Adolphe, in the North Sea.

In October 1797 Circe was part of the squadron under Sir Henry Trollope that was at the Texel to watch the Dutch fleet. On 11 October Circe served to repeat signals for the Starboard or Weather Division under Admiral Adam Duncan at the Battle of Camperdown. On 12 February 1798 £120,000 in prize money resulting from the sale of Dutch ships captured on 11 October 1797 was due for payment. In 1847 the surviving members of the crews of all the British vessels at the battle qualified for the NGSM with the clasp "Camperdown".

In December 1797 Captain R. Winthrop replaced Halkett. On 14 May 1798 Circe sailed with Sir Home Popham's expedition to Ostend attack the sluice gates of the Bruge canal. In the early hours of the 18 May, the expedition landed in 1,300 troops under Major General Coote. The army blew up the locks and gates, but was then forced to surrender. Winthrop commanded the seamen landed from the different ships, and for getting the powder and mines up for the destruction of the locks. To signal his approbation, Home Popham had Winthrop and Circe carry back the dispatches. Circe lost two master's mates killed

Between 27 July and 29 August 1798, Circe captured five Greenland ships and six Iceland doggers.

On 4 June 1799, Circe and Jalouse recaptured the sloop Ceres. Six days later, Circe recaptured Expedition from the French. Then at the end of the month, on 26 June, Circe and the hired armed cutterCourier captured Twee Gesisters. Two days later, Winthrope sent in the boats of Circe, Jalouse, Pylades, Espiegle, and Tisiphone to cut out some gunboats at Ameland. When the British arrived, they found that their targets were pulled up on shore where the cutting out party could not reach them. The British instead took out 12 merchant vessels, six with cargoes and six in ballast, and retreated. There were no British casualties, even though Dutch shore batteries fired on the attackers.

Then on 10 July Circe was a part of a small squadron consisting of Jalouse, Espiegle, Courier, Pylades, and the hired armed cutter Nancy, all under Winthrop's command. The boats of the squadron rowed for 15 or 16 hours into the Watt at the back of Ameland. There they captured three merchant vessels carrying sugar, wine and brandy, and destroyed a galliot loaded with ordnance and stores.

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Between 18 July and 1 August, Circe, Pylades, Espiegle, Courier, and Nancy captured Marguerita Sophia, Twee Gesister, Twee Gebroders, Twee Gebroders, Jussrow Maria Christina, Vrow Henterje Marguaritha, Stadt Oldenburg, Vrow Antje, Vrow Gesina, Endraght, and the Frederick.

On 28 August 1799, Circe was at the Nieuwe Diep. There she took possession of 13 men-of-war, ranging in size from 66 guns to 24, and three Indiamen. She also took possession of the Naval Arsenal and its 95 pieces of ordnance. This was all part of the Vlieter Incident, the surrender without a fight of a squadron of the navy of the Batavian Republic, commanded by Rear-Admiral Samuel Story, during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland to the British navy on a sandbank near the Channel known as De Vlieter, near Wieringen, on 30 August.

More modestly, on 15 September Circe captured Frau Maria Decelice.

On 9 October Circe's boats captured the corvette or "Ship of War" Lynx and the schooner Perseus at the port of Delfzel on the River Ems. Lynx was armed with 12 guns and had a crew of 75 men; Perseushad eight guns and a crew of 40 men. Although the Dutch vessels' guns were loaded and primed, the Dutch apparently did not put up any resistance. The cutters Hawke and Nancy shared in the prize money.

In January 1800 Captain Isaac Wooley assumed command of Circe. On 25 June she and Venus captured the Danish vessel Carolina, which was carrying a cargo of wine from Bordeaux to Bremen.

On 17 July Circe, together with Tromp, Venus, left Portsmouth with a convoy to the West. Indies.

Between 3 August and 1 January 1801, Circe captured a number of small prizes on the Jamaica station.

  • English schooner Success, of 60 tons;
  • American schooner Automaton, of 60 tons, carrying cordage and lead;
  • Spanish schooner Susannah, of 60 tons'
  • American schooner Scorpion, of 100 tons, carrying coffee;
  • French schooner Hussar, of 15 tons carrying old iron;
  • Spanish sloop Mexicana, of 20 tons;
  • American schooner Assistance, of 110 tons, carrying coffee; and,
  • French privateer schooner Secrisua, of 90 tons.
In July 1802 Captain J. Hayes replace Wooley.

Fate
Captain Charles Fielding assumed command in June 1803. On 16 November 1803, Circe was sailing to return to her station on the blockade of France after gales had driven her into the North Sea.[35] At 3pm she struck the Lemon and Ower sandbank. Although she was able to get over the bank, she lost her rudder and her hull started to let in water. By 2am on 17 November she was able to anchor and daylight revealed that she was off the coast of Norfolk. Several fishing vessels came out of Yarmouth to help. She took the captains of two of them on board as pilots, and towing their boats, sailed for the port. However, the weather had not improved and, despite her crew's efforts at the pumps, the water in her kept rising. Fielding decided to abandon ship and at 7pm her crew transferred to the fishing vessels. The subsequent court martial blamed inaccuracies in Circe's navigation charts for her loss.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Circe_(1785)
 
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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
30 September 1787 - Robert Gray on Lady Washington and Captain John Kendrick ob the Columbia left Boston, to trade along the north Pacific coast.


On September 30, 1787, Robert Gray and Captain John Kendrick left Boston, to trade along the north Pacific coast. Captain Gray commanded Lady Washington and Captain Kendrick commanded Columbia Rediviva. They were sent by Boston merchants including Charles Bulfinch. Bulfinch and the other financial backers came up with the idea of trading pelts from the northwest coast of North America and taking them directly to China after Bulfinch had read about Captain Cook’ssuccess doing the same. Bulfinch had read Cook’s Journals, published in 1784, that in part discussed his success selling sea otter pelts in Canton, thus the American merchants thought they could copy that success. Prior to this, other America traders, such as Robert Morris, had sent ships to trade with China, notably the Empress of China in 1784, but had had trouble finding goods for which the Chinese would trade. Bulfinch’s learning of Cook's pelt-trading solved this problem, so New England sea merchants could trade with China profitably. Gray might have been the first American to visit the Northwest Coast, but Simon Metcalfe of the Eleanora may have arrived earlier—perhaps as much as a year earlier.

800px-Lady_Washington_Commencement_Bay2.jpg
original description: The replic tall ship, Lady Washington, under sail in Commencement Bay near Tacoma, Washington.

On the voyage of Kendrick and Gray, the ships' cargo included blankets, knives, iron bars, and other trade goods. Both ships had official letters from Congress and passports from Massachusetts for their trading voyage. Kendrick and Gray sailed around Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America, first stopping at the Cape Verde Islands and the Falkland Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. In January after passing Cape Horn, the ships encountered a storm that separated the two vessels and damaged the Columbia Rediviva. The damage forced Kendrick to sail for the nearest port, Juan Fernandez. Juan Fernandez was a Spanish port under the control of Don Blas Gonzalez commandant of the garrison. There, the Columbia was repaired before sailing for the northwest coast. Meanwhile, Gray reached the coast in August. Upon reaching the coast, Gray ran aground attempting to enter a river near 46°N latitude.[8] Here the ship was attacked by natives, with the ship losing one crew member before freeing itself and proceeding north.[8] On September 17, 1788, the Lady Washington with Gray in command reached Nootka Sound.

The Columbia arrived soon after and the two ships wintered at Nootka Sound. They were still in the vicinity when Esteban José Martínez arrived in early May, 1789, to assert Spanish sovereignty. A number of British merchant ships soon arrived, as well, and conflict between the Spanish and British resulted in the Nootka Crisis, which almost resulted in war between the two nations. Martínez seized a number of ships, including the Princess Royal. The two American ships were left alone, although Martínez captured a third American ship, the Fair American, when it arrived at Nootka Sound in the fall of 1789. Robert Gray witnessed much of the Nootka Incident.

Capt_Gray_Tillamook_fight.png
Gray's men battling Native Americans near Tillamook Bay

During their trading along the coastlines of what is now British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, the two explored many bays and inland waters. In 1788, Gray encountered Captain John Meares of England. Meares subsequently published reports and maps of the Pacific Northwest that included a voyage by Robert Gray through a large, imaginary inland sea between the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Dixon Entrance. When George Vancouver asked Gray about this in 1792, Gray said he never made such a voyage.


A royal Hawaiian Mahiole, or feathered helmet, collected by Gray in 1789

In 1788, Gray had attempted to enter a large river, but was unable due to the tides, this river being the Columbia River. At the outset of the voyage, Gray captained the Lady Washington and Kendrick captained the Columbia Rediviva, but the captains swapped vessels during the voyage, putting Gray in command of the Columbia. After the switch, Kendrick stayed on the North American coast, trading for pelts and furs, while Gray sailed their existing cargo of pelts to China, stopping off at the Sandwich Islands, now known as Hawaii, en route. Gray arrived in Canton in early 1790 and traded his cargo for large amounts of tea. Gray then continued on west, sailing through the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope, and across the Atlantic, arriving back in Boston on August 9, 1790. As such, the Columbia became the first American vessel to circumnavigate the globe Although the commercial venture was disappointing, Gray was paraded through Boston for the circumnavigation accomplishment. Accompanying Gray was a Hawaiiannative, dressed in traditional Hawaiian dress, who had taken passage on the Columbia. Gray then attended a reception held in his honor by governor John Hancock.

800px-Ship_Columbia_on_river.png
Sketch of the Columbia Rediviva on the river bearing her name

Also on this voyage, Kendrick and Gray were instructed to purchase as much land as they could from native Indians in the region. Kendrick did so on at least two occasions, including on August 5, 1791, when he purchased 18 sq mi (47 km2) from a native tribe, near latitude 49°50′N, this purchase occurring while Gray had completed his voyage and since returned.

The success in profits realized by this voyage had the most immediate effect of Gray's setting out for the north Pacific coast again, only six weeks after returning thence. The further effect was that other New England sea merchants began to send vessels of their own to take part in this new trade opportunity, including the dispatch of the Hope in September 1790, under the command of Joseph Ingraham, Gray's first mate on his first voyage. Within a few years, many Yankee merchants were involved in the continuous trade of pelts to China, and by 1801, 16 American vessels were engaged in this triangular route. These mercantile activities encroached upon territorial claims by other nations to this disputed region, notably those of Spain and Russia, and in the coming years, they would be used in support of American claims to the Oregon Country, and would contribute to the limiting to California and to Alaska, respectively, of the Spanish and Russian claims.

.......... read much more on wikipedia

Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – c. July, 1806) was an American merchant sea captain who is known for his achievements in connection with two trading voyages to the northern Pacific coast of North America, between 1790 and 1793, which pioneered the American maritime fur trade in that region. In the course of those voyages, Gray explored portions of that coast and, in 1790, completed the first American circumnavigation of the world. Perhaps his most remembered accomplishment from his explorations was his coming upon and then naming of the Columbia River, in 1792 while on his second voyage.

Robert_Gray.jpg

Gray's earlier and later life are both comparatively obscure. He was born in Tiverton, Rhode Island, and may have served in the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War. After his two famous voyages, he carried on his career as a sea captain, mainly of merchantmen in the Atlantic. This included what was meant to be a third voyage to the Northwest Coast, but was ended by the capture of his ship by French privateers, during the Franco-American Quasi-War, and command of an American privateer later in that same conflict. Gray died at sea in 1806, near Charleston, South Carolina, possibly of yellow fever.[2]Many geographic features along the Oregon and Washington coasts bear Gray's name, as do numerous schools in the region.


Lady Washington is a ship name shared by at least four different 80-100 ton-class Sloop-of-war and merchant sailing vessels during two different time periods. The original sailed during the American Revolutionary War and harassed British shipping. Post war, the vessel was used as a merchant trading vessel in the Pacific. A somewhat updated modern replica was created in 1989. The replica has appeared in numerous films and television shows, standing in as other real or fictional ships.

Columbia Rediviva (commonly known as Columbia) was a privately owned ship under the command of John Kendrick, along with Captain Robert Gray, best known for going to the Pacific Northwest for the maritime fur trade. "Rediviva" (Latin "revived") was added to her name upon a rebuilding in 1787. Since Columbia was privately owned, she did not carry the prefix designation "USS".

Columbia_in_a_Squall.jpg
A painting showing the Columbia Rediviva, under Captain Robert Gray, heeling as it approaches a squall. It was painted by George Davidson, the ship's artist, in 1793.

Early authorities claim the ship was built in 1773 by James Briggs at Hobart's Landing on North River, in Norwell, Massachusetts and named Columbia. Later historians say she was built in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1787. In 1790 she became the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe. During the first part of this voyage, she was accompanied by Lady Washington which served as tender for Columbia. In 1792 Captain Gray entered the Columbia River and named it after the ship. The river and its basin, in turn, lent its name to the surrounding region, and subsequently to the British colonyand Canadian province located in part of this region.

The ship was decommissioned and salvaged in 1806. A replica of Lady Washington is homeported at Grays Harbor Historical Seaport in Aberdeen, Washington.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Gray_(sea_captain)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Washington
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_Rediviva
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
30 September 1863 – Birth of Reinhard Scheer, German admiral (d. 1928)


Carl Friedrich Heinrich Reinhard Scheer (30 September 1863 – 26 November 1928) was an Admiral in the Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). Scheer joined the navy in 1879 as an officer cadet; he progressed through the ranks, commanding cruisers and battleships, as well as major staff positions on land. At the outbreak of World War I, Scheer was the commander of the II Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet. He then took command of the III Battle Squadron, which consisted of the newest and most powerful battleships in the navy. In January 1916, he was promoted to Admiral and given control of the High Seas Fleet. Scheer led the German fleet at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May–1 June 1916, one of the largest naval battles in history.

Admiral_Scheer.jpg
Reinhard Scheer

Following the battle, Scheer joined those calling for unrestricted submarine warfare against the Allies, a move the Kaiser eventually permitted. In August 1918, Scheer was promoted to the Chief of Naval Staff; Admiral Franz von Hipper replaced him as commander of the fleet. Together they planned a final battle against the British Grand Fleet, but war-weary sailors mutinied at the news and the operation was abandoned. Scheer retired after the end of the war.

A strict disciplinarian, Scheer was popularly known in the Navy as the "man with the iron mask" due to his severe appearance. In 1919, Scheer wrote his memoirs; a year later they were translated and published in English. He wrote his autobiography in 1925. Scheer died at Marktredwitz. He is buried in the municipal cemetery at Weimar. The admiral was commemorated in the renascent Kriegsmarine by the heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer, built in the 1930s.

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The German cruiser ("pocket battleship") Admiral Scheer in port at Gibraltar, circa 1936. Note the Spanish Civil War neutrality markings (red, white & black stripes) painted on her forward gun turret.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinhard_Scheer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_cruiser_Admiral_Scheer
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
30 September 1909 – The Cunard Line’s RMS Mauretania makes a record-breaking westbound crossing of the Atlantic, that will not be bettered for 20 years.


RMS Mauretania was an ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by Wigham Richardson and Swan Hunter for the British Cunard Line, launched on the afternoon of 20 September 1906. She was the world's largest ship until the completion of RMS Olympic in 1911. Mauretania became a favourite among her passengers. She captured the Eastbound Blue Riband on her maiden return voyage in December 1907, then claimed the Westbound Blue Riband for the fastest transatlantic crossing during her 1909 season. She held both speed records for 20 years.

Mauretania_-_Full_speed_ahead.jpg

The ship's name was taken from the ancient Roman province of Mauretania on the northwest African coast, not the modern Mauritania to the south.[2]Similar nomenclature was also employed by Mauretania's running mate Lusitania, which was named after the Roman province directly north of Mauretania, across the Strait of Gibraltar in Portugal. Mauretania remained in service until 1934 when Cunard White Star retired her; scrapping commenced in 1935.

Early career (1906–1914)

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Mauretania's official launch party, 20 September 1906

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Mauretania on 17 September 1907 covering the 10 miles to the mouth of the river and the open ocean

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A cutaway view of Mauretania

Mauretania departed Liverpool on her maiden voyage on 16 November 1907 under the command of Captain John Pritchard, and on the return voyage captured the record for the fastest eastbound crossing of the Atlantic, with an average speed of 23.69 knots (43.87 km/h; 27.26 mph). In September 1909, Mauretania captured the Blue Riband for the fastest westbound crossing — a record that was to stand for more than two decades. In December 1911, as in New York City in December 1910, Mauretania broke loose from her moorings while in the River Mersey and sustained damage that caused the cancellation of her special speedy Christmas voyage to New York. In a quick change of events Cunard rescheduled Mauretania's voyage for Lusitania, which had just returned from New York, under the command of Captain James Charles. Lusitania completed Christmas crossings for Mauretania, carrying revellers back to New York. Mauretania was on a westbound voyage from Liverpool to New York, beginning 10 April 1912, and was docked at Queenstown, Ireland, at the time of the RMS Titanic disaster. Mauretania was transporting Titanic's cargo manifest carried by registered mail. Travelling on Mauretania at the time was the chairman of the Cunard line, Mr A.A. Booth, who organised a vigil for the Titanic victims. In the spring of 1913 westbound transatlantic passage aboard Mauretania cost roughly $17 for third class passengers, as shown in the original ticket at right.

In July 1913 King George and Queen Mary were given a special tour of Mauretania, then Britain's fastest merchant vessel, adding further distinction to the ship's reputation. On 26 January 1914, while Mauretania was in the middle of annual refit in Liverpool, four men were killed and six injured when a gas cylinder exploded while they were working on one of her steam turbines. Damage to the ship was minimal; she was repaired in the new Gladstone drydock and returned to service two months later.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Mauretania_(1906)
 
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