January 20 - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

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9 January 1917 – german merchant raider SMS Seeadler (Ger: sea eagle), a three-master windjammer, captured and sunk Gladis Royle, 3,268 tons


SMS Seeadler
(Ger: sea eagle) was a three-master windjammer. She was one of the last fighting sailing ships to be used in war when she served as a merchant raider with Imperial Germany in World War I. Built as the US-flagged Pass of Balmaha, she was captured by the German submarine SM U-36, and in 1916 converted to a commerce raider. As Seeadler she had a successful raiding career, capturing and sinking 15 ships in 225 days until she was wrecked, in September 1917, in French Polynesia.

201304231924510.PASS OF BALMAHA  1888-8-9 A Green.jpg

monkbarns-broadside.jpg
Pass of Balmaha later SMS Seeadler

Pass of Balmaha
The ship was launched as Pass of Balmaha by Robert Duncan & Company, Port Glasgow, Scotland, on 9 August 1888 as a 1,571 GRT steel-hulled ship-rigged sailing vessel. She was 245 feet (75 m) long, 39 feet (12 m) in beam and with a depth of 23 feet (7.0 m). Delivered in the following month to the ownership of David R Clark, a partner in Gibson & Clark, Glasgow, she was registered at that port with Official Number 95087 and signal letters KTRP.

In February 1908, Pass of Balmaha was sold at Leith by Gibson & Clark for £5,500. By 1910, she was owned by Ship Pass of Balmaha Co Ltd, Montreal, and under the management of George I Dewar, Toronto, though Glasgow remained her port of registry.

It is believed she was later owned by the Harris-Irby Cotton Company, Boston, and sailed under the US flag.

Displacement: 4500 tons (1,571 GRT)
Length: 83.5 m
Beam: 11.8 m
Draught: 5.5 m
Installed power: 900 hp
Propulsion: 1 shaft auxiliary diesel engine
Sail plan: 3 masts, full rig, 2,600 square metres (28,000 sq ft) sail area
Speed: 9 knots (17 km/h)
Complement: 64
Armament: 2 × 105mm guns, 2 x machine guns, 2 x torpedo tubes



Capture
Pass of Balmaha was captured by U-36 in the North Sea in 1915 under somewhat peculiar circumstances. New York Harbor in June 1915, bound for the Arctic port of Arkhangelsk with a cargo of cotton for Russia. She was intercepted by the British auxiliary cruiser Victorian off the coast of Norway. Victorian's captain led a boarding party to inspect the cargo for contraband. The British captain found reason for suspicion, and ordered Pass of Balmaha to sail to Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands for further inspection. A prize crew of an officer and six marines was left aboard to ensure compliance.

The British also ordered the neutral American colours struck and replaced with the British flag, against the will of Pass of Balmaha's Captain Scott, who realised that this would mark the ship as a belligerent. Soon after, U-36 intercepted Pass of Balmaha. To avoid being impounded, Scott hid the British prize crew in the hold and replaced the Union Jack with the Stars and Stripes. The commander of the U-36, Captain Ernst Graeff, was not entirely convinced by this ruse and ordered Pass of Balmaha to sail for Cuxhaven for inspection. A German ensign was left aboard. Scott and his crew, resentful of what they perceived as British meddling, kept the British marines locked in the hold.

Pass of Balmaha reached Cuxhaven without major incident, and was boarded by a German inspection party. Captain Scott then revealed the British prize crew to the Germans, who took them prisoner. For their cooperation, the Americans were allowed free passage to a neutral country, but Pass of Balmaha became property of the German Navy.

SMS Seeadler

800px-SMSSeeadlerFront.PNG
SMS Seeadler by Christopher Rave

Der_deutsche_Hilfskreuzer_SMS_SEEADLER_bringt_am_20._März_1917_vor_der_brasilianischen_Küste_d...jpg
The German auxiliary cruiser SMS Seeadler capturing the French Bark Cambronne off the Brazilian coast on March 20, 1917. Depicted by Willy Stöwer.

By 1916 the Allies had blockaded German warships in the North Sea, and any commerce raiders that succeeded in breaking out lacked foreign or colonial bases for resupply of coal. This gave rise to the idea of equipping a sailing ship instead, since it would not require coaling.

The Seeadler was equipped with an auxiliary engine, hidden lounges, accommodation for additional crew and prisoners, two hidden 105 mm cannons that could emerge from the deck, two hidden heavy machine guns, and rifles for boarding parties. These weapons were rarely fired, and many of the 15 ships encountered by the Seeadler were sunk with only one single accidental casualty on either side during the entire journey.

Seeadler_SLV_Allen_Green.jpg
Seeadler wrecked

On 21 December 1916, she sailed under the command of Kapitänleutnant Felix von Luckner. The ship was disguised as a Norwegian wood carrier and succeeded in crossing the British blockading line despite being boarded for an inspection. The crew had been handpicked partly for their ability to speak Norwegian. Over the next 225 days, she captured 15 ships in the Atlantic and Pacific and led the British and US Navies on a merry chase.

Her journey ended wrecked on a reef at the island of Mopelia 450 km from Tahiti in the Society Islands, part of French Polynesia. Luckner and some crew sailed for Fiji, where they were captured and imprisoned. A French schooner, the Lutece, of 126 tons was captured by the remaining crew on 5 September 1917. They sailed to Easter Island as Fortuna, arriving on 4 October and running aground there, after which they were interned by the Chilean authorities.

Captured ships

Auxiliary_Cruiser_Seeadler_1916-17.png
Route of the SMS Seeadler and locations of ships engaged (1–2 North Atlantic, 3–11 Mid-Atlantic, 12–14 Pacific)

Sixteen ships, totaling 30,099 tons, were captured by the Seeadler between 21 December 1916 and 8 September 1917. Unless otherwise noted, all vessels in the list were steamships.
  • Gladis Royle, 3,268 tons, captured and sunk 9 January 1917.
  • Lundy Island, 3,095 tons, captured and sunk on 10 January 1917.
  • Charles Gounod, 2,199 tons, French barque captured and sunk on 21 January 1917.
  • Perce, 364 tons, schooner captured and sunk on 24 January 1917.
  • Antonin, 3,071 tons, French barque captured and sunk on 3 February 1917.
  • Buenos Ayres, 1,811 tons, Italian sailing vessel captured and sunk on 9 February 1917.
  • Pinmore, 2,431 tons, schooner captured on 19 February 1917 and later sunk after being used to obtain supplies.
  • British Yeoman, 1,953 tons, sailing barque captured and sunk on 26 February 1917.
  • La Rochefoucauld, 2,200 tons, French barque captured and sunk on 27 February 1917.
  • Dupleix, 2,206 tons, French barque captured and sunk on 5 March 1917.
  • Horngarth, 3,609 tons, captured and sunk on 11 March 1917.
  • Cambronne, 1,833 tons, French barque captured and released 21 March, arrived at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 30 March 1917.
  • A. B. Johnson, 529 tons, United States schooner captured and sunk on 14 June 1917.
  • R. C. Slade, 673 tons, United States schooner captured and sunk on 18 June 1917.
  • Manila, 731 tons, United States schooner captured and sunk on 8 July 1917.
  • Lutece - see above.

Unbenannt.JPG



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Seeadler_(1888)
http://www.schiffe-und-mehr.com/die...l-zum-motorschiff/frachtdampfer-gladys-royle/
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
Other Events on 9 January


1571 – Death of Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, French admiral (b. 1510)

Nicolas Durand, sieur de Villegaignon, also Villegagnon (1510 – 9 January 1571) was a Commander of the Knights of Malta,[1] and later a French naval officer (vice-admiral of Brittany) who attempted to help the Huguenots in France escape persecution.
A notable public figure in his time, Villegaignon was a mixture of soldier, scientist, explorer, adventurer and entrepreneur. He fought pirates in the Mediterranean and participated in several wars.
Villegagnon was born in Provins, Seine et Marne, France, a nephew of Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Grand Master of the Order of Malta.[2] He was ordained as a Knight of the Order in 1521.

Nicolas_de_Villegagnon.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Durand_de_Villegaignon


1697 – Launch of French Dauphine 40/42 at Le Havre – burnt in the Battle of Vigo Bay in October 1702


1711 – Re-Launch of HMS Warwick, a 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line

MS Warwick was a 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Deptford and launched in 1696.
She was rebuilt according to the 1706 Establishment at Rotherhithe, and relaunched on 9 January 1711. Warwick was broken up in 1726.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Warwick_(1696)


1726 – Launch of French Saint Esprit 74 at Toulon, designed by Blaise Coulomb - hulked 1749 and taken to pieces in 1761.


1826 - Brig Sloop HM Algerine (1823 - l0), Cdr. Charles Wemyss, capsised in a squall off Hydra, Mediterranean

HMS Algerine, a 10-gun Cherokee-class brig rigged sloop, launched on 10.06.1823 at Deptford Dockyard under the command of Commander Charles Wemyss when she was lost off Hydra in a squall in early 1826.

Cherokee class Algerine.jpg


1874 - British merchant ship Sherman, ex blockade runner USS Princess Royal, sank

Princess Royal was a British merchant ship and blockade runner that became a cruiser in the Union Navy during the American Civil War and later returned to civilian service.

Post war
USS Princess Royal, now measuring 932 grt, was purchased by William F Weld & Co of Boston, renamed Sherman after the Federal general, and put onto the Boston-New York-New Orleans service.
On 8 January 1874, on a voyage from New York to New Orleans, Sherman sprang a leak off the North Carolina coast and anchored near Little River. The following day she sank off Cape Fear. The passengers and crew were saved, along with some cargo.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Princess_Royal


1909 – Ernest Shackleton, leading the Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole, plants the British flag 97 nautical miles (180 km; 112 mi) from the South Pole, the farthest anyone had ever reached at that time.

The Nimrod Expedition of 1907–09, otherwise known as the British Antarctic Expedition, was the first of three expeditions to the Antarctic led by Ernest Shackleton. Its main target, among a range of geographical and scientific objectives, was to be first to the South Pole. This was not attained, but the expedition's southern march reached a Farthest South latitude of 88° 23' S, just 97.5 nautical miles (180.6 km; 112.2 mi) from the pole. This was by far the longest southern polar journey to that date and a record convergence on either Pole. A separate group led by Welsh Australian geology professor Edgeworth David reached the estimated location of the South Magnetic Pole, and the expedition also achieved the first ascent of Mount Erebus, Antarctica's second highest volcano.

NimrodDepartingToSouthPole1907.jpg
The expedition's ship Nimrod departing for the South Pole

The expedition lacked governmental or institutional support, and relied on private loans and individual contributions. It was beset by financial problems and its preparations were hurried. Its ship, Nimrod, was less than half of the size of Robert Falcon Scott's 1901–04 expedition ship Discovery, and Shackleton's crew lacked relevant experience. Controversy arose from Shackleton's decision to base the expedition in McMurdo Sound, close to Scott's old headquarters, in contravention of a promise to Scott that he would not do so. Nevertheless, although the expedition's profile was initially much lower than that of Scott's six years earlier, its achievements attracted nationwide interest and made Shackleton a public hero. The scientific team, which included the future Australasian Antarctic Expedition leader Douglas Mawson, carried out extensive geological, zoological and meteorological work. Shackleton's transport arrangements, based on Manchurian ponies, motor traction, and sled dogs, were innovations which, despite limited success, were later copied by Scott for his ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition.

On his return, Shackleton overcame the Royal Geographical Society's initial scepticism about his achievements and received many public honours, including a knighthood from King Edward VII. He made little financial gain from the expedition and eventually depended on a government grant to cover its liabilities. Within three years his southernmost record had been surpassed, as first Amundsen and then Scott reached the South Pole. In his own moment of triumph, Amundsen nevertheless observed: "Sir Ernest Shackleton's name will always be written in the annals of Antarctic exploration in letters of fire"

Nimrod_South_9_Jan_09.jpg
Jameson Adams, Frank Wild and Eric Marshall (from left to right) plant the Union Jack at their southernmost position, 88° 23', on 9 January 1909. The photograph was taken by expedition leader Ernest Shackleton.

The Event during the southern journey

On Boxing Day the glacier ascent was at last completed, and the march on the polar plateau began. Conditions did not ease; Shackleton recorded 31 December as the "hardest day we have had". On the next day he noted that, having attained 87° 6½′ S, they had beaten North and South polar records. That day, referring to Marshall and Adams, Wild wrote: "if we only had Joyce and Marston here instead of those two grubscoffing useless beggars we would have done it [the Pole] easily." On 4 January 1909, Shackleton finally accepted that the Pole was beyond them, and revised his goal to the symbolic achievement of getting within 100 geographical miles of the Pole. The party struggled on, at the borders of survival, until on 9 January 1909, after a last dash forward without the sledge or other equipment, the march ended. "We have shot our bolt", wrote Shackleton, "and the tale is 88° 23' S". They were 97.5 geographical miles from the South Pole. The British flag was duly planted, and Shackleton named the polar plateau after King Edward VII.

1280px-TheSouthernParty.jpg
Wild, Shackleton, Marshall and Adams aboard Nimrod after their southern journey

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimrod_Expedition


1942 - Passenger Cargo Ship LAMORICIÈRE, launched 1920, Sank in a gale 3 miles east of Minorca on a voyage from Algiers to Marseille and 292 people drowned.

Lamorciere.jpg

In January 1942, the commander Joseph Milliasseau then in command of the ship leaves Algiers with on board 384 people including 292 passengers of various classes and 122 crew members. Arrived near the Balearic Islands to Menorca, the liner has been facing bad weather for a few days and therefore the daily life of passengers becomes unbearable. Time passes slowly according to the testimony of a survivor, Maguy Drumond Courau who wrote a book shortly after the death of her husband Jacques in the sinking. Near the lighthouse of Favaritx (in the capital of Menorca, Mahon), the ship which faces a storm of a force 9, is trapped by violent waves after having come to the rescue of another ship, the freighter, Jumièges he does not find despite his efforts. Commander Milliasseau was unable to save this fast-flowing ship, which finds itself in waves and waves in a raging sea in the dead of winter. The port side is subject to violent waves and portelones leaky allow water to rush into the coal bunkers (making it unusable) and flood the Lamoricière by causing a strong deposit on the side port. For endless hours, passengers and crewmen try to save the ship and then have to abandon it trying to evacuate women and children in lifeboats but in vain in the face of a violent storm. On January 9, 1942, around 12:35 pm, the Transat liner sank at latitude 40 ° 00N and longitude 04 ° 22E near the coast of Menorca thus making 292 victims (212 passengers and 80 crew members) and only 92 survivors ( 50 passengers and 42 crew members).

Lamorciere2.jpg

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamoricière_(Schiff)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Różycki
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 January 1755 - Adam Duncan confirmed in the rank of Lieutenant.


Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan (1 July 1731 – 4 August 1804) was a British admiral who defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown (north of Haarlem) on 11 October 1797. This victory is considered one of the most significant actions in naval history.

Life
Adam was the second son of Alexander Duncan, Baron of Lundie, Angus, (d. May 1777) Provost of Dundee, and his wife (and first cousin once removed) Helen, daughter of John Haldane of Gleneagles. He was born at Dundee. In 1746, when he was 15 years old and after receiving his education in Dundee, he entered the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial, under Captain Robert Haldane, with whom, in HMS Trial and afterwards in HMS Shoreham, he continued till the peace in 1748. In 1749 he was appointed to HMS Centurion, then commissioned for service in the Mediterranean, by the Hon. Augustus Keppel (afterwards Viscount Keppel), with whom he was afterwards in HMS Norwich on the coast of North America, and was confirmed in the rank of lieutenant on 10 January 1755.

Years of service 1746–1804
Rank Admiral
Battles/wars
Battle of Cape St Vincent
Battle of Camperdown
Awards
Naval Gold Medal


HMS Trial or Tryall was a 10-gun (later 14-gun) two-masted Hind-class sloop of the Royal Navy, designed by Joseph Allin and built by him at Deptford Dockyard on the Thames River, England. She was launched on 17 July 1744. She and her sister ship, Jamaica, were the only sloops to be built in the Royal Dockyards between 1733 and 1748.

After more than 28 years service, she was paid off at Woolwich Dockyard in August 1772, and broken up there on 3 January 1776.

Class and type: Hind-class sloop
Tons burthen: 272 46⁄94 (bm)
Length:
  • 91 ft 6 in (27.9 m) (gundeck)
  • 74 ft 11.75 in (22.9 m) (keel)
Beam: 26 ft 1.75 in (8.0 m)
Depth of hold:1 2 ft 0.75 in (3.7 m)
Sail plan: Snow brig
Armament: 10 × 6-pounder guns, later increased to 14 x 6-pounder guns

MERLIN_1744_RMG_J4804.jpg
Plans of the Vulture (sistership of the Trial)


HMS Centurion was a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard and launched on 6 January 1732. At the time of Centurion'sconstruction, the 1719 Establishment dictated the dimensions of almost every ship being built. Owing to concerns over the relative sizes of British ships compared to their continental rivals, Centurion was ordered to be built 1 ft (0.3 m) wider across the beam than the Establishment prescribed. HMS Rippon was similarly built to non-Establishment dimensions at the same time.

Class and type: 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line
Tons burthen: 1005 bm
Length: 144 ft (43.9 m) (gundeck)
Beam: 40 ft (12.2 m)
Depth of hold: 16 ft 5 in (5.0 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Armament:
  • 60 guns:
  • Gundeck: 24 × 24 pdrs
  • Upper gundeck: 26 × 9 pdrs
  • Quarterdeck: 8 × 6 pdrs
  • Forecastle: 2 × 6 pdrs
large (1).jpg
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board outline, sheer lines with some inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for Centurion (1732), a modified 1719 Establishment 60-gun Fourth Rate, two-decker, as built at Portsmouth Dockyard.

large (2).jpg
Scale: 1:48. A full hull model of the 60-gun warship Centurion (1732) made entirely in wood with metal and organic material fittings and painted in realistic colours. The hull is painted lead white below the waterline with a solid black-painted wale above and varnished wood above the waterline. The armament is arranged over three gundecks, all of which show the guns run out, with port lids open exposing their red-painted inner faces. The vessel is depicted fully rigged on all three masts and bowsprit, the mizzen having a lateen yard. Fittings include a figurehead in the form of a lion rampant; officers’ heads, decorative frieze on a saxe blue ground along the bulwarks; gratings; ensign staff; and two stern galleries, the upper one being open, and quarter galleries. The model is mounted on a pair of wooden crutches and displayed on a rectangular wooden baseboard. The model was made for Admiral George Anson, 1st Baron Anson. The 'Centurion' was Lord Anson's flagship on his famous circumnavigation of the globe, 1740-4. The maker, Benjamin Slade, was master shipwright at Plymouth in 1747. There is a letter in the NMM manuscripts collection, (AGC/13/25) dated 10 November 1747, from Slade to Lord Anson informing him of the progress in making the model. It was re-rigged in the Museum in 1936, using the original masts and spars.


HMS Norwich was a 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built according to the 1741 proposals of the 1719 Establishment at Blackwall Yard, and launched on 4 July 1745.

Norwich served until 1768, when she was sold out of the navy.

Class and type: 1741 proposals 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line
Tons burthen: 993
Length: 140 ft (42.7 m) (gundeck)
Beam: 40 ft (12.2 m)
Depth of hold: 17 ft 2 1⁄2 in (5.2 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Armament:
  • 50 guns:
  • Gundeck: 22 × 24 pdrs
  • Upper gundeck: 22 × 12 pdrs
  • Quarterdeck: 4 × 6 pdrs
  • Forecastle: 2 × 6 pdrs


large.jpg
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for Falkland (1744), a 1741 Establishment 50-gun Fourth Rate, two-decker. The plan was later used for Portland (1744), and Harwich (1743), Colchester (1744), Chester (1744), Winchester (1744),Gloucester (1745), Maidstone (1744), Advice (1746), Norwich (1745), Ruby (1745), Salisbury (1746). The body plan and longitudinal half-breadth was later altered for Litchfield (1746) and Colchester (1746).

large (1).jpg
large (2).jpg
large (3).jpg
large.jpg
Scale: 1:60. A Navy Board full hull model of a fourth rate, 50-gun, two-decker (circa 1720). The model is decked and equipped and has rigging. This model represents the smallest of the vessels used in the line of battle, like the ‘Falkland’ (SLR0414), although they were mainly used in escort duties. Fourteen ships were built to the dimensions of the 1719 Establishment, including the ‘Greenwich’, which was launched at Chatham in 1731 and lost in a hurricane off Jamaica in 1744. They were 134 feet long, 26 feet broad, weighed 755 tons burden, and had a full complement of 300 men. They carried twenty-two 18-pound guns on their gun decks, twenty-two 9-pounders on their upper decks, four 6-pounders on their quarterdecks and two 6-pounders on their forecastles.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Duncan,_1st_Viscount_Duncan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Trial_(1744)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Centurion_(1732)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Norwich_(1745)
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/66376.html
 

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10 January 1761 – Death of Edward Boscawen, English admiral and politician (b. 1711)


Admiral Edward Boscawen, PC (19 August 1711 – 10 January 1761) was an Admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall. He is known principally for his various naval commands during the 18th century and the engagements that he won, including the Siege of Louisburg in 1758 and Battle of Lagos in 1759.[2]He is also remembered as the officer who signed the warrant authorising the execution of Admiral John Byng in 1757, for failing to engage the enemy at the Battle of Minorca (1756). In his political role, he served as a Member of Parliament for Truro from 1742 until his death although due to almost constant naval employment he seems not to have been particularly active. He also served as one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty on the Board of Admiralty from 1751 and as a member of the Privy Council from 1758 until his death in 1761.

lossy-page1-800px-Admiral_Edward_Boscawen_(1711-1761)_RMG_BHC2565.tiff.jpg
Portrait of Edward Boscawen by Joshua Reynolds, circa 1825

Years of service 1723–1761
Rank Admiral
Commands held
Battles/wars
Anglo-Spanish War (1727–1729)
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of the Austrian Succession
Seven Years' War

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Boscawen
 

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10 January 1761 - HMS Seahorse (1748 - 24), Cptn. James Smith, and HMS Unicorn (1748 - 28), Lt. John Symons-Acting, engaged French 32-gun frigate L’Aigrette (1756 - 32) off Start Point


On January 8th, 1761, the Unicorn, 28, Captain Joseph Hunt, cruising off Penmarck, fought a sharp action with, and captured, the Vestale, 32, which later became the Flora in the British Navy. The captains of both ships were mortally wounded. On the following day the Unicorn chased, but could not come up with, the Aigrette, 32, and, on the 10th, saw her engage the Seahorse, 20, Captain James Smith, then carrying out astronomers to India to observe the transit of Venus. Again she tried to come up, but could not; and the Aigrette, having mauled the Seahorse considerably, refused to be further detained and forced to fight at a disadvantage.


HMS Unicorn was a 28-gun Lyme-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was originally ordered as a 24-gun ship to the draft of the French privateer Tyger. The third vessel of the Royal Navy to bear the name, Unicorn, as well as HMS Lyme which was a near-sister, were the first true frigates built for the Royal Navy. They were actually completed with 28 guns including the four smaller weapons on the quarterdeck, but the latter were not included in the ship's official establishment until 22 September 1756. The two ships differed in detail, Unicorn having a beakhead bow, a unicorn figurehead , two-light quarter galleries and only five pairs of quarterdeck gunports, while Lyme had a round bow, a lion figurehead, three-light quarter galleries and six pairs of quarterdeck gunports.

large (4).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail, longitudinal half breadth for Coventry (1757), Lizard (1757),Liverpool (1757), Maidstone (1758), Acteon (1757), Shannon (1757), Levant (1757), Coberus (1757), Griffin (1757), Hussar (1757), all 28-gun, Sixth Rate Frigates, based on the plan for Lowestoft (1756) and Tartar (1756, which were the same as Unicorn (1748) and Lyme (1748). Maidstone (1758), Cerberus (1757), Griffin (1757), Acteon (1757), Shannon (1757),Bureas (1757) and Trent (1757) had the House holes moved to the upper deck. There are construction amendments for the first built Frigates. Annoted in the top right: " Body, same as the Lestaff and Tartar, except one havng a Beakhead and the other a round bow, withou the least alteration below the surface of the water - and the Tartar and Leostaff are exactly the same Body as the Unicorn and Lime. "

Class and type: Lyme-class frigate
Tons burthen: 581 50⁄94 (bm)
Length: 117 ft 10 in (35.9 m)
Beam: 33 ft 8 in (10.3 m)
Depth of hold: 10 ft 2 in (3.1 m)
Sail plan: Full-rigged ship
Complement: 160 (increased to 180 on 22 September 1756, and to 200 on 11 November 1756)
Armament:

  • Upper deck: 24 x 9-pounder guns
  • QD: 4 x 3-pounder guns
  • Fc: Nil
  • Also 12 Swivel guns
large (5).jpg large (6).jpg large (7).jpg

Unicorn was first commissioned in March 1749 under Captain Molyneaux Shuldham, under whose command she spent her first commission in the Mediterranean until returning home to pay off at Deptford in June 1752. After repairs, she was recommissioned in January 1753 under Captain Matthew Buckle, and sailed for the Mediterranean again in April 1753. In February 1756 command passed to Captain James Galbraith; in September Captain John Rawling replaced Galbraith.

Unicorn captured the French frigate Vestale on 8 January 1761. Vestale, under the command of M. Boisbertelot, had been part of a squadron of five ships that had left the Vilaine river for Brest under the cover of a heavy fog. When Unicorn encountered Vestale off the Penmarks a two-hour engagement ensued until Vestale struck. Hunt received a wound at the third broadside and died of his injuries an hour after the action ended. The British had five killed and ten wounded, the majority of them dangerously. The French had many killed and wounded, among them Captain Boisbertelot, who lost a leg and died of his wounds the next day. Lieutenant John Symons, who took command of Unicorn on Hunt's death, described Vestal as having twenty-six 12 and 9-pounder guns on her lower deck, and four 6-pounders on her quarterdeck; she also had a crew of 220 men. The Royal Navy took Vestale into service as HMS Flora.

The next day a French frigate approached Unicorn, but then sailed away. The day after that Unicorn came upon Seahorse engaging the same French frigate. Although Unicorn chased the French vessel, which later turned out to be L'Aigrette, she escaped. Unicorn was hampered in her sailing by the damage to her masts and rigging from the battle with Vestale.

Fate
After active and continuous service during the Seven Years' War, Unicorn finally paid off in late 1763, and was broken up in 1771.


HMS Seahorse was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, launched in 1748. She is perhaps most famous as the ship on which a young Horatio Nelson served as a midshipman. She also participated in four battles off the coast of India between 1781 and 1783. The Royal Navy sold her in 1784 and she then became a merchantman. She made one voyage for the British East India Company (EIC) between 1786 and 1788. she then traded locally until 1793–94, when she disappears from the lists.

large (3).jpg
lines & profile NMM, Progress Book, volume 2, folio 397, states that there was an Admiralty Order dated 23 August 1748 to name the new ship 'Seahorse'. 'Seahorse' was begun on 23 February 1748 at Harwich by Mr John Barnard. She was launched on 13 September 1748, and sailed on 6 October having cost £4,063.10s.0d. 'Seahorse' was fitted at Sheerness Dockyard between 10 October 1748 and February 1749.

Class and type: Sixth-rate frigate
Tons burthen: 512 1⁄94, or 519 (bm)
Length:

  • Royal Navy
    • 114 ft 0 in (34.75 m) (overall)
    • 95 ft 4 in (29.06 m) (keel)
  • After rebuild
    • 115 ft 10 in (35.31 m) (overall)
    • 92 ft 4 in (28.14 m) (keel)
Beam:
  • Royal Navy: 32 ft (9.8 m)
  • After rebuild: 32 ft 3 1⁄2 in (9.843 m)
Depth of hold:
  • Royal Navy: 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m)
  • After rebuild: 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Complement: 160
Armament:

  • Upper deck: 22 × 9-pounder guns
  • QD: 2 x 3-pounder guns


Construction and commissioning
Seahorse was ordered on 4 February 1748, with the contract being awarded to John Barnard, of Harwich, on 23 February 1748. Barnard laid her keel that very day and built her to a design by the Surveyor of the Navy Jacob Acworth. She was named Seahorse on 23 August, launched on 13 September 1748 and commissioned in November. She was completed on 17 February 1749 at Sheerness Dockyard, having cost £4,063.10.0d to build, and with a further £1,264.14.8d spent on fitting her out.

Royal Navy career
Her first commander was Captain Samuel Barrington, who took over in November 1748, and sailed her to the Mediterranean in 1749. Seahorse was back in the English Channel in 1752, with Hugh Palliser replacing Barrington in April 1753. Seahorse then served initially in Home waters, before sailing to North America in January 1755. She returned to Britain in July that year, carrying the flag of Admiral Augustus Keppel.

Captain George Darby took command in 1756, and sailed from Britain bound for Newfoundland on 15 May 1756. Captain Thomas Taylor replaced Darby in March 1757. Under Taylor's command Seahorse was active in the North Sea, later fighting an engagement against two enemy frigates off Ostend, together with the sloops HMS Raven and HMS Bonetta.

Seahorse was then briefly under the command of acting Commander James Hackman from July 1758, before Captain James Smith took over command in October. Seahorse then left for North America on 14 February 1759, and spent the rest of the year at Quebec.

Seahorse was surveyed on 24 January 1760 and declared in need of repairs. A large repair was carried out at Deptford between March and August that year, at a cost of £5,765.19.8d.

She fought an action with the French 32-gun frigate L’Aigrette on 10 January 1761. Captain Charles Cathcart Grant replaced Smith later in the month.

She sailed for India on 4 February 1761 to observe the transit of Venus, and then moved to Manila until October 1762 in support of the Battle of Manila (1762).

Captain Robert Jocelyn took command in 1763, after which the Seahorse returned to England and was paid off in June 1763. Further repairs were carried out in 1770, before she was recommissioned in January 1771 under Thomas Pasley. She then sailed to the Leeward Islands in August that year.

In 1773 Digby Dent took command, before Seahorse was paid off to undergo another refit. She was recommissioned in August 1773 under George Farmer. Horatio Nelson was assigned to the ship as a midshipman through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling. Also a midshipman aboard the Seahorse at this time was Thomas Troubridge, another future admiral.

Farmer sailed to the East Indies in November 1773. On 19 February 1775 Seahorse fought a battle with two of Hyder Ali's ketches off Anjengo. John Panton replaced Farmer in June 1777.

Early on the morning of 10 August 1778, Admiral Edward Vernon's squadron, consisting of Rippon (Vernon's flagship), Coventry, Seahorse, Cormorant, and the East India Company's ship Valentine, encountered a French squadron under Admiral François l'Ollivier de Tronjoly that consisted of the 64-gun ship of the line Brillant, the frigate Pourvoyeuse and three smaller ships, Sartine, Lawriston, and Brisson. An inconclusive action followed for about two hours in mid-afternoon. The French broke off the action and the British vessels were too damaged to be able to catch them up again. In the action the British suffered 11 men killed and 53 wounded; Seahorse alone lost three men killed and five wounded.

Seahorse captured Sartine on 25 August 1778. Sartine had been patrolling off Pondichery with Pourvoyeuse when they sighted two East Indiamen, which were sailing blithely along, unaware of the outbreak of war. The French vessels gave chase lazily. Sartine's captain, Count du Chaillar, first had to be roused from his bed ashore. The British merchant vessels escaped, but Sartine came too close to Vernon's squadron. He sent Coventry and Seahorse after her and she surrendered after a short action. A French account remarks acidly that she surrendered to a frigate of her own size without a fight. All four Royal Navy vessels in Vernon's squadron shared in the prize money. (Vernon had already sent Valentine off with dispatches.) The Royal Navy took Sartine into service as the fifth-rate frigate HMS Sartine.

By February 1779 Seahorse seems to have been under the command of Alexander M’Coy. Captain Robert Montagu took over command in March 1781, and under him Seahorse was present at the battles of Sadras on 17 February 1782, Providien on 12 April, Negapatam on 6 July, Trincomalee on 3 September, and Cuddalore on 20 June 1783. Charles Hughes took command in 1783, followed by John Drew in 1784.

Decommissioning and sale
Seahorse was paid off for the final time in March 1784. The Navy sold her on 30 December 1784 for the sum of £1,115, to Richard Buller.

Merchantman
After Richard Buller purchased Seahorse, he had Randall, Gray and Brent, of Rotherhithe rebuild her as an East Indiaman, and renamed her Ravensworth.

EIC voyage (1786–1788)
Her first voyage as a merchantman was under charter to the EIC as an "extra" ship. Under the command of Captain Collingwood Roddam she sailed to Madras, Bengal, and Bencoolen. Roddam left The Downs on 26 April 1786. Ravensworth reached Johanna on 27 July and Madras on 24 August, before arriving at Calcutta on 12 September. She passed Kedgeree on 30 January 1787, reached Penang on 19 February and Aceh on 4 March, before arriving at Benkulen on 25 March. On her return trip she reached Penang on 8 June, and arrived at Calcutta on 17 July. Homeward bound, she was at Diamond Point on 2 October. She reached the Cape on 29 December and St Helena on 28 January 1788, before arriving at The Downs on 30 March.

Subsequent career
On her return Buller sold Ravensworth to C. Herries & Co. Lloyd's Register for 1789 gives her master's name as "Drumond", and her trade as Cork-"l'ornt". The entries in Lloyd's Register continue essentially unchanged through 1793, though with her trade changing to London-"L'Ort", or Liverpool-"L'Ornt" (probably Lorient).

Ravensworth is no longer listed in 1794.


HMS Brune ex-French Fifth Rate frigate 'La Brune' (1755), captured 30.01.1761 - Blonde Class and sistership of the French Fifth Rate frigate 'L'Aigrette' (1756)

large (8).jpg
lines & profile Signed by Thomas Bucknall [Master Shipwright, Plymouth Dockyard, 1755-1762]. NMM, Progress Book, volume 2, folio 648, states that 'Brune' was surveyed and fitted at Plymouth Dockyard between March and October 1761.



https://threedecks.org/index.php?display_type=show_battle&id=560
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Seahorse_(1748)
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-347008;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=S
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Unicorn_(1748)
https://threedecks.org/index.php?display_type=show_ship&id=11119
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 January 1807 – Launch of HMS Clio, a Cruizer-class brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, at James Betts' shipyard in Mistleythorn in Essex


HMS Clio was Cruizer-class brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, launched at James Betts' shipyard in Mistleythorn in Essex on 10 January 1807. Her establishment was 71 officers and men, 24 boys and 20 marines. She served in the Baltic during the Napoleonic Wars, accomplished the re-establishment of British rule on the Falkland Islands in 1833, and participated in the First Opium War. She was broken up in 1845.

Class and type: Cruizer-class brig-sloop
Tons burthen: 389 35⁄94 (bm )
Length:
  • 100 ft 0 in (30.5 m) (gundeck)
  • 77 ft 8 in (23.7 m) (keel)
Beam: 30 ft 9 in (9.4 m)
Depth of hold: 13 ft 11 in (4.2 m)
Sail plan: Brig
Complement: 121
Armament:
U.S.S._Wasp_Boarding_H.M_Brig_Frolic.jpg
An earlier USS Wasp boards the Cruizer-class HMS Frolic, 1812 - Frolic was a sistership of Clio

Napoleonic Wars
In February 1807 Commander Thomas Folliott Baugh commissioned her and sailed her to the Leith Station on the North Sea. Here he succeeded in taking several prizes, but not until 1808.

The first appears to have been the Helyra, Hook, master, from Bergen, which Clio sent into Leith in July. Then on 21 September 1808, while she was cruising off Fleckoro, Clio captured a small Danish privateer armed with six guns and carrying a crew of eleven men. The captured vessel arrived at Leith on 12 October.

On 7 December she captured the Vrouw Heltya.

On 30 March 1808, during the Gunboat War, Clio entered Tórshavn, the capital of the Faroe Islands, and briefly captured the fort at Skansin. The fort surrendered without firing a shot as the landing party approached. The landing party spiked the fort's eight 18-pounder guns and took all the smaller guns and weapons before leaving. Shortly after, on 6 May, a German privateer who had assumed the name "Baron von Hompesch" plundered the defenceless city and seized the property of the Danish Crown Monopoly. The Admiralty Prize Court, however, refused to condemn it as a lawful prize. Later, after the Jørgen Jørgensen affair (see also HMS Talbot), Britain declared the Faroese, the Icelanders, and the settlers in Greenland as "stranger friends" who were to be left in peace.

After this adventure Clio captured some more Danish vessels. On 10 August she captured the Vrou Sophia. On 1 September she captured the Junge Jacob and the Wilhelmina Frederica. On 21 September she captured two more, names unknown, which she sent in to Gothenburg.

More small prizes followed in 1809. On 23 February 1809, Clio took five Danish vessels. Another account has her capturing seven Danish privateers and arriving at Whitby with one of them on 26 February.

She detained an American vessel that was sailing from Hambro to Petersburg and sent her into Leith, where the vessel arrived on 23 May. On 7 September she captured the Danish galliot Providentia and on 14 September the sloop Speculation. On 7 November she, with Childers in company, captured Danish schooner No. 32. Then on 15 and 16 November she captured the Danish vessels Three Children, Perlin, St Ola, and Fine Smaakin. One of these may have been the vessel that arrived at Leith on the 17th. Two more Danish vessels arrived at Leith on 5 December.

Baugh was promoted to Post-captain on 21 October 1810. While temporarily under the command of Lieutenant M.J. Popplewell (acting), she captured the Henrietta on 3 December. That same day she was in company when Pyramus captured the Danish vessel Fanoe.

Baugh's replacement was Commander William Farrington. He too captured small prizes. On 12 March 1811, Clio, with Egeria in company, captured the Danish brig Krabbes Minde. Then on 5 May she captured Danish Crown schooner No. 51. On 11 May two Danish vessels arrived at Leith that the frigate Alexandria and Clio had captured.

Unknown to the British, Danish Captain Hans Peter Holm had returned to Egersund (SW Norway) with Lolland and four other brigs. On 1 May 1811, the British sent four boats from Clio, Belette, and Cherokee, into the western end of the sound, expecting to capture some shipping or do other mischief. The circumstances of locality and wind did not permit the Danish brigs to enter the sound from the further end, but Holm sent the Danish ships’ boats under Lieutenant Niels Gerhardt Langemach, up the sound to oppose the British. Some of the Danes landed to set an ambush from the cliff tops, whilst the armed boats were hidden behind a skerry. As the British rowed boldly in, they met unexpected fire from howitzers and muskets; they immediately withdrew, with the Danish boats in pursuit. The Danes captured one of the British boats and her crew of an officer and 17 men, who had come from Belette, and would have captured more but for the confusion that an explosion of a powder keg on one of the Danish boats caused. This enabled the remaining British boats to reach the protection of their squadron.

Clio's primary occupation was escorting convoys to and from the Baltic. Still, on 12 April 1812, Clio and Ethalion captured the Opsloe. Clio was also in sight when Ethalion captured the Unitas and Gunilde Maria that same day. On 25 September she was in company, together with the gun-brig Bruizer, when Hamadryad recaptured the galliot Expedition.

On 7 October, Clio captured the Danish sloop Sorenen. About a week later, on 13 or 14 October 1812 in the Baltic, off Hermeren, boats from Clio and Hamdryad captured the French privateer lugger Pilotin, which was carrying four 12-pounder carronades and had a crew of 31 men. Three Danish luggers, each mounting two guns, came out from Rødby to support Pilotin but retreated when the British boats advanced towards them. On the same day they recaptured the Swedish schooner Johannes.

On 23 October Clio, Oberon and Chanticleer detained the Jonge Henrick. The next day, Clio and Oberon captured the Danish privateer Wegvusende. The same vessels were also involved in the capture of the privateer Stafeten on 24 December.

On 17 November Clio captured the Dutch vessel Hoffnung and three days later the Danish galliot Cecilia. She captured another Danish galliot, the Dorothea Elizabeth, on 9 December. She also captured the Gode Hensight on 2 December. On 27 December a third galliot fell prey – the Oprigtig Wenskab.

On 2 February 1813 she captured the Danish sloop Junge Jacob, from and of Bergen. She arrived at Aberdeen on 9 February. Junge Jacob had been sailing from North Bergen to the Mediterranean.

The capture of another privateer punctuated the captures of merchantmen. Clio sent in to Leith a small Danish privateer cutter of three (or four) guns and 22 men that she had taken on 22 October off Hiteroe. The privateer had not yet captured anything.

large (9).jpg large (10).jpg large (11).jpg
Scale 1:48. A full hull model of ‘Frolic’ (circa 1813) an 18-gun ship-sloop. Constructed in ‘bread and butter’ fashion, the model is decked and partially equipped including two anchors as well as copper sheathing of the underwater hull. Built by Josiah Barker at Charlestown, Massachusetts and launched in 1813, the ‘Frolic’ measured 119 feet in length by 31 feet in the beam with a tonnage of 509 builder’s old measurement. Armed with eighteen 32-pounder carronades and two 9-pounder cannon, it had a complement of 135 men and was a sister ship to the ‘Wasp’ and ‘Peacock’, all of which were thought to be far superior the their Royal Navy equivalents. However, her career with the United States Navy was short lived as she was captured by HM frigate ‘Orpheus’, 36 guns, and HM schooner ‘Shelborne’ 12 guns, off Matanzas, Cuba on the 20 April 1814. She was then taken into the Navy and renamed ‘Florida’ and rated for 20 guns, before finally being broken up at Chatham Dockyard in 1819. The primary purpose of this model is to illustrate the method of copper sheathing a ships hull. Copper sheathing was introduced into the navy in the 1780s to prevent the build up of weed growth on the hull, which had a major effect on the vessel’s sailing qualities. It also protected the underwater planking against the marine boring worm ‘teredo navalis’, resulting in the future reduction of expensive repairs in dock.

Post-war
From 1816 to 1822 Clio was at Chatham, first in ordinary and then being fitted for sea. In February 1823 she was commissioned under Commander Charles Strangways for the Nore.

From 1826 to early 1827 her captain was Commander Robert Aitchinson, and she performed anti-smuggling patrols in the North Sea. Then in April 1827 Commander Robert Deans took command. Clio was at the Nore and from 1828 to 1829 at Cork. Between December 1829 and July 1830 she was at Plymouth being fitted as a ship sloop.

From 30 April 1830 to 17 June 1833 Clio was under Commander John James Onslow. Around 19 July 1830 she sailed for South America, and on 15 December she was in Rio de Janeiro. Next, on 2 January 1833, Clio participated in the re-establishment of British rule on the Falkland Islands. Onslow arrived at Luis Vernet's settlement at Port Louis to request that the Argentine authorities replace the flag of the United Provinces of the River Plate with the British one and leave the islands. Lieutenant-Colonel José María Pinedo, of the schooner Sarandi considered resisting, but as most of his crew were British, thought better of it and sailed on 5 January.

In July 1833 Clio was in Portsmouth to be fitted as a 16-gun brig again. In 1835 she was at Portsmouth for refitting, but by 2 August she was in Lisbon, on her way with a small squadron for The Gambia to settle some unrest in the area. She was in The Gambia by 2 September and then sailed to join Stag and Tweed. By November Clio was on the south coast of Spain. She sailed to Tarragona in June 1836. By 18 May 1839 she was in Portsmouth.

Hydra towed Lily into Portsmouth on 23 May 1839 to be paid off. Commander Deare and almost all his officers transferred from Clio to recommission Lily. Commander Stephen Grenville Fremantle was appointed to take over Clio.

Clio sailed for South America in May 1839 and was in the Rio Plata on 13 January 1841. She spent most of the year cruising out of Montevideo and Rio de Janeiro. On 27 June she captured the slaver Felix Vincedor; prize money was paid on 31 August 1844. On 12 May a boat under Lieutenant Cox, with 12 men captured a slaver in the Piumas Islands with 300 slaves aboard. However, some seven boats with a dozen men apiece sortied and re-captured the slaver, burning it after having landed the slaves. A week later, while Cox was taking water at Campos, some of the slavers took him and men prisoner after wounding four seamen. Shortly thereafter the Brazilians released their British captives. At the end of September she left Simon's Bay for the East Indies. On 6 November Fremantle was promoted to Acting Captain and appointed to Southampton. Clio's new captain was Commander Edward Norwich Troubridge.

Opium War
Late in 1841 Clio sailed to China for the First Opium War. On 12 December 1841 she struck a rock (Clio Rock), just west of Pak-Leak Island, near Macao.

On 13 June 1842, Clio anchored off Woosung. On 16 June, after the defences at the mouth of the river were sounded and buoyed, the British bombarded the works on both sides of the river as part of the commencement of operations against Shanghai. She then participated in the expedition up the Yangtze River, to the end of hostilities and signing of the Treaty of Nanking on 29 August. Troubridge's replacement as captain of Clio from 30 December 1842 was Commander James Fitzjames.

Fate
Clio was broken up at Portsmouth in 1845.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Clio_(1807)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruizer-class_brig-sloop
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;searchTerm=frolic;start=0
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 January 1810 - Boats of HMS Christian VII (80), Cptn. Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, and HMS Armide (38), Cptn. Lucius Hardyman, attacked in Basque Road a French convoy of 4 vessels. 3 were driven ashore and completely burnt, the fourth, a chasse-maree, was taken.


In January 1810 HMS Armide, under Captain Hardyman, and the 80-gun second rate, HMS Christian VII, Captain Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, were stationed off the Basque Roads. On 10 January, they sighted a small convoy sailing from the Île d'Aix to La Rochelle. The boats of the two ships went in under small arms and grapeshot fire from a shore battery and captured a chasse-maree of about 30 tons. The tide was ebbing too fast to bring off the other vessels so the British burnt a brig, a schooner and a chasse-maree. This was regrettable as the all were fully laden with cargoes consisting of best quality wines and brandies, soap, rosin, candles, pitch, oil, pine varnish, and the like. The cutting out expedition suffered no casualties. The captured chasse maree was probably the Felicite.



Armide was a 40-gun frigate of the French Navy, lead ship of her class, and launched in 1804 at Rochefort. She served briefly in the French navy before the British captured her in 1806. She went on to serve in the British Navy until 1815 when she was broken up.

large (12).jpg
lines & profile These plans show her as fitted as a British ship. NMM, Progress Book, volume 6, folio 365, states that 'Armide' was at Plymouth Dockyard between 1806 and 1809 for middling repairs and to be fitted.

Class and type: Armide-class
Displacement: 1330 tonnes
Tons burthen: 110430/94 (bm)
Length: 47 m (154 ft)
Beam: 12 m (39 ft)
Draught: 5.5 m (18 ft)
Complement:
  • French service: 339
  • British service: 284; later 315
Armament:
  • French service
    • 28 × 18-pounder long guns
    • 8 × 8-pounders
    • 8 × 36-pounder carronades
  • 24.4.1804 Broadside Weight = 372 French Livre (401.4624 lbs 182.094 kg)
  • British service
    • UD: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 32-pounder carronades
    • Fc: 2 × 9-pounder guns and 2 × 32-pounder carronades
  • 8.1809 Broadside Weight = 517 Imperial Pound ( 234.4595 kg)

large (13).jpg
deck These plans show her as fitted as a British ship. NMM, Progress Book, volume 6, folio 365, states that 'Armide' was at Plymouth Dockyard between 1806 and 1809 for middling repairs and to be fitted.



HMS Christian VII (captured 1807)
Danish 80-gun Third Rate, designed by F C H Hohlenberg and launched on 26.7.1803 in Copenhagen
taken on 7 September 1807 at the capitulation of Copenhagen.

Dimension Measurement Type Metric Equivalent
Length of Gundeck 187' 2 ¼"Imperial Feet 57.004
Length of Keel 154' 10 ½"Imperial Feet 46.9519
Breadth 51' 0"Imperial Feet 15.5448
Depth in Hold 21' 7"Imperial Feet 6.5786
Burthen 2,131 16⁄94 Tons BM

large (14).jpg
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, stern board outline, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for Christian VII (captured 1807), a captured Danish 80-gun Third Rate. The plan shows the ship after she was fitted at Portsmouth Dockyard as an 80-gun Third Rate, two-decker. Signed by Henry Canham [Assistant to Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1801-1813].

Armament

5.1808 Broadside Weight = 1032 Imperial Pound ( 468.012 kg
Lower Gun Deck 30 British 32-Pounder
Upper Gun Deck 32 British 18-Pounder
Quarterdeck 10 British 32-Pound Carronade
Quarterdeck 4 British 12-Pounder
Forecastle 2 British 32-Pound Carronade
Forecastle 2 British 12-Pounder
Roundhouse 4 British 18-Pound Carronade

1810 Broadside Weight = 1124 Imperial Pound ( 509.734 kg)
Lower Gun Deck 30 British 32-Pounder
Upper Gun Deck 32 British 18-Pounder
Quarterdeck 12 British 32-Pound Carronade
Quarterdeck 6 British 24-Pounder (Gover)
Forecastle 2 British 32-Pound Carronade
Forecastle 2 British 24-Pounder (Gover)
Roundhouse 4 British 18-Pound Carronade

large (15).jpg
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Black Prince' (1816), 'Melville' (1817), 'Hawke' (1820) and 'Wellesley' (1815), all 74-gun Third Rate, two-deckers, based on the design of the captured Danish 74-gun 'Christian VII'. Note that the 'Wellesley' was originally of this design, but was changed to follow the lines of the 'Cornwallis' (1813) of the Armada/Conquestadore/Vengeur class. Signed by William Rule [Surveyor of the Navy, 1793-1813] and Henry Peake [Surveyor of the Navy, 1806-1822].

British Service History
Date Event
25.11.1807 Arrived at Portsmouth
1808 Began fitting at Portsmouth Dockyard
11.9.1808 Completed fitting at Portsmouth Dockyard at a cost of £27230.0.0d
6.1810 Off the Texel
1811 In the Downs
12.1813 Began fitting at Chatham Dockyard
7.1814 Quarantine service at Stangate Creek
7.1814 Refitted as a Other Vessels Lazarette
7.1814 Completed fitting at Chatham Dockyard at a cost of £1805.0.0d
1834 De-commissioned
3.1838 Broken up at Chatham


Additional Information:
In English, a chasse-marée is a specific, archaic type of decked commercial sailing vessel.

In French, un chasse-marée was 'a wholesale fishmonger', originally on the Channel coast of France and later, on the Atlantic coast as well. He bought in the coastal ports and sold in inland markets. However, this meaning is not normally adopted into English. The name for such a trader in Britain, from 1500 to 1900 at least, was 'rippier'. The chasse-marée name was carried over to the vehicle he used for carrying the fish, which because of the perishable nature of its load, was worked in the same urgent manner as a mail coach. Later, fast three-masted luggers were used to extend the marketing process to the purchase of fresh fish in Breton ports and on the fishing grounds. These vessels too, were known as chasse-marée. Both these meanings, particularly the latter, are used in English where, unlike the French, the plural normally takes an 's'.

Chasse-marée—boat
On the coast of Brittany, originally in the southern part, later known as Morbihan, from the eighteenth century, fast luggers bought fish from the fishermen at sea and carried it to the Loire and Gironde for sale in the markets of Nantes and Bordeaux.

With the spread of wealth within places like Paris, the market expanded and supplies were sought from more distant coasts. In the nineteenth century, these Breton three-masted luggers began to bring fish from ports farther north on the Breton coast and from fishing boats off its coast, into the Seine estuary for sale in Rouen and for transshipment up to Paris. In such waters, a vessel without engines relied heavily on the skilful use of tides. Here, the parallel tidal meaning of marée and the catching of the tide became relevant to prosecuting the trade. It may be this which led the compiler of the Oxford English Dictionary to translate the vessel's name as 'tide-chaser'. This translation is accurate provided less-relevant meanings of the two component words are taken.

The chasse marées took return cargoes where they were available, so tended to move into the cabotage trade (coastal tramping). In particular, having taken fish south to Bordeaux, they would return with salt from Lower Charente (then known as Charente Inférieur) or from Vendée to more northerly coasts of France.[6] Early vessels were replaced progressively by the luggers, then dundees, brigs and schooners. The rig called in French dundee is a little obscure. The Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustrée (1934) describes it only as a 'large sailing ship'. Other available dictionaries ignore it but the Mandragore II site describes it as a gaff ketch and says that the rig was used principally in lobster boats and herring drifters. The article includes an illustration showing a vessel well adapted to the chasse-marée trade, with a large sail area and strikeable bowsprit and bumkin. Apparently, the yawl rig (cotre à tapecul) used by French tunnymen was sometimes but improperly called a dundee.

Monet_Chasse-maree_a_l'ancre_Musee_d'Orsay.jpg
French chasse-maree at anchor, Claude Monet circa 1872

1280px-Corentin_(Chasse-marée).jpg
Le Corentin, a chasse-marée from Quimper. Note the three-masted luggerrig with the foremast stepped well forward and the apparent absence of headsails. The large jib has been cleared so that the bowsprit can be topped up to facilitate manoeuvring in harbour. At the after end of the vessel, the bumkin, which carries the lower block of the mizzen sheet, is similarly stowed.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_frigate_Armide_(1804)
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-292767;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=A
https://threedecks.org/index.php?display_type=show_ship&id=3125

http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections.html#!csearch;searchTerm=Christian_VII
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
10 January 1900 – Launch of SS Deutschland, a passenger liner built in Stettin, by the Hamburg America Line of Germany.


SS Deutschland was a passenger liner built in Stettin and launched in 1900 by the Hamburg America Line of Germany. The rival North German Lloyd line had launched Germany's first four funnel liner, Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse in 1897, and SS Deutschland was built by Hamburg America as Germany's second four-funnel liner in order to compete.

SS_Deutschland_(1900).jpg

Although SS Deutschland was able to capture the Blue Riband from Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, crossing the Atlantic Ocean in just over five days, she suffered from persistent engine issues, and was withdrawn from transatlantic service in 1910 after just ten years. At this time she was renamed Viktoria Luise and converted to a dedicated cruise ship. As Viktoria Luise she saw brief service in World War I. Because of the bad condition of the ship after the World War, it was not seized by the Allies and was for a time the only remaining large steam ship sailing under a German flag. In 1921 she was converted again into an immigrant ship and renamed Hansa, although changes in United States immigration laws reduced the value of this trade, and ultimately she was sold for scrap in 1925.

Type :Ocean liner
Tonnage: 16,703 gross register tons (GRT)
Displacement: 27,350 metric tons (26,920 long tons; 30,150 short tons)
Length: 207.2 m (679 ft 9 in) o/a
Beam: 20.52 m (67 ft 4 in)
Draft: 8.5 m (27 ft 11 in)
Decks: 6
Installed power: 15,000 ihp (11,000 kW)
Speed: 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph)
Capacity: 2,050 passengers in three classes
Complement:
  • in World War I
  • 22 officers, 448 enlisted
Armament:

As the transatlantic liner Deutschland

First_Class_Dining_Saloon_of_the_SS_Deutschland_(1900).jpg
The First Class dining saloon of Deutschland.

When it became clear that Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse was a success, Hamburg America Line decided to join the battle for supremacy on the Atlantic. North German Lloyd responded to the Deutschland threat by ordering three more liners, the Kaiser class.

Built by AG Vulcan in Stettin and launched in 1900, she won the Blue Riband from Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse of the North German Lloyd line, crossing the Atlantic Ocean in just a little over five days. She was the first and only four-stacker built for Hamburg America. She was 207.2 m (679 ft 9 in) long, 20.52 m (67 ft 4 in) wide and measured 16,502 gross tons. Her service speed was 22 kn (41 km/h; 25 mph) and she carried 2,050 passengers in first, second and third class.

SS_Deutschland.jpg

In March 1902, she played a role in the Deutschland incident. When she was carrying Prince Henry, the brother of the Kaiser back to Europe from a highly publicized visit to the United States, the ship was prevented from using her Slaby-d'Arco system of wireless telegraphy as the Marconi radio stations refused its radio traffic through their nets and blocked the rival system. Prince Henry—who tried to send wireless messages to both the U.S. and Germany—was outraged. During a later conference, the Marconi company was forced to give access to their stations to other companies. This incident turned out to be one of the important moments in the early history of wireless transmission.

On 17 July 1906 Deutschland collided with a stone pier when departing the Port of Dover for New York, her engines having been put into forward rather than reverse. The ship's bow was damaged causing the voyage to be abandoned, with Deutschland being repaired at Southampton.

Second career as cruise ship Viktoria Luise

Victoria_Luise_arrived_at_New_York.jpg
Viktoria Luise in New York

In 1910, Hamburg America withdrew Deutschland from transatlantic service and converted her to a dedicated cruise ship — one of the first liners of the 20th century to operate as such. Her original engines were derated as a high service speed was no longer needed. At the same time, the exterior of the ship was repainted in all white and her passenger capacity was also reduced to only 500 first-class passengers. She was also given a new name, Viktoria Luise. She replaced their first purpose-built cruise ship of similar name (Prinzessin Victoria Luise) that ran aground and was destroyed off the coast of Jamaica in 1906.

On 8 June 1914, Vitoria Luise ran aground in the Elbe and developed a list. Her engine rooms flooded. She was later refloated, repaired, and returned to service.

In World War I Viktoria Luise was converted for use as an auxiliary cruiser, but because of her still-troublesome engines, she was not used as such by the Imperial German Navy.

As the emigrant carrier Hansa

Hansa.jpg
SS Hansa

In 1921, she was pressed into emigrant carrier service and renamed Hansa. During the renaming, Hansa had two funnels removed and had some of her interiors refitted.

The United States passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921 and the even more restrictive Immigration Act of 1924, which substantially reduced the emigrant trade from Europe. Ultimately Hansa was sold for scrap in 1925.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Deutschland_(1900)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
Other Events on 10 January


1699 – Launch of French Adélaïde 44 at Toulon – wrecked 1714


1705 – Launch of French Griffon 44–50 at Lorient – captured by the British in 1712, but returned; broken up 1748


1810 - HMS Plover (18), Philip Browne, took the French privateer brig Saratu (14), M. Rosse, off St. Malo.

HMS Plover (1796) was an 18-gun Bittern class sloop launched in 1796 and sold in 1819.

large (16).jpg
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with some inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for building Plover (1796), an 18-gun Ship Sloop at Mistleythorn by Mr Betts. Signed by John Henslow [Surveyor of the Navy, 1784-1806] and William Rule [Surveyor of the Navy, 1793-1813].

http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-339563;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=P
https://threedecks.org/index.php?display_type=show_ship&id=5833


1811 - Tamatave bombarded by British.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toamasina


1812 – The first steamboat on the Ohio River or the Mississippi River arrives in New Orleans, 82 days after departing from Pittsburgh.

New Orleans was the first steamboat on the western waters of the United States. Owned by Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston, and built by Nicholas Roosevelt, its 1811–1812 voyage from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to New Orleans, Louisiana, on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers ushered in the era of commercial steamboat navigation on the western and mid-western continental rivers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Orleans_(steamboat)


1847 American naval forces occupy Los Angeles.


1847 - Barrosa (or Barrossa, or Barossa, or Barosa), launched in 1811, wrecked

Barrosa (or Barrossa, or Barossa, or Barosa) was launched in 1811 at Cossipore. She sailed to England and then made six voyages for the British East India Company (EIC); during this period she also made one voyage carrying immigrants to South Africa. After the EIC gave up its maritime activities in 1833-1834, Barossa became a transport. She made three voyages transporting convicts to Australia. She was lost in 1847, without loss of life, while transporting coolies from Madras to Jamaica.

Fate
In 1846 Somes sold Barossa to Mitcheson & Co., London. Her master changed from Austin to Dodds, and her trade from London transport to London–Bombay.
An item in The Spectator states that Barossa had wrecked at Port Morant while carrying coolies from Madras to Jamaica. The crew and emigrants were saved. The Illustrated London News referenced a report from the Jamaica Dispatch that Barossa had wrecked on a reef on 10 January 1847 due to the negligence of the pilot. All 340 coolies were saved. Lloyd's Register for 1846 carries the notation "LOST" by her name.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrosa_(1811_ship)


1863 – Launch of USS Oleander, a steamer acquired by the Union Navy during the American Civil War

USS Oleander was a steamer acquired by the Union Navy during the American Civil War. She was used by the Navy to patrol navigable waterways of the Confederacy to prevent the South from trading with other countries.
Oleander, a wooden, side-wheel steamer built at Keyport, New Jersey, was launched 10 January 1863; purchased by the Navy at New York City from James Howe and C. W. Copeland 28 March 1863; and commissioned in the following fortnight, as she joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron upon arriving at Port Royal, South Carolina, 11 April.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Oleander


1910 - The British SS Loodiana (launched 1885) went missing after she sailed Port Louis 10-1-1910 for Colombo. She probably encountered a cyclone of great violence and foundered with the loss of 175 persons.


Read more at wrecksite: https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?156478 https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loodiana


1952 - SS Flying Enterprise was a 6,711 ton Type C1-B ship sank

SS Flying Enterprise was a 6,711 ton Type C1-B ship which sank in 1952. She was built in 1944 as SS Cape Kumukaki for the United States Maritime Commission for use in World War II. The ship was sold in 1947 and then operated in scheduled service under the name Flying Enterprise.


Flying_Enterprise.JPG
Still from newsreel footage of SS Flying Enterprisewhen she was sinking, 10 January 1952

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Flying_Enterprise
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1742 - HMS Tiger (32), Cptn. Edward Herbert, wrecked on a key near Tortuga


HMS Tyger, often spelled Tiger, was a 38-gun fourth rate frigate of the Royal Navy, built by Peter Pett II at Woolwich and launched in 1647. The term 'frigate' during the period of this ship referred to a method of construction, rather than a role which did not develop until the following century. Tyger was the third ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name, and by successive rebuildings she served for almost a century until she was wrecked in the Dry Tortugas in 1742. The ship's crew was stranded on Garden Key for 56 days, fighting off Spanish attempts to capture them, and then spent another 56 days sailing in small boats 700 miles to Port Royal, Jamaica. Remarkably, only five crew members died during this period: three killed by the Spanish, and two others of natural causes. Six crewmen were captured and imprisoned by the Spanish. The captain and three of his lieutenants were court-martialed over the wreck and subsequent events.

1280px-HMS_'Tiger'_taking_the_'Schakerloo'_in_the_harbour_of_Cadiz,_23_February_1674.jpg
HMS 'Tiger' taking the 'Schakerloo' in the harbour of Cadiz, 23 February 1674

Class and type: 1706 Establishment 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line
Tons burthen: 712
Length: 130 ft (39.6 m) (gundeck)
Beam: 35 ft (10.7 m)
Depth of hold: 14 ft (4.3 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Complement: 281 officers and men (including 57 marines)
Armament:
  • 50 guns:
  • Gundeck: 22 × 18 pdrs
  • Upper gundeck: 22 × 9 pdrs
  • Quarterdeck: 4 × 6 pdrs
  • Forecastle: 2 × 6 pdrs
large (1).jpg
This ship is viewed from the starboard quarter as she is under way. The ensign and masts have been added to the offset but no yards – the spars from which sails are set – are depicted. The ‘Tiger’ was rebuilt in 1681 and this drawing illustrates the new ‘Tiger.’ The ship was rebuilt with the royal arms in a small panel above the row of stern windows, in place of a single large royal coat of arms. Instead of a ship’s badge, the new ‘Tiger’ had a quarter-gallery (a balcony-like structure coming out of the ship’s stern). In addition, the ship also had wreathed ports in the place of square decorated ones. There are several comparable drawings of the ‘Tiger’ in the Boymans Museum, Rotterdam. One is a drawing of the old ‘Tiger’ (built 1647), dating to 1676 (MB 1866/ T 387) and showing the ship from slightly abaft the port beam. There are three other depictions of the new ‘Tiger’: a port quarter view (MB 1866/ T 356); a starboard bow view (MB 1866/ T 357); and a port bow view (MB 1866/T 355). This is a faint offset, rubbed on the back in the same direction as the original in the Ingram Collection (presumably PAG6250), which means that it is presumably the second offset. It has been dated by its subject and watermark.

large (2).jpg
Portrait of the ‘Tiger’, 48 guns, viewed from slightly abaft the starboard beam. She was built in 1647, she was rebuilt in 1681 and 1702. There is a flagstaff forward as though she had just been launched. The ship’s ports are all wreathed. There are sixteen sweep-ports, two between each of the gundeck ports except the aftermost two and possibly the foremost two as well. It is probably based on an offset, accurately worked up with pencil and wash in much the same manner as the Younger, but the generally laboured effect is more like the Elder. The slight pen-work on the guns was probably added at the same time as the Younger’s inscription. The flagstaff forward suggests that the original drawing was made at the ship’s launching in 1681, but guns are shown in every port, which would be unusual at launching.

History
Tyger served in many actions in a career of nearly 100 years, including the Siege of Colchester during the English Civil War, the pursuit of Prince Rupert to the West Indies, and the First and Second Anglo–Dutch Wars (including the Battle of Solebay). She served in the Mediterranean, in the defense of Gibraltar, in actions against Guadeloupe and Martiniqueand the blockade of Cartagena, Colombia in 1741.

Tyger was rebuilt for the first time in 1681 by John Shish at Deptford Dockyard as a 44-gun fourth rate ship of the line. She was rebuilt a second time at Rotherhithe in 1702, as a fourth rate of 46-54 guns. Her final rebuild was at Sheerness Dockyard, where she was relaunched on 12 November 1722 as a 50-gun fourth rate to the 1706 Establishment.

large (3).jpg
A view from slightly before the starboard beam of the English 46-gun ship ‘Tiger’, which was built in 1647 as a 44-gun fourth rate, then rebuilt in 1681 and again in 1702. The drawing concentrates on detailing the design of the vessel, showing wreathed ports above and two sweep-ports between each port on the gun deck, but also shows the decks crowded with figures. It is probably an offset, well worked up.

Shipwreck
In December 1741 Tyger was assigned to blockade duty off the western tip of Cuba, under the command of Captain Edward Herbert. He had learned from the captured crew of a small Cuban sailing vessel (a periagua) that Spanish ships were preparing to sail in both directions between Havana, Cuba and Vera Cruz, Mexico. Early in 1742, anxious to capture a valuable prize, Captain Herbert left his assigned station to move closer to the expected path of the shipping between Havana and Vera Cruz.

On 11 January, the Tyger approached low-lying islands. The officers became confused, first correctly identifying the islands as the Dry Tortugas, and then mistakenly identifying them as the Reques Keys on the Grand Bahama Bank. That night the ship grounded on a reef. The ship was successfully backed off the reef, but there was no anchor ready to be dropped, and the ship ran upon the reef again, this time for good.

The ship's crew transferred to Garden Key, taking food and water with them. A rumor spread among the men that, since the ship was wrecked and they were on dry land, they were free of naval discipline. Captain Herbert told the men that they were still under naval authority, and that all needed to work together to save themselves. A camp was established on the island, using sailcloth for tents to shelter men and supplies. On 18 January, the ship's longboat, with nine men, sailed for New Providence in the Bahamas to seek help for the stranded crew. The voyage was expected to be short, as the officers still believed they had wrecked on the Reques Keys, in the Bahamas.

Fearing discovery by the Spanish, Captain Herbert had the 9-pounder and 6-pounder guns moved to the island from the ship and installed on newly constructed gun platforms. The 18-pounder guns were raised from the main deck (which was now at the waterline of the partially sunken ship) to the upper deck, so that they could be used to defend the camp on the island.

Three weeks after the longboat left, the ship's yawl, with eight men under the command of Second Lieutenant Craig, also sailed to seek help from New Providence. After sailing about 100 miles, the yawl reached what Lieutenant Craig recognized as the "islands of Cape Florida" (the upper Florida Keys), where the yawl encountered some Spanish boats. A Spanish sloop chased the yawl, and Lieutenant Craig decided to return to Garden Key. Captain Herbert immediately sent a force of seamen and marines to try to capture some of the Spanish boats. The expedition found an abandoned, heavily damaged sloop which they were able to sail back to Garden Key.

large (4).jpg
One of many drawings recording Charles II’s visit to the newly rebuilt ‘Tiger’ at Woolwich, (17-27 August 1681) before she sailed under Lord Charles Berkeley for the Mediterranean. After dining on board he went on to Sheerness and Chatham in the yachts, returning up the Thames the following day. This drawing shows a near view of the ‘Tiger’ from slightly abaft the starboard beam, rowing with seven sweeps out forward, fore course and topsail clewed up, other sails furled and a flag at the mizzen. A barge is alongside, the colour of its gunwale being noted as ‘blau’ (blue), and another is under her stern. There are two men-of-war and a yacht in the background. The tops of the staffs at the fore and main are not shown but there appear to be streamers flying from them. As Berkeley was only a captain in 1681 the flag at the mizzen may be that of a visiting flag-officer (rear-admiral), since other drawings show the King only flew the royal standard. The drawing bears the original inscription ‘No 11’ and is probably, though not certainly, the first (PAH3921) which survives in a series of over eighty of this event. Others in the NMM are PAH1870, PAH1871, PAH1872, PAF6616, PAH1873, PAF6615 and PAH3922, bearing original nos. 19, 36, 44, 45, 60 and 66. Others which Robinson records are, in original numerical order, nos. 67–75, 77, 79–80, 82, 84–86 and two unnumbered: of these nos. 67–73 are in the Boymans Museum, Rotterdam, and the remainder in the Rijksmusum, Amsterdam.

Discovery by the Spanish
On 20 February a Spanish half-galley approached the wreck of the Tyger. The men working on the wreck retreated to shore and the company prepared to defend itself. The Spanish, however, merely scavenged some spars from the wreck to replace their mast and sailed away the next day. Two days later a Spanish sloop approached Garden Key. The crew set fire to the wreck of the Tyger and again prepared to defend themselves. During a parley under a flag of truce, the Spanish informed the English that their longboat had been captured, with three of the crew killed and the rest imprisoned in Havana. After an offer of food and water was refused by the Tyger, the Spanish sloop sailed away. In 1743 the Governor of Cuba claimed, in connection with the wreck of the Tyger, that the Spanish had attacked and taken a launch and a sloop, and killed twelve Englishmen.

The crew had been on reduced-rations since the end of the first week on the island. Some of the crewmen, noting that there were ample supplies of water and rum, went to the captain to ask for an increase in their rations, but he chased them off with threats. The men then asked Royal Marine Lieutenant Scott to intercede for them. When Scott presented a petition to Captain Herbert on behalf of the men, Herbert had Scott arrested. The captain then explained to the crew that he did not know how long it would be until they could leave the island, and then read them the Articles of War. The next day the captain increased the water ration by one pint per man.

On 7 March the Spanish sloop returned to the island. Although the sloop was well-armed and manned, Captain Herbert resolved to try to capture it. A total of 96 men boarded the captain's barge, the yawl, a periagua (three periaguas had been captured near Cuba and carried on the Tyger) and a canoe and attacked the sloop. Although the boarding parties reached the deck of the sloop, the Spanish were able to force them back and sail away. The barge was sunk and several men wounded, but none of the Tyger's crew were killed.

large (5).jpg
Portait of the 'Tiger' (PAG6229)

Voyage to Jamaica and court-martial
Preparations were made to leave Garden Key. The salvaged sloop was repaired, and one periagua was lengthened and rigged as a schooner. On 19 March the crew of the Tyger boarded the sloop, the schooner rigged periagua, the yawl, the two other periaguas and the canoe, and set sail for Port Royal. The canoe capsized and sank after only two days, but its crew were rescued by one of the other boats. The little fleet rounded the western end of Cuba and reached the Cayman Islands in two weeks, but was then becalmed for three weeks. Captain Herbert then sent the schooner, which was a slow sailer, along the southern coast of Cuba, while the sloop towed the rest of the boats directly to Jamaica. After six days they reached the western end of Jamaica, where they were able to obtain water and supplies, but it took another three weeks to reach Port Royal.

In Port Royal Captain Herbert brought charges against Lieutenants Craig and Dennis for "remissness of duty" in the attack on the Spanish sloop, and against Lieutenant Scott for "mutinous behavior". A court-martial was convened to try the lieutenants, as well as Captain Herbert for the loss of his ship. Based on the testimony of crewmen and the ship's surgeon, Lieutenants Craig and Dennis were acquitted of the charges. The court found that Lieutenant Scott had acted out of inexperience and impudence, rather than mutinous intent, and sentenced him to a severe reprimand. Captain Herbert was found guilty of leaving his assigned patrol station, and of not having prepared an anchor to be dropped when the Tyger had entered shallow water, and thus losing his ship. In consideration of Captain Herbert's leadership in saving his crew and bringing them safely to Jamaica, he was sentenced only to loss of all pay for his service on the Tyger, and the court recommended that he be continued in service in the Royal Navy.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Tyger
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-354360;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=T
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1758 – Launch of HMS Active, a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate sailing frigate


HMS Active was a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate sailing frigate of the Royal Navy, launched in 1758. She was one of the captors of the Spanish ship Hermione. After Hermione surrendered, her captors found that she carried a large cargo of gold and silver that would lead to the greatest single amount of prize money awarded to the crew of a British warship.

On 1 September 1778 two French frigates captured Active after a storm had dismasted her. The French Navy took Active into service under her existing name. She was broken up in 1795.

Construction
John_Cleveley_the_Elder_-_A_Sixth-Rate_on_the_Stocks.jpg
The docks at Rotherhithe, where Active was constructed in 1757–58.

Active was oak-built, one of 18 vessels forming part of the Coventry class of frigates. The naval architect Sir Thomas Slade designed the class to the dimensions of HMS Tartar, which had been launched in 1756 and was responsible for capturing five French privateers in her first twelve months at sea. The Admiralty issued contracts for Active's construction to commercial shipwright Thomas Stanton of Rotherhithe on 23 May 1757, with the stipulation that he complete the work within nine months. Her keel was laid on 13 June 1757 and work proceeded apace, with the new-built vessel launched ahead of schedule on 11 January 1758. As built, Active was 118 ft 4 in (36.1 m) long with a 97 ft 5 in (29.7 m) keel, a beam of 33 ft 10 in (10.31 m), and with a burthen of 59487⁄94 tons (bm). Construction costs were £6,229, paid on a contract rate of £10 and 12 shillings per ton (bm).

Class and type: 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate frigate
Displacement: 850 tons (French)
Tons burthen: 594 87⁄94 bm
Length:
  • 118 ft 4 in (36.1 m) (gundeck)
  • 97 ft 5 3⁄8 in (29.7 m) (keel)
Beam: 33 ft 10 1⁄2 in (10.3 m)
Depth of hold: 10 ft 6 in (3.20 m)
Sail plan: Full-rigged ship
Complement:
  • British service:200 officers and men
  • French service:130 (peace) and 210 (war)
Armament:
  • British service
  • Upperdeck: 24 × 9-pounder guns
  • QD: 4 × 3-pounder guns
  • 12 × 1⁄2-pounder swivel guns
  • French service (from 1780):
  • Upper deck:24 x 9-pounder guns
  • Spar deck:6 x 4-pounder guns + 6 x 18-pounder carronades (British)
  • French service (from 1793):
  • Upper deck:24 x 8-pounder guns
  • Spar deck:6 x 4-pounder guns

In late February 1758 Active sailed to Deptford Dockyard to receive her guns and naval stores, and to embark her crew of 200 officers and men. Her armament comprised 24 nine-pounder cannons located along her gun deck, supported by four three-pounder cannons on the quarterdeck and twelve ½-pounder swivel guns ranged along her sides.

'Favourite'_and_'Active'_taking_Hermione.jpg
Active (right) engaging the Spanish frigate Hermione (centre) in 1762: sketch by Richard Wright

British career
Seven Years' War

Active was commissioned in January 1758 under the command of Captain Richard Hughes, entering Navy service during the early stages of the Seven Years' War against France. Her fitout and crewing were completed on 2 March and she put to sea to join a British squadron under Commodore Richard Howe. Howe's orders were to capture or destroy French ports, disable commercial shipping, and divert French land forces from Germany. To this end, between June and September 1758 Active was involved in Navy bombardment and landings at the ports of St Malo and Cherbourg, and was present for the unsuccessful British landings during the Battle of Saint Cast.

Captain Hughes left the vessel in December 1758 and was replaced three months later by Captain Herbert Sawyer. Active then joined Admiral Edward Boscawen's Mediterranean fleet and spent several uneventful months cruising off the French port of Toulon. In mid-1759 Boscawen's fleet put into Gibraltar for repairs, but returned to sea on 17 August when word reached the port that the French were nearby. As part of the fleet, Active played a supporting role in the British victory in the Battle of Lagos on the following day. She returned to England in December 1759, escorting a transport carrying cannons salvaged from wrecked French vessels after the Battle of Quiberon Bay. The voyage was a stormy one, with Active losing her mizzen mast in bad weather off the port of Plymouth.

The frigate next saw action on 31 May 1762, when in company with HMS Favourite she chased down and captured the Spanish treasure ship Hermione off Cape St Mary. Hermione was en route from Lima to Cadiz, carrying a cargo of dollars, gold coin, ingots of gold and silver, cocoa, and blocks of tin. Her crew were unaware that war had been declared between Spain and Britain, and swiftly surrendered when the British ships engaged her. Active, Favourite, and HMS Neptune subsequently escorted Hermione and her cargo to London for remittance to the Crown.

Contemporary accounts estimated the value of Hermione's cargo at £852,000. However, when the ship was condemned as a prize her cargo, hull, and fittings were eventually valued at £519,705 10s 0d, approximately £71.2 million at 2015 prices. This nonetheless represented the single richest capture from any naval action during the Seven Years' War. The captains of Active and Favourite each received £64,872 as prize money – a sum worth approximately £8.89 million at 2015 prices. Ordinary seamen on both ships received £480 each, equivalent to 33 years' wages. One of the crew purchased a gold watch and then melted it in a frying pan for the amusement of his crew mates.

large (6).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half breadth for Argo (1758), Active (1758), Aquilon (1758), Milfrord (1759), and later in 1758 for Guadeloupe (1763), and in 1764 for Carysfort (1766), then in 1782 for Laurel (cancelled 1783 and not built), and Hind (1785)a 28-gun, Sixth Rate Frigates.

Later service
In early 1763 as war with France was drawing to a close, the Navy declared Active surplus to requirements and returned her to Deptford Dockyard for decommissioning. After several months in port she returned to sea in August 1763 under Captain Robert Carkett and sailed for the Royal Navy's Jamaica station on 7 October. She remained there for the next four years until, battered by this extensive service in tropical waters, she returned to Sheerness Dockyardwhere the Navy decommissioned her for a second time.

A survey on 21 February 1770 found Active in poor condition and she was hauled out of the water for major repairs. Works took more than eighteen months at a cost of £9,820 – nearly one third more than her original construction price.[3][e] Recommissioned in March 1771 under Captain William Peere Williams, she was not finally ready for sea until August. On 22 September 1771 she sailed for the West Indies, and then on to the British Leeward Islands in 1772.

Captain Williams became ill in July 1773. At his request, Admiralty reassigned Active to Newfoundland so that he could recover in what was considered a more healthy climate than that of the Caribbean; but his condition did not improve and on 11 October he transferred to another vessel and returned to England. No new commander was assigned to Active and in 1774 she returned to Portsmouth Dockyard, where she was decommissioned for a third time. After a year at Portsmouth she returned to active service in October 1775 under another Captain William Williams, unrelated to his predecessor. On 12 February 1776 she sailed for the North America station. War with France resumed in February 1777, and Active was transferred back to the Jamaica Station for the protection of British commercial vessels.

Capture
In August 1778 Active was at sea in the Caribbean when a hurricane caught her and dismasted her. The crew had to throw 11 of her guns overboard to lighten her and prevent her capsizing in the storm. On 1 September she encountered the French frigates Charmante and Dédaigneuse off San Domingo as they escorted a convoy from Port au Prince. Williams fired two broadsides and then struck Active's colours. Reportedly, the need to surrender caused Williams to die soon after "of mortification".

French career and fate
The French Navy took Active into service under her existing name. In November 1789 she was on the Martinique station and under the command of capitaine de vaisseau Jean Baptiste Prévost de Sansac, marquis de Traversay. When news of the fall of the Bastille reached the island, French troops there revolted and were sent home. In April 1790 Traversay sailed Active to Lorient as she repatriated troops from Martinique. Active was condemned in November 1794 at Brest and broken up in 1795.

large (7).jpg
Scale 1:96. Plan showing the quater deck and forecastle, upper deck, lower deck and fore & aft platforms for Active (1758), a 28-gun, Sixth Rate Frigate, as taken off at Sheerness Dockyard. Signed Ed Hunt (Master Shipwright, 1767-1772) NMM Progress Book, volume 5, folio 283, states that 'Active' arrived at Sheerness on 25 May 1769 and was docked on 12 January 1770. She was sheathed and graved in February and March 1771. Active was undocked on 1 March 1771 having undergone a large repair. She was fitted in June, and sailed on 9 August 1771.


The Coventry-class frigates were 28-gun sixth rate frigates of the Royal Navy, principally in service during the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. They were designed in 1756 by Britain's Surveyor of the Navy, Sir Thomas Slade, and were largely modeled on HMS Tartar, which was regarded as an exemplar among small frigates due to its speed and maneuverability. The 1750s were a period of considerable experimentation in ship design, and Slade authorized individual builders to make "such alterations withinboard as may be judged necessary" in final construction.

A total of twelve Coventry-class frigates were built in oak during the Seven Years' War. Eleven of these were ordered from private shipyards and built over the relatively short period of three years; the twelfth was completed following the close of the War in a royal dockyard after its original contractor became bankrupt.

A variant was designed for building with fir hulls rather than oak; five vessels were built to this design, all in Royal Dockyards. these five vessels differed in external appearance to the oak-built frigates, as they had a square tuck stern. The use of fir instead of oak increased the speed of construction but reduced the frigate's durability over time.

More than a quarter-century after the design was produced, two further oak-built ships to this design were ordered to be built by contract in October 1782. One of these was cancelled a year later, when the builder became bankrupt.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Active_(1758)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coventry-class_frigate
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-289160;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=A
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1788 – Death of François Joseph Paul de Grasse, French admiral (b. 1722)


François Joseph Paul, comte de Grasse (13 September 1722 – 11 January 1788) was a career French officer who achieved the rank of admiral. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781 in the last year of the American Revolutionary War. It led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown and helped gain the rebels' victory.

After this action, Grasse returned with his fleet to the Caribbean. In 1782 British Admiral Rodney decisively defeated and captured Grasse at the Battle of the Saintes. Grasse was widely criticised for his loss in that battle. On his return to France in 1784, he demanded a court martial; it acquitted him of fault in his defeat.

His grown children from his marriages all emigrated to Saint-Domingue, his eldest son Auguste assigned there as a naval officer, and joined by his stepmother and sisters after the father's death. They had lost property in the French Revolution. He was among French officers who surrendered to the British during the Haitian Revolution. Auguste and his four sisters went as refugees to Charleston, South Carolina, where two sisters died of yellow fever. One married and founded a family line with her husband in New York City. Grasse's natural, adopted Indian-French son, George de Grasse, emigrated to New York City by 1799, where he married and made his adult life. The admiral's eldest son, known as Auguste de Grasse, returned to France after Napoleon came to power, and re-entered the military. He inherited his father's title as count.

De_Grasse_painting.jpg

Years of service 1734–1784
Rank Lieutenant général des armées navales
Battles/wars
War of the Austrian Succession
American War of Independence


Naval career
At the age of eleven (1734), Grasse entered the Order of Saint John as a page of the Grand Master. He served as an ensign on the galleys in battles against the Turks and the Moors.[5][6] In 1740 at the age of 17, he formally entered the French Navy.

He participated in French naval action in India during the Seven Years War. He was intermittently stationed in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India, from the 1760s to 1781.

Following Britain's victory over the French in the Seven Years War, Grasse helped rebuild the French navy in the years after the Treaty of Paris (1763).

American War of Independence
Main article: Franco-American alliance

Whitcombe,_Battle_of_the_Saints.jpg
The flagship Ville de Paris during the Battle of the Saintes in 1782

In 1775, the American War of Independence broke out when American colonists rebelled against British rule. France supplied the colonists with covert aid, but remained officially neutral until 1778. The Treaty of Alliance (1778) established the Franco-American alliance, and France entered the war on behalf of the rebels and against Great Britain.

As a commander of a division, Comte de Grasse served under Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers at the First Battle of Ushant from July 23 to 27, 1778. The battle, fought off Britanny, was indecisive.

In 1779, he joined the fleet of Count d'Estaing in the Caribbean as commander of a squadron; they were operating to counter the Royal Navy of Britain. He contributed to the capture of Grenada that year, and took part in the three actions fought by Guichen against Admiral Rodney in the Battle of Martinique (1780). Grasse was promoted to lieutenant-general of the Navy (equivalent to vice-admiral) in March 1781, and was successful in defeating Admiral Samuel Hood and taking Tobago.


US Postage Stamp, 1931 issue, honoring Rochambeau, George Washington and Grasse, commemorating the 150th anniversary of the victory at Siege of Yorktown, 1781.

Yorktown campaign
Main articles: Battle of the Chesapeake and Yorktown Campaign
Grasse responded to Washington and Rochambeau's Expédition Particulière when they appealed for his aid in 1781, setting sail with 3,000 troops from Saint-Domingue, where the French Caribbean fleet was based. Grasse landed the French reinforcements in Virginia. Immediately afterward he decisively defeated the British fleet in the Battle of the Chesapeake in September 1781. He drew away the British forces and blockaded the coast until Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, ensuring the independence of the new United States of America.

Battle of the Saintes
Main article: Battle of the Saintes
Grasse returned his fleet to the Caribbean. He was less fortunate in 1782 and defeated at the Battle of St. Kitts by Admiral Hood. Shortly afterward, in April 1782, Admiral de Grasse was defeated and taken prisoner by Admiral Rodney at the Battle of the Saintes. He was taken to London for a time. While there, he briefly took part in the negotiations that laid the foundations for the Peace of Paris (1783), which brought the American Revolutionary War to an end. It also realigned control of some of the Caribbean islands.

Grasse was released to return to France, where he was strongly criticized for his defeat in the Caribbean. He published a Mémoire justificatif and demanded a court-martial. In 1784 he was acquitted of fault in the Battle of the Saintes.

Later life
Grasse was a Commander of the Order of St. Louis and a Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He was also a member of the American Society of the Cincinnati.

Admiral de Grasse died at Tilly (Yvelines) in 1788; his tomb is in the church of Saint-Roch in Paris.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/François_Joseph_Paul_de_Grasse
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1794 - HMS Juno (32), Cptn. Samuel Hood, having unwarily entered Toulon after the British evacuation came under fire from shore batteries but escaped.


HMS Juno was at Toulon during its period of British control under Samuel Hood, Juno's captain's cousin once removed. Unaware that Toulon had fallen to French republican forces, and desiring to deliver 107 Maltese and 46 Marines embarked in Malta to reinforce Lord Hood's forces, Captain Hood sailed into the port at night on 11 January 1794, several days after the evacuation of the British forces. After anchorimg, Juno was boarded by 13 armed men. On being informed that British forces had left and that he and his ship's company were now prisoners of war, Captain Hood ordered cables to be cut and immediately set sail with the 13 French officials aboard as prisoners, whereupon Juno received a broadside from a nearby brig and came under point-blank fire from French batteries, but was able to escape with only light damage.


HMS Juno was a Royal Navy 32-gun Amazon-class fifth rate. This frigate served during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

Construction and commissioning
Juno was ordered on 21 October 1778 and laid down in December that year at the yards of the shipbuilder Robert Batson & Co, of Limehouse. She was launched on 30 September 1780 and completed by 14 December 1780 that year at Deptford Dockyard.[2] £8,500 1s 5d was paid to the builder, with a further £8,184 18s 1d being spent on fitting her out and having her coppered.

large (8).jpg
JUNO 1780 lines & profile Date: NMM, Progress Book, volume 5, folio 245, states that 'Andromache' was begun in June 1780 at Adams & Barnard on the River Thames. She was launched 17 Nvoember and sent to Deptford Dockyard for fitting. It is likely to be her as 'Ambuscade' was launched in 1773.
lines & profile Date: NMM, Progress Book, volume 5, folio 245, states that 'Andromache' was begun in June 1780 at Adams & Barnard on the River Thames. She was launched 17 Nvoember and sent to Deptford Dockyard for fitting. It is likely to be her as 'Ambuscade' was launched in 1773.



Class and type: 32-gun Amazon-class fifth rate
Tons burthen: 689 29⁄94 (bm)
Length:
  • 126 ft 6 1⁄2 in (38.6 m) (overall)
  • 104 ft 7 1⁄2 in (31.9 m) (keel)
Beam: 35 ft 2 1⁄4 in (10.7 m)
Draught: 8 ft (2.4 m)
Depth of hold: 12 ft 1 1⁄2 in (3.7 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Complement: 220
Armament:
  • Upper deck: 26 × 12-pounder guns
  • QD: 4 × 6-pounder guns + 4 × 18-pounder carronades
  • Fc: 2 × 6-pounder guns + 2 × 18-pounder carronades

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Inboard profile plan Date: NMM, Progress Book, volume 5, folio 231, and volume 6, folio 494 states that 'Ambuscade' arrived at Deptford Dockyard 9 August 1809 and was taken to pieces in June 1810. There is no evidence that she was fitted for a Troopship in May 1810.

Early years
Juno was commissioned under the command of her first captain, James Montagu, in September 1780. Montagu commanded her for the next five years, initially in British waters and the Atlantic.

On 10 February 1781 Juno and the sloop Zebra captured the American privateer Revanche (or Revenge) off Beachy Head. Montagu then sailed the Juno in early 1782 to join Richard Bickerton's squadron operating in the East Indies.

She was present at the Battle of Cuddalore on 20 June 1783, and returned to Britain to be paid off in March 1785. After fitting out the following month Juno was placed in ordinary. She spent the next five years in this state, with the exception of a small repair at Woolwich Dockyard in 1788 at a cost of £9,042.

French Revolutionary Wars
Juno returned to active service in May 1790, now under the command of Captain Samuel Hood. Hood sailed to Jamaica in mid-1790, but had returned to Britain and paid off the Juno in September 1791. Hood however remained in command, and the Juno was fitted out and recommissioned, undergoing a refit at Portsmouth in January 1793. Hood initially cruised in the English Channel after the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, capturing the privateers Entreprenant on 17 February, Palme on 2 March and, together with HMS Aimable, Laborieux in April.

Hood was then transferred to the Mediterranean in May 1793.

Juno was at Toulon during its period of British control under Samuel Hood, Juno's captain's cousin once removed. Unaware that Toulon had fallen to French republican forces, and desiring to deliver 107 Maltese and 46 Marines embarked in Malta to reinforce Lord Hood's forces, Captain Hood sailed into the port at night on 11 January 1794, several days after the evacuation of the British forces. After anchorimg, Juno was boarded by 13 armed men. On being informed that British forces had left and that he and his ship's company were now prisoners of war, Captain Hood ordered cables to be cut and immediately set sail with the 13 French officials aboard as prisoners, whereupon Juno received a broadside from a nearby brig and came under point-blank fire from French batteries, but was able to escape with only light damage.

On 7 February 1794 Juno and the 74-gun HMS Fortitude carried out an attack on a tower at Mortella Point, on the coast of Corsica. The design of the tower allowed it to hold out against the British for several days, and inspired the design of the subsequent Martello Towers constructed in Great Britain and other British possessions.

Captain Lord Amelius Beauclerk succeeded Hood, who returned to Britain with a convoy in October 1795, and paid her off in January the following year.

On 11 May 1797 Juno had anchored at San Juan, Puerto Rico, taking aboard the British prisoners of war of the British siege on San Juan, that had ended 10 days earlier. She carried these freed prisoners to Jamaica.

Juno was repaired and refitted at Deptford for the sum of £20,442. She was recommissioned in August 1798 under the command of Captain George Dundas. She operated with a British squadron in Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799 that resulted in the surrender on 13 August, without firing of a shot, of a Dutch squadron of one small 74, six 64s, two 50s, and six 44s, five frigates, three corvettes, and one brig.

Schiermonnikoog
On 11 August 1799, the 16-gun sloop Pylades, under Captain Adam Mackenzie, the 16-gun brig-sloop Espiegle, under Captain James Boorder, the 12-gun hired cutter Courier, and Juno and Latona, which sent their boats, mounted an attack on Crash, which was moored between the island of Schiermonnikoog and Groningen.

Pylades and Espiegle engaged Crash, which surrendered after a strong resistance. MacKenzie immediately put Crash into service under Lieutenant James Slade, Latona's first lieutenant. In the attack, Pylades lost one man killed and three wounded. Juno lost one man killed when the boats attacked a gun-schooner.

The next day the British captured one schyut and burnt a second. MacKenzie put Lieutenant Salusbury Pryce Humphreys of Juno on the captured schuyt after arming her with two 12-pounder carronades and naming her the Undaunted.

On 13 August the British attacked the Dutch schooner Vengeance (or Weerwrack or Waarwrick), of six cannons (two of them 24-pounders), and a battery on Schiermonnikoog. The British were able to burn the Vengeance and spike the battery's four guns. They also captured a rowboat with 30 men and two brass 4-pounder field pieces, and spiked another 12-pounder. The Courier grounded but was saved. Including Undaunted, the British captured three schuyts or galiots, the Vier Vendou, the Jonge Gessina and one other. The battle would earn those seamen who survived until 1847 the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Schiermonnikoog 12 Augt. 1799".

On 12 February 1800 Juno and Busy sailed for Jamaica as escorts to a convoy of 150 merchant vessels.

On 2 June Juno and Melampus, were in company when they captured Volante. On 1 October Juno, Melampus, and Retribution were in company when they captured the Aquila.

Napoleonic Wars
Captain Isaac Manley took command in 1802, paying off Juno in the middle of the year. A further refit followed, with Juno returning to sea under the command of Captain Henry Richardson. Richardson took Juno to the Mediterranean in April 1803. Between 1 and 3 August 1803, Juno and Morgiana captured three vessels: Santissima Trinita, Parthenope, and Famosa. Then on the 21st, Juno and Morgiana captured San Giorgio.

On 8 September Juno was eight leagues off Cape Sparivento when she captured the French bombarde privateer Quatre Fils, of Nice. Quatre Fils was armed with four guns (12 and 9-pounders), and had a crew of 78 men.

In 1805 Juno and several other frigates and sloops arrived at Gibraltar where Nelson employed them to harass coastal shipping that was resupplying the Franco-Spanish fleet at Cadiz.

In 1806 Juno was then active in the Bay of Naples, supporting Sidney Smith's operations there. When Smith had arrived in Palermo on 21 April 1806 he found that Gaeta still held out against the French even though the Neapolitan government had had to cede the capital. Smith had immediately sent two convoys to Gaeta with supplies and ammunition and landed four 32-poundeer guns from Excellent. Smith also stationed Juno off Gaeta, where she was in a flotilla together with the Neapolitan frigate Minerva, Captain Vieugna, and 12 Neapolitan gun-boats.

Next, the French erected a battery of four guns on the point of La Madona della Catena. The Prince of Hesse-Philipstad put 60 men from the garrison at Gaeta in four fishing-boats and on the night of 12 May Richardson took them and the boats from Juno and Minerva to a small bay in the French rear. As the boats reached shore, the French signaled the attack and abandoned the battery. The landing party spiked the guns and destroyed the carriages unopposed. It then re-embarked, having sustained no losses.

On 15 May the garrison at Gaeta made another modestly successful sortie. Two divisions of gunboats supported the operation. Richardson commanded one division. Juno's boats, under the command of Lieutenant Thomas Wells, assisted by Lieutenant of marines Robert M. Mant joined the attack. Juno's boats sustained the allies' only loss, which consisted of four seamen killed and five wounded.

On 18 July 1806 the French under André Masséna captured Gaeta after an heroic defence. In 1809 it became a duché grand-fief in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples, but under the French name "Gaete", for finance minister Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin.

Fate
Captain Charles Schomberg succeeded Richardson in February 1807. Captain Granville Proby replaced Schomberg in July that year, with orders to sail Juno back to Britain. She was placed in ordinary at Woolwich after her arrival, and was broken up there in July 1811


The Amazon-class frigates of 1773, made up of 32-gun fifth rates with a main battery of 12-pounder guns.

It comprised eighteen ships; Amazon, Ambuscade and Thetis were launched in 1773; the second batch - Cleopatra, Amphion, Orpheus, Juno, Success, Iphigenia, Andromache, Syren, Iris, Greyhound, Meleager, Castor, Solebay, Terpsichore and Blonde - were launched in 1779 to 1787

large (10).jpg
Inboard profile plan Date: NMM, Progress Book, volume 5, folio 231, and volume 6, folio 494 states that 'Ambuscade' arrived at Deptford Dockyard 9 August 1809 and was taken to pieces in June 1810. There is no evidence that she was fitted for a Troopship in May 1810.

large (11).jpg large (12).jpg

Amazon (Thetis) class 32-gun fifth rates 1773-87; 18 ships, designed by John Williams.
  • HMS Thetis 1773 - ran onto a rock and sank near Saint Lucia on 12 May 1781.
  • HMS Amazon 1773 - broken up in 1794.
  • HMS Ambuscade 1773 - taken by the French corvette Bayonnaise in 1798, retaken by HMS Victory in 1803, broken up 1810.
  • HMS Cleopatra 1779 - broken up 1814.
  • HMS Amphion 1780 - accidentally caught fire and blew up at Portsmouth on 22 September 1796.
  • HMS Orpheus 1780 - wrecked on a coral reef in the West Indies on 23 January 1807.
  • HMS Juno 1780 - broken up 1811.
  • HMS Success 1781 - taken by the French in the Mediterranean on 13 February 1801, retaken seven month later by HMS Pomone on 2 September, converted to troopship in 1812, hulked as prison ship at Halifax in 1813, broken up in 1820.
  • HMS Iphigenia 1780 - hulked as prison hospital ship at Plymouth in 1798, converted to troopship in 1801, accidentally burnt in the same year.
  • HMS Andromache 1781 - broken up 1811.
  • HMS Syren (or Siren) 1782 - hulked as lazaretto at Pembroke in 1805, broken up in 1822.
  • HMS Iris 1783 - on lease to Trinity House between 1803 and 1805, hulked as receiving ship at Yarmouth in 1811, presented to the Marine Society as a training ship, broken up in 1833.
  • HMS Greyhound 1783 - wrecked in the Philippines on 4 October 1808.
  • HMS Meleager 1785 - wrecked on Triangle Bank in the Gulf of Mexico on 9 June 1801.
  • HMS Castor 1785 - sold 1819.
  • HMS Solebay 1785 - on lease to Trinity House from 1803 to 1806, wrecked in action with a Senegalese fort on 11 June 1809.
  • HMS Terpsichore 1785 - hulked as receiving ship at Chatham in 1811, broken up 1813.
  • HMS Blonde 1787 - hulked for stationary service at Portsmouth in 1803, sold 1805.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Juno_(1780)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon-class_frigate_(1773)
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-322439;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=J
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1803 - Hindostan, an East Indiaman of the East India Company, wrecked


Hindostan was an East Indiaman of the East India Company. She was a large vessel of 1,463 tons (bm), launched in 1796 to replace a previous Hindostan that the Royal Navy had bought and turned into a Fourth Rate ship of the line. Her owner was Robert Williams, M.P., who had been the owner of the previous Hindostan.

She made three complete voyages. She was lost on her fourth voyage, wrecking at Margate in January 1803.

Class and type: East Indiaman
Tons burthen: 1248, or 1463, or 1518 (bm)
Length: 176 ft 9 in (53.9 m) (overall); 143 ft 10 3⁄4 in (43.9 m) (keel)
Beam: 43 ft 8 3⁄4 in (13.3 m)
Depth of hold: 17 ft 6 in (5.3 m)
Complement:
  • 1st letter of marque: 150
  • 2nd letter of marque:100
Armament: 30 × 12-pounder guns

large (13).jpg
This painting has the alternative title 'Ships of the East India Company at Sea' but was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1803 as 'The Hindostan, G. Millet[t], commander, and senior officer of eighteen sail of East Indiamen, with the signal to wear, sternmost and leeward most ships first'. (That is, for the fleet to alter course to the opposite tack, in the sequence indicated, with the wind astern.) It is believed to represent the convoy under George Millett, as commodore, during their return voyage from China early in 1802. The 'Hindostan', in the centre, was a large East Indiaman of 1248 tons, built in 1796 to replace a previous vessel of the same name that had been sold to the Navy. The new 'Hindostan' undertook three voyages in the service of the Company, the last being the one illustrated. On 11 January 1803, at the start of a fourth voyage, she was lost during a heavy gale on Margate Sands with up to thirty of her crew. Eleven of the other vessels in the convoy depicted here are known to have reached their moorings in England between 11 and 14 July 1802: the 'Lord Hawkesbury', 'Worcester', 'Boddam', 'Fort William', 'Airly Castle', 'Lord Duncan', 'Ocean', 'Henry Addington', 'Carnatic', 'Hope' and 'Windham'. The other ships have not been identified but are also presumed to have done so. Pocock placed considerable importance on accuracy and he referred to annotated drawings and sketch plans in the production of his oil paintings. He was born and brought up in Bristol and went to sea at the age of seventeen, rising to be the master of several merchant vessels. Although he only took up painting as a profession in his early forties, he became extremely successful, receiving commissions from naval commanders anxious to have accurate portrayals of actions and ships. By the age of eighty Pocock had recorded nearly forty years of maritime history, demonstrating a meticulous understanding of shipping and rigging with close attention to detail. The painting is signed and dated 1803.

Voyages
As was typical for East Indiamen during wartime, Hindostan made her voyages under a letter of marque, which authorized her to capture enemy vessels should the opportunity arise.

First voyage (1797-1798)
For her first voyage Hindostan was under Captain William Mackintosh, who sailed her to Bombay and China. Before leaving, she had the misfortune to run over Thomas and Alice in Blackwell Reach, sinking the smaller ship. Hindostan left for the Far East on 18 March 1797, via Bombay, Cochin, and Malacca, before arriving at Whampoa on 8 January 1798. For the return voyage she crossed Second Bar on 3 March, reached St Helena on 5 August, and the Downs on 18 October, finally anchoring on 22 October 1798.

Mackintosh had made five earlier voyages for the East India Company, including three as captain of Indiamen. In 1792-94 he was captain of a different Hindostan when he took George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney on Britain's first embassy to China. Mackintosh's letter of marque was dated 7 February 1797.

Second voyage (1799-1800)
For her second voyage, Hindostan was under Captain George Millett. She sailed to China, leaving Portsmouth on 18 June 1799. On the way out she reached Penang on 28 October and Whampoa on 16 January 1800. On her return trip, she reached Anger on 3 May, St Helena on 15 July, and the Downs on 23 September.

Because her captain had changed, Hindostan required a new letter of marque; Millett's was dated 15 April 1799. It would remain valid for his subsequent voyages as well.

Third voyage (1801-1802)
For her third voyage Hindostan was again under Captain George Millet. This was his eighth voyage for the East India Company, and his fifth as a captain. She sailed to the Coast and China, leaving Portsmouth on 31 March 1801. She reached Madras on 26 July, Penang on 28 August, and Whampoa on 29 September. For her return trip she crossed Second Bar on 7 December. She reached St Helena on 12 April 1802 and the Downs on 10 June, before finally anchoring on 13 June.

Fourth voyage and wreck (1803)
Hondostan's fourth voyage was for the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, the Coromandel Coast, and China. She carried mostly woolens and 45,000 ounces of silver bullion in 13 cases for private ventures, not the East India Company. For this voyage her captain was Edward Balston.

Hindostan left London just after the turn of the new year. Unfortunately a severe gale caught her just off Margate on 11 January 1803 and wrecked her on the Wedge Sand. She had about 120 persons aboard, of whom about 20 or 25 lost their lives. A more precise accounting states that 24 lives were lost, including those of three midshipmen. On the morning of the 12th, the Margate hoy Lord Nelson and the pilot sloop Liberty saved the rest. The Court of Directors of the EIC presented the crew of Lord Nelson with 500 guineas for their "gallant and daring rescue of 105 men" from the wreck.

Hindostan_wreck.jpg
Wreck of the Hindostan in 1803

Eleven of the 13 cases of bullion were salvaged. Also 100 bales of wool were salvaged. The Company abandoned the wreck on 24 January. Hindostan's cargo was valued at £100,000. The EIC valued the cargo that it lost at £44,814.

The Whitstable museum has exhibits featuring items from her.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindostan_(1796_Indiaman)
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/12589.html
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1809 - HMS Magnet Sloop (1807 - 18), Lt. George Morris, struck Saltholme Shoal but got off then wrecked on another shoal in the Malmo Channel, Baltic.


HMS Magnet was a Cruizer-class brig-sloop built at Robert Guillaume’s yard at Northam and launched in 1807. She served in the Baltic, where she took two prizes, one an armed privateer, before wrecking in 1809

Class and type: Cruizer-class brig-sloop
Tonnage: 382 41⁄94bm
Length:
  • 100 ft 0 in (30.5 m) (gundeck)
  • 77 ft 3 1⁄2 in (23.6 m) (keel)
Beam: 30 ft 6 in (9.3 m)
Depth of hold: 12 ft 9 in (3.9 m)
Sail plan: Brig rigged
Complement: 121
Armament: 16 x 32-pdr carronades + 2 x 6-pdr long guns


Baltic
She was commissioned under Lieutenant George Morris, who sailed her for the Baltic. During the Finnish War or (Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809) Sweden and Britain were allies and Britain had stationed a squadron there with as its main objective preventing the Russian high seas fleet from putting to sea.

On 2 June 1808. Magnet was in company with the frigate Salsette when they, together with the boats of Centaur and Implacable, captured four Russian vessels carrying corn. They also captured the boat Humbug.

On 20 August, Salsette, the ship sloop Ariel and Magnet joined the squadron under Samuel Hood in Centaur, which was blockading the Russian fleet in Rogerwick Bay. On 30 August Sir James Saumarez arrived in Victory, together with a number of other ships of the line and Cruizer, Magnet's sister and the name ship of their class. A number of other smaller vessels also arrived the next day.

The British made preparations to send in Baltic and Erebus as fire ships but when that proved impossible made no real attempt to attack the Russians. On 30 September the British raised the blockade and sailed for Karlskrona; the Russians immediately sailed for Kronstadt. The bulk of the British fleet, including Saumarez, then departed Karlskrona for Britain, arriving in the Downs on 8 December. Magnet was one of the ships that stayed behind in the Baltic for trade protection purposes.

On 5 December, Magnet took the Danish privateer Paulina after encountering her off the island of Bornholm. Morris had in some manner disguised Magnet and so succeeded in luring Paulina out from her inshore shelter. Magnetthen pursued Paulina throughout the afternoon and finally caught up with her at dusk about two miles off the north end of Bornholm. During the chase Paulina's crew of 42 men tried to lighten their vessel by throwing overboard all but three of her ten 4 and 8-pounder guns. Paulina was 12 days out of Copenhagen and had not captured anything.

Loss
On 23 December 1808, Magnet left Karlskrona as part of the last convoy of the year, in company with four other British warships -Salsette, the brig-sloop Fama, the gun-brig Urgent, and the cutter Salorman - three Swedish naval vessels, and twelve merchant vessels. Unfortunately, the convoy left after an unusually severe winter had set in. Furthermore, a storm coming from the north drove already formed ice onto the convoy.

Fama parted company and was wrecked on the north-east point of Bornholm Island. The convoy sought shelter off Falsterbo on Christmas Day and remained there until 6 January 1809 when the vessels set sail in an attempt to reach Malmö.

Salorman, under the command of Andrew Duncan, was wrecked around 23 December at Ystad. She lost one man but the rest of her officers and men were saved. Urgent left with dispatches for the Baltic on 28 December and survived.

Ice blocked the entrance and the Swedish frigate Camilla and six ships of the convoy went aground. Magnet and three other ships of the convoy grounded on the Saltholm Shoal on 11 January. Magnet was refloated but ran into further difficulties in the ice before her crew finally ran her ashore at Örö, west of Malmö, where she sank. Morris managed to get his entire crew of 120 safely ashore and they eventually arrived in Gothenburg; Magnet was a complete loss.[9][Note 3] The teak-built Salsette escaped after being stuck in the ice for more than two months.

Post-script
Thirty-four years later, in July 1842, Magnet was refloated and taken into Malmö. Her masts, sails and rigging were in good condition. Three skeletons and the well-preserved body of a sailor were found in the ship. A quantity of woolen clothes were reported to have been found in good condition; linen clothes had rotted. Three silver watches found on the ship were deemed repairable.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Magnet_(1807)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1810 - HMS Cherokee (10), Cdr. Richard Arthur, boarded and carried Aimable Nelly (16) anchored near Dieppe pier head under the batteries.


HMS Cherokee was the lead ship of her class of 10-gun brig-sloops of the British Royal Navy, which saw service during the Napoleonic Wars.

Design and construction
Cherokee was ordered on 30 March 1807, based on a design by Henry Peake. The ship was laid down in December 1807 by John Perry at Blackwall Yard, London. As built, the ship had a burthen of 237 38⁄94 tons, and was 90 feet 1 5⁄8 inches (27.47 m) long at the gun deck, and 73 feet 8 5⁄8 inches (22.47 m) at the keel. She was 24 feet 7 inches (7.49 m) wide, and drew 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 m) at the bows and 9 feet 2 inches (2.79 m) aft. The ship was armed with eight 18-pounder carronades, with two 6-pounder guns mounted as bow chasers, and had a complement of 75. She was launched on 24 February 1808.

Class and type: Cherokee-class brig-sloop
Tons burthen: 237 38⁄94 bm
Length:
  • 90 feet 1 5⁄8 inches (27.47 m) (gundeck)
  • 73 feet 8 5⁄8 inches (22.47 m) (keel)
Beam: 24 ft 7 in (7.49 m)
Draught:
  • 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) (forward)
  • 9 ft 2 in (2.79 m) (aft)
Depth of hold: 11 ft 0 in (3.35 m)
Propulsion: Sails
Complement: 75
Armament:
  • Gundeck: 8 × 18-pounder carronades
  • Fc: 2 × 6-pounder guns


Service history
Cherokee was commissioned on 12 April 1808 by Commander Richard Arthur to operate in the English Channel. She captured the French vessels Union and Juene Emma on 2 and 7 March 1809, respectively, with proceeds from the sale of the ships, stores and cargo being paid on board on 22 December 1809. She took part in the Walcheren Campaign of July–December 1809, and was one of a long list of ships who received prize money for property captured at Walcheren and adjacent islands in the Scheldt between 30 July and 16 August 1809, which was paid as the ships arrived at various ports from 6 October 1812. On 10 January 1810 Arthur made a reconnaissance of the port of Dieppe, observing seven privateer luggers anchored close to the pier head under the protection of shore batteries. At 1 a.m he took the Cherokee into the port, running in between two of the vessels. He fought off an attempt by the French to board, and while under fire from cannon in the shore batteries, and from muskets in the other privateers, successfully brought out one. She proved to be the Amiable Nelly, of 106 tons, armed with 16 guns, and with a crew of 60. Cherokee suffered only two men slightly wounded, while two Frenchmen were killed and eight wounded, three seriously. Arthur was rewarded for this action by being promoted to post-captain. A clasp to the Naval General Service Medal, "Cherokee 10 Jany. 1810", was awarded to surviving claimants in 1847.

Command of Cherokee then passed to Commander William Ramage, based at Leith to operate in the North Sea and on the coast of Norway.

  • On 7 January 1811 she captured the vessels Lavens Laver and Hercules. Prize money for both was paid on board on 29 August 1812.
  • On 1 May 1811, boats from Cherokee, Clio and Belette, made an attempt to cut out some galliots at Egersund, on the coast of Norway, but were thwarted by the arrival of boats from HDMS Lolland.
  • On 9 October 1811 she captured a Danish privateer cutter, armed with two guns and with a crew of twenty, three days out from Bergen.
  • She also captured the Zeegeluk on 27 April 1811; the Arve Brakart on 18 October 1811; and the Envold Fortuna, Maria and Bergen on 25 May 1812, with prize money for all being paid on arrival at Leith in April 1813.
Ramage appears to have retained command of Cherokee after the end of the war, until on 1 January 1817 Commander Thomas Smith assumed command of her at Leith. Smith had the misfortune of having been taken prisoner by the French during the battle of the Basque Roads in April 1809, while serving as a lieutenant in the sloop Lyra, when the boat he commanded was captured. He was held as a prisoner of war until June 1814, receiving promotion to commander on his return. In November 1818, he conveyed the Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Este to Ireland in Cherokee; in gratitude the Archduke presented him with a gold snuff box.

Commander Theobald Jones took command of Cherokee at Leith on 26 February 1819, and served on the South America Station in 1822. Finally, Commander William Keats (a nephew of Admiral Sir Richard Goodwin Keats) took command on 7 October 1822, and was based at Leith and Cork.

On 26 March 1828 the Cherokee was laying at Deptford, where she was offered for sale by the Navy Office.[18] She was bought by J. Crystal for £610.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Cherokee_(1808)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee-class_brig-sloop
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1820 - The schooner Lynx, commanded by Lt. J. R. Madison, departs St. Marys, Ga., bound for Kingston, Jamaica, to continue her service suppressing pirates. She is never heard from again and no trace of her or her 50-man crew is ever found.


USS Lynx, a 6-gun Baltimore Clipper rigged schooner, was built for the US Navy by James Owner of Georgetown, Washington, D.C., in 1814, intended for service in one of the two raiding squadrons being built as part of President James Madison's administration’s plan to establish a more effective Navy, one capable not only of breaking the British naval blockade, but also of raising havoc with the British merchant marine.

Type: Baltimore Clipper
Displacement: 150 long tons (152 t)
Length: 80 ft (24 m)
Propulsion: Sail
Complement: 50
Armament: 6 × guns

USS_Lynx_sail_plan.jpg
Sail plan of USS Lynx

Service history
Though the War of 1812 ended by the time the schooner was completed, the ship was still placed in service in early 1815 and on 3 July sailed from Boston with the nine-ship squadron of Commodore William Bainbridge, bound for the Mediterranean to deal with the acts of the Barbary pirates against American commerce.

Arriving off the North African coast by the beginning of August, Lynx found that a squadron under Commodore Stephen Decatur had already achieved satisfactory agreements to American treaty demands. The schooner remained in the Mediterranean, however, until late in the year as part of a show of force led by Commodore Bainbridge's flagship Independence, the Navy's first ship of the line, to encourage the Barbary States to keep the peace treaties just concluded. Returning to the United States, the ship made a preliminary survey of the northeastern coast during 1817, Lt. George W. Stover in command, at times carrying Commodore William Bainbridge, now Commandant of the Charlestown, Massachusetts, Navy Yard, and Brigadier General Joseph Gardner Swift aboard during her voyage.

Following this duty, Lynx sailed for the Gulf of Mexico to operate along the southern U.S. coast and in the West Indies suppressing piracy, continuing on this service for the next two years. On 24 October 1819, while under command of Lt. John Ripley Madison, she captured two schooners and two boats in the Gulf of Mexico, filled with pirates and booty, and 11 days later, on 9 November found another pirate boat in Galveston Bay and took her. Remaining off the southern coast through the end of the year, the Lynx departed St. Mary's, Georgia, on 11 January 1820, bound for Kingston, Jamaica, to continue her service suppressing pirates. She was never seen nor heard from again, and despite the searching of schooner Nonsuch, no trace of her or her 47-man crew was ever found.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Lynx_(1814)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1860 - HMS Rodney, a two-deck 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, finished her refitting with screw propulsion – the last unarmoured wooden battleship in full commission


HMS Rodney was a two-deck 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 18 June 1833 at Pembroke Dockyard.

large (20).jpg large (21).jpg large (22).jpg
Scale: 1:48. A contemporary full hull model of the 92-gun, two-decker ‘HMS Rodney’ (1833). The hull is built in bread and butter fashion and is complete with stump masts, channels and a detailed representation of the elliptical stern galleries. The whole model is mounted on its original baseboard. The ‘Rodney’ was designed by Sir Robert Seppings, Chief Surveyor of the Navy, and launched at the Pembroke dockyard in 1833. Measuring 205 feet along the gun deck by 54 feet in the beam and a tonnage of 2626, it was the first British two-decked ship to carry 90 guns or more. In 1840 under the command of Robert Maunsell, it took part in operations off the Syrian coast and later, in 1854, in the Black Sea during the Crimean War. In 1860, the ‘Rodney’ was converted to steam with a 500-horsepower engine fitted with its armament reduced to 90 guns. From 1867–70 it was the flagship of the Hon. Sir H. Keppel on the China station, returning to Portsmouth for a further ten years before being broken up in 1880.

large (23).jpg
Scale: 1:48. A model of the port side of HMS Rodney (1833) made entirely in wood and painted in realistic colours. The hull below the waterline is painted brown with a narrow cream stripe above, and black above the waterline. There are two broad white stripes running horizontally along the two gundecks and the main and poop decks are painted a uniform cream. The port quarter and stern galleries are shown, their decoration highlighted in cream. Fittings include channels, port, main and mizzen stumpmasts, two hawseholes, open gunports, a retracting funnel, and a stump bowsprit and scroll figurehead. The model is displayed on a cream backboard with a stained bevelled edge. The plaque is inscribed: "168a. Rodney, 70 guns, 1833 scale 1/48 (1/4" to 1") Built at Pembroke as a 92-gun sailing ship (see No.168) and converted to a 70-gun screw battleship in 1860. Broken up in 1884. Dimensions: - Gun Deck 205ft.6in. Beam 54ft. 5 1/2in.". Plaque missing.


Class and type: Rodney-class ship of the line
Tons burthen: 2598 bm
Length: 205 ft 6 in (62.64 m) (gundeck)
Beam: 54 ft 5 in (16.59 m)
Depth of hold: 23 ft 2 in (7.06 m)
Propulsion: Sails (and steam, after 1860)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Complement: 850 men
Armament:
  • As second rate, 90 guns:
    • Gundeck: 30 × 32 pdrs, 2 × 68 pdr carronades
    • Upper gundeck: 34 × 32 pdrs
    • Quarterdeck: 26 × 32 pdrs
large (14).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Rodney' (1833), a 92-gun Second Rate, two-decker. Signed by Robert Seppings [Surveyor of the Navy, 1813-1832].

The majority of her commissions saw active service in the Mediterranean Sea, but she also served in the Black Sea during the Crimean War (1853–1856), and after being converted to a steam and screw propelled vessel, served in China as the flagship of Vice-Admiral Henry Keppel, commanded by captain Algernon Heneage from 21 January 1867.

Rodney was the ship where William Hall, later to become the first Black man and one of the first Canadians to win the Victoria Cross, began his naval career in 1852.

Rodney was fitted with screw propulsion in 1860, completed on 11 January, and was the last unarmoured wooden battleship in full commission. She was broken up in 1882.

HMSLondon1881.jpg
HMS London depicted in Zanzibar, 1881.

The Rodney-class ships of the line were a class of 3 two-deck 90-gun second rates, designed for the Royal Navy by Sir Robert Seppings.

Ships
Builder: Pembroke Dockyard
Ordered:
Launched: 18 June 1833
Fate: Broken up, 1882
Builder: Plymouth Dockyard
Ordered:
Launched: 28 June 1839
Fate: Burnt, 1956
Builder: Chatham Dockyard
Ordered:
Launched: 28 September 1840
Fate: Sold, 1884

large (15).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing a 'three-timber' framing profile (disposition) for 'London' (1840), 'Rodney' (1833), and 'Nile' (1839), all 92-gun Second Rate, two-deckers. This plan was superceded by a 'two-timber' framing plan dispatched to the three yards in late 1826 and early 1827 (see ZAZ0257). This plan illustrates the method of creating the frames and how they are to be joined, using a detailed key and colour code. The dark brown colourwash shows the single timber frames, while the light brown represents frames made with three timbers which make the sides of the ports. The red colourwash shows the frames under the upper deck gunports, and the yellow timbers over the ports are to be bolted together in the same manner as the frame timbers.

large (16).jpg
Scale 1:24. Plan showing the midship section, and the floors and crosspieces at the midships and Station 26, for 'London' (1840), 'Rodney' (1833), and 'Nile' (1839), all 92-gun Second Rate, two-deckers.

large (17).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the half stern framing for 'Rodney' (1833), a 92-gun Second Rate, two-decker. The plan illustrates the timbers required for the circular stern. Initialled by Robert Seppings [Surveyor of the Navy, 1813-1832].

large (18).jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the inboard profile for 'Rodney' (1833), a 92-gun Second Rate, two-decker, as fitted in 1840, with alterations to the coal hold, magazine, and the masts. Signed by T. F. Hawkes [Master Shipwright, Plymouth Dockyard, 1837-?]

large (19).jpg
Scale 1:96. Plan showing the superimposed outline profile, sections and longitudinal half breadth for 'Rodney' (1833) and 'Albion' (1842), both 92/90-gun Second Rate, two-deckers. The plan seems to compare the designs of Symonds and Seppings using these ships prior to being converted to screw battleships in 1859.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Rodney_(1833)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodney-class_ship_of_the_line
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...el-344177;browseBy=vessel;vesselFacetLetter=R
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1863 – American Civil War: Action off Galveston Light
CSS Alabama encounters and sinks the USS Hatteras off Galveston Lighthouse in Texas.


The Action off Galveston Light was a short naval battle fought during the American Civil War in January 1863. Confederate raider CSS Alabama encountered and sank the United States Navy steamer USS Hatteras off Galveston Lighthouse in Texas.

USS_Hatteras_sinking.jpg
19th century print, depicting the sinking of Hatteras by CSS Alabama, off Galveston, Texas, 11 January 1863

Background
USS Hatteras of 1,126 long tons (1,144 t) was commanded by Captain Homer C. Blake and was assigned to the West Gulf Blockading Squadron off Galveston, Texas. The steamer had a crew of 126 officers and men and was armed with four 32-pounders and one 20-pounder naval gun. Captain Raphael Semmes commanded the 1,050-ton sloop-of-war CSS Alabama which carried 145 officers and men with six 32-pounders, one 110-pounder and one 68-pounder gun. The encounter between the two vessels was the first combat action of Alabama's distinguished career.

Action
At about 3:00 pm on January 11, 1863, Hatteras was on blockade duty with USS Brooklyn and five other vessels off Galveston when a sail was sighted above the horizon. Captain Blake was then ordered to chase the unidentified ship in Hatteras and to capture the vessel if it proved to be an enemy. The ship was Alabama and she could not escape. After pursuing Alabama until nightfall just over twenty miles of sea from Galveston Harbor to a position off Galveston Light, Hatteras came alongside of the Confederate ship and demanded that the crew identify themselves. The Confederates called out HMS Spitfire to try to confuse the Union sailors so Captain Blake ordered a boat to be filled with sailors and lowered for a boarding. But just as the launch shoved off the Confederates shouted "We're the CSS Alabama", raised their colors, and opened fire with a heavy broadside on the portside of the Union vessel.

USS_Hatteras.jpg
In action with CSS Alabama, off Galveston, Texas, on 11 January 1863

The men aboard Hatteras were surprised but returned fire with their much smaller broadside. For thirteen minutes the two sides dueled in what Captain Semmes later called a "sharp and exiting" engagement. In the end, crewmen aboard USS Hatterasfired a signal gun to announce their defeat, Hatteras was slowly sinking and Captain Blake ordered the magazines flooded to prevent an explosion. Men began jumping into the water and boats from Alabama were lowered to provide assistance. At the same time a boat with six Union sailors escaped along the coast and evaded the Confederates who were maneuvering to rescue survivors. Two United States Navy enlisted men were killed in action, five were wounded and another 118 taken prisoner. CSS Alabama sustained several shot holes and other damage but Captain Semmes reported that none of it was serious and prevented the vessel from sailing. Two Confederate Navy sailors were wounded.

Aftermath
After sinking the Union steamer the Confederates sailed for the South Atlantic, they were chased unsuccessfully by some of the Galveston blockaders but no further fighting occurred. Eventually Semmes made his way to Cherbourg, France where his ship was destroyed by USS Kearsarge in another significant battle. USS Brooklyn discovered the wreck of USS Hatteras the following morning and found that she was resting on the bottom in nine and a half fathoms with only her masts sticking out above the waterline. Her colors were not struck in the battle and were still waving in the breeze when Brooklyn arrived.


The very first USS Hatteras was a 1,126-ton steamer purchased by the Union Navy at the beginning of the American Civil War. She was outfitted as a gunboat and assigned to the Union blockade of the ports and waterways of the Confederate States of America. During an engagement with the disguised Confederate commerce raider, CSS Alabama, she was taken by surprise and was sunk off the coast of Galveston, Texas. The wreck site is one of the few listed on the National Register of Historic Places because of its location away from destructive surf and because of the ship's side-wheel design, which marks the transition between wooden sailing ships and steam-powered ships.

Type: Steamer
Displacement: 1,126 long tons (1,144 t)
Length: 210 ft (64 m)
Beam: 18 ft (5.5 m)
Installed power: 500 ihp (370 kW)
Propulsion:
Speed: 8 kn (9.2 mph; 15 km/h)
Complement: 126
Armament: 4 × 32 pdr (15 kg) guns, 1 × 20 pdr (9.1 kg) gun

Hatteras (formerly St. Mary) was purchased by the U. S. Navy from Harlan and Hollingsworth of Wilmington, Delaware on 25 September 1861. She was fitted out at the Philadelphia Navy Yard and commissioned in October 1861, Commander George F. Emmons in command.


CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company. Alabama served as a successful commerce raider, attacking Union merchant and naval ships over the course of her two-year career, during which she never docked at a Southern port. She was sunk in June 1864 by USS Kearsarge at the Battle of Cherbourg outside the port of Cherbourg, France.

Displacement: 1050 tons
Length: 220 ft (67 m)
Beam: 31 ft 8 in (9.65 m)
Draft: 17 ft 8 in (5.38 m)
Installed power: 2 × 300 HP horizontal steam engines, auxiliary sails
Propulsion: Single screw propeller
Speed: 13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph)
Complement: 145 officers and men
Armament: 6 × 32 lb (15 kg) cannons, 1 × 110 lb (50 kg) cannon, 1 × 68 lb (31 kg) cannon

CSSAlabama.jpg

Construction
Alabama was built in secrecy in 1862 by British shipbuilders John Laird Sons and Company, in north west England at their shipyards at Birkenhead, Wirral, opposite Liverpool. The construction was arranged by the Confederate agent Commander James Bulloch, who led the procurement of sorely needed ships for the fledgling Confederate States Navy. The contract was arranged through the Fraser Trenholm Company, a cotton broker in Liverpool with ties to the Confederacy. Under prevailing British neutrality law, it was possible to build a ship designed as an armed vessel, provided that it wasn't actually armed until after it sailed into international waters. In light of this loophole, Alabama was built with reinforced decks for cannon emplacements, ammunition magazines below water-level, etc., but the builder stopped short of fitting her out with armaments or any "warlike equipment".

Initially known as "hull number 290" to hide her identity, the ship was launched as Enrica on 15 May 1862 and secretly slipped out of Birkenhead on 29 July 1862. Union Captain Tunis A. M. Craven, commander of USS Tuscarora, was in Southamptonand was tasked with intercepting the new ship, but was unsuccessful. Agent Bulloch arranged for a civilian crew and captain to sail Enrica to Terceira Island in the Azores. With Bulloch at his side, the new ship's captain, Raphael Semmes, left Liverpool on 13 August 1862 aboard the steamer Bahama to take command of the new cruiser. Semmes arrived at Terceira Island on 20 August 1862 and began overseeing the refitting of the new vessel with various provisions, including armaments, and 350 tons of coal, brought there by Agrippina, his new ship's supply vessel. After three days of back-breaking work by the three ship's crews, Enrica was equipped as a naval cruiser, designated a commerce raider, for the Confederate States of America. Following her commissioning as CSS Alabama, Bulloch then returned to Liverpool to continue his secret work for the Confederate Navy.

Captain_Raphael_Semmes_and_First_Lieutenant_John_Kell_aboard_CSS_Alabama_1863.jpg
Captain Raphael Semmes, Alabama's commanding officer, standing aft of the mainsail by his ship's aft 8-inch smooth bore gun during her visit to Cape Town in August 1863. His executive officer, First Lieutenant John M. Kell, is in the background, standing by the ship's wheel

Alabama's British-made ordnance was composed of six muzzle-loading, broadside, 32-pounder naval smoothbores (three firing to port and three firing to starboard) and two larger and more powerful pivot cannons. The pivot cannons were placed fore and aft of the main mast and positioned roughly amidships along the deck's center line. From those positions, they could be rotated to fire across the port or starboard sides of the cruiser. The fore pivot cannon was a heavy, long-range 100-pounder, 7-inch bore (178 mm) Blakely rifled muzzle-loader; the aft pivot cannon a large, 8-inch (203 mm) smoothbore.

The new Confederate cruiser was powered by both sail and by two John Laird Sons and Company 300 horsepower (220 kW) horizontal steam engines, driving a single, Griffiths-type, twin-bladed brass screw. With the screw retracted using the stern's brass lifting gear mechanism, Alabama could make up to ten knots under sail alone and 13.25 knots (24.54 km/h) when her sail and steam power were used together.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_off_Galveston_Light
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSS_Alabama
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Hatteras_(1861)
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 January 1866 - SS London was a British steamship which sank in the Bay of Biscay during a storm.
The ship was overloaded with cargo, and thus unseaworthy, and only 19 survivors were able to escape the foundering ship by lifeboat, leaving a death toll of 220.



SS London was a British steamship which sank in the Bay of Biscay on 11 January 1866. The ship was travelling from Gravesend in England to Melbourne, Australia, when she began taking in water on 10 January, with 239 persons aboard. The ship was overloaded with cargo, and thus unseaworthy, and only 19 survivors were able to escape the foundering ship by lifeboat, leaving a death toll of 220.

SS_London_(1864).jpeg
Money, Wigram & Co's auxiliary ship, London. 2500 tons. Built 1864. Foundered in the Bay of Biscay with about 230 souls, 11 January 1866 .Image from the John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland.

History
London was built in Blackwall Yard by Money Wigrams and Sons and launched on the River Thames on 20 July 1864, and had a 1652 ton register.[citation needed]

From 23 September 1864, she undertook sea trials and on 23 October 1864 started her first voyage to Melbourne via Portsmouth and Plymouth. During the voyage, a boat crew was sent to locate a man overboard, but this boat crew was lost, and later rescued by the Henry Tabar. London arrived in Cape Town on 5 December 1864 and set sail again on 7 December, arriving in Melbourne on 2 January 1865.

On 4 February 1865, she left Melbourne for the return trip to London with 260 passengers and 2,799.3 kg of gold, and arrived back in Gravesend on 26 April 1865.

A second trip to Melbourne started at the end of May 1865, and she arrived on 4 August. She departed on 9 September 1865 for the return trip with 160 passengers and 2,657.5 kg of gold, arriving back in London in November of that year.

Sinking

The_London_going_down.png
The London going down

The final voyage of the London began on 13 December 1865, when the ship left Gravesend in Kent bound for Melbourne, under a Captain Martin, an experienced Australian navigator. A story later highly publicised after the loss states that when the ship was en route down the Thames, a seaman seeing her pass Purfleet said: "It'll be her last voyage…she is too low down in the water, she'll never rise to a stiff sea." This proved all too accurate.

The ship was due to take on passengers from Plymouth, but was caught in heavy weather, and the captain decided to take refuge at Spithead near Portsmouth. The London eventually docked in Plymouth. The ship then restarted the journey to Australia on 6 January 1866. There were 263 passengers and crew aboard, including six stowaways. On the third day out while crossing the Bay of Biscay in heavy seas the cargo shifted and her scuppers choked, forcing the vessel lower in the water where she was swept by tremendous seas. Water poured down the hatches extinguishing her fires and forcing the captain to turn about and return once more Plymouth. In so doing he headed into the eye of a storm. On 10 January, after a considerable buffeting over several days, a sea carried away the port life boat; then at noon another wave carried away the jib-boom, followed by the fore topmost and main royalmast with all spars and gear. On 11 January a huge wave crashed on deck, smashing the engine hatch which resulted in water entering the engine room putting the fires out. By the 12 January her channels were nearly level with the sea and a decision was made to abandon ship. The life boats were swamped as soon as launched, with only one craft staying afloat. Nineteen people escaped on the life boat, only three of whom were passengers. When the boat was a hundred yards away from the ship, the London went down, stern first. As she sank, all those on deck were driven forward by the overpowering rush of air from below, her bows rose high till her keel was visible and then she was "swallowed up, for ever, in a whirlpool of confounding waters". The London took with her two hundred and forty-four persons. It was reported that the last thing heard from the doomed ship was the hymn "Rock of Ages". The nineteen people who got away in her cutter were the only ones saved. They were picked up next day by the barque Marianople and landed at Falmouth.

The Wreck of the Steamer 'London' while on her way to Australia is a poem by Scottish poet William McGonagall, one of his many poems based on disasters of the time.

Causes

Houghton_Geog_4677.82_-_Wreck_of_the_Steamship_London.jpg
1866 pamphlet describing the disaster

Three main factors were attributed to the sinking of London by the subsequent inquiry by the Board of Trade: firstly, the decision by Captain Martin to return to Plymouth, as it is believed the ship had passed the worst of the weather conditions and by turning back the London re-entered the storm; secondly, the ship was overloaded with 345 tons of railway iron; and finally, the 50 tons of coal which was stored above deck, which after the decks were washed by waves blocked the scupper holes, which prevented drainage of the seawater.

Diamonds lost
In his monograph "Governor Phillip in Retirement" Frederick Chapman, whose mother, two brothers, and a sister died in the wreck, wrote as follows:

In December [1865] my mother opened out to my amazed eyes such a mass of diamonds as I had never seen before. This was the property which "Aunt Powell" had left or given to her niece my Great-Aunt Fanny, who at the age of ninety-one had given them to my mother, the wife of her nearest heir. Less than a month later (11th January 1866) the disastrous foundering of the S.S. London carried this collection to the depths of the Bay of Biscay. In that disaster perished my mother, my eldest and youngest brothers, my only sister, and many of our friends.​
Legacy
The loss of the London increased attention in Britain to the dangerous condition of the coffin ships, overloaded by unscrupulous ship owners, and the publicity had a major role in Samuel Plimsoll's campaign to reform shipping so as to prevent further such disasters. The disaster helped stimulate Parliament to establish the famous Plimsoll line, although it took many years.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_London_(1864)
 
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