Naval/Maritime History 16th of October - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

4th of October

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1710 - Action of 4 October 1710 / Battle of Køge Bay
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This indecisive Battle of Køge Bay took place on 4 October 1710, during the Great Northern War, in Køge Bay, just south of Copenhagen. Denmark had 26 ships of the line and 5 frigates with 1808 guns, and Sweden had 21 ships of the line and several frigates with 1512 guns. The Danish ship Dannebroge exploded and of the 550-man crew only 9 survived. The Swedish ships Tre Kronor and Prinsessan Ulrika Eleonora ran aground. Because of the weather the battle could not continue. However, the Swedish fleet managed to sink and capture a Danish convoy of transport ships that were supposed to embark a Russian invasion force in Danzig. The action in Køge Bugt checked those Russian invasion plans of Sweden.

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1744 - Loss of the HMS Victory (1737 - 100), Cptn. Samuel Faulkner. Admiral Sir John Balchen and 1,100 men lost.
HMS Victory
was a 100-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built to the dimensions of the 1733 proposals of the 1719 Establishment at Portsmouth Dockyard, and launched on 23 February 1737.
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Scale: 1:34.3. A contemporary full hull model of the 'Victory' (1737), a 100-gun three-decker first-rate ship of the line.


1744 - Admiral Sir John Balchen died and 1,100 men lost their life with sinking HMS Victory
Admiral Sir John Balchen (2 February 1670 – 4 October 1744), sometimes written as Balchin, was an officer of the British Royal Navy with a long and distinguished career during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the course of his service at sea, Balchen saw action in numerous battles against the French and Spanish navies across 60 years and three separate wars. He was twice captured by the French in action, both times being exonerated and commended for the defence of his ships against overwhelming odds.
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1770 – Launch of French Victoire, a 74 gun Bien-Aimé class Ship of the Line
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detail: Victoire at the Toulon naval review of 1777. She is incorrectly depicted as a three-decker; Victoire was actually a 74-gun, with two batteries.


1780 - 13 Royal Navy ships foundered in the great hurricane in the West Indies over 8 days - including HMS Thunderer (1760 - 74), HMS Phoenix (1759 - 44), HMS Barbadoes (1778 - 14)
HMS Thunderer
was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 19 March 1760 at Woolwich. She earned a battle honour in a single-ship action off Cadiz with the French ship Achille (64 guns) in 1761, during the Seven Years' War.
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Model of a 74-gun ship, 3rd rate, cz. 1760. Thought to be either HMS Hercules from 1759 or HMS Thunderer from 1760.


1782 – French Bizarre, a 64 gun Ship of the Line wrecked
Bizarre was a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. She was present at two major battles, and was wrecked in 1782.
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1810 - Launch of italian - French Favorita - Favorite, a 44 gun Pallas-class frigate
Favorite was the 44-gun Pallas-class frigate Favorita of the Navy of the Kingdom of Italy. The Italians exchanged her to the French Navy for the three brigs Cyclope, Écureuil and Mercure.
On 12 March 1811, Favorite, under Bernard Dubourdieu, led a frigate squadron to raid the British commerce raider base of the island of Lissa. The squadron encountered William Hoste's frigate squadron, leading to the Battle of Lissa.
Clorinde-cropped.jpg
Clorinde, sister ship of Favorite


1821 - Lt. Robert F. Stockton sails aboard USS Alligator from Boston to West Africa, to suppress the African slave trade and select and acquire territory to resettle former slaves in their native continent.
The third USS Alligator was a schooner in the United States Navy.
Alligator was laid down on 26 June 1820 by the Boston Navy Yard; launched on 2 November 1820; and commissioned in March 1821 — probably on the 26th — with Lieutenant Robert F. Stockton in command. On 6 June 1996, the site of its wreck was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.
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1855 - Launch of French Algesiras, a 90 gun Algesiras Sub-class of Napoleon-class Ship of the Line
The Algésiras was a 90-gun steam ship of the line of the French Navy, lead ship of her class. She was the first production ship built on the principles of the "fast ship of the line" pioneered by Napoléon.
Algesiras_school_ship.png
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

5th of October

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1338 - The town Southampton was sacked by French, Genoese and Monegasque ships (under Charles Grimaldi, who used the plunder to help found the principality of Monaco).
The English Channel naval campaign of the years 1338 and 1339 saw a protracted series of raids conducted by the nascent French navy and numerous privately owned raiders and pirates against English towns, shipping and islands in the English Channel which caused widespread panic, damage and financial loss to the region and prompted a serious readjustment of English finances during the early stages of the Hundred Years War. This period was then followed by a French disaster caused by over-confidence and a reversing of roles which had a major effect in the English successes of the next two decades. However this result was by no means assured until late 1339 and had the French fought a little longer, they could have potentially ended the war before it had really begun.
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Charles Grimaldi,


1775 - Launch of HMS Stirling Castle, a 64-gun third rate Worcester-class ship of the line
HMS Stirling Castle
was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 28 June 1775 at Chatham.
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1778 – Launch of French Annibal, a 74-gun Annibal-class ship of the line, launched
The Annibal was a 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, lead ship of her class. She was designed by Jacques-Noël Sané, and was one of the earliest of his works. She was built at Brest in 1778.
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1778 - Launch of french Hercule, a Scipion class 74-gun French ship of the line built, at Rochefort
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1780 - 13 Royal Navy ships foundered in the great hurricane in the West Indies over 8 days - including HMS Stirling Castle (1775 - 64), HMS Scarborough (1756 - 22) and HMS Victor (1779 - 10)
HMS Stirling Castle
was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 28 June 1775 at Chatham.
She was wrecked on 5 October 1780 on the Silver Keys, off Cap François, off the coast of Cuba with the loss of most of her crew. As the Massachusetts ship Aurora was sailing from Boston to Port-au-Prince she came upon the wreckage of Stirling Castle and was able to save a midshipman and four seamen.
see herefore also post #801
HMS Stirling Castle was launched on 5th October 1775 and wrecked exactly 5 years later on 5th October 1780

HMS Scarborough (1756) was a 22-gun sixth rate launched in 1756 based on French Tygre that foundered in 1780.
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1781 - Launch of french Pégase, a 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, lead ship of her class
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Dominic Serres - Foudroyant and Pégase entering Portsmouth Harbour, 1782 - Google Art Project

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1804 - The Battle of Cape Santa Maria
(also known as the "Battle of Cape St Mary"; in Spanish Batalla del Cabo de Santa María) was a naval action of 5 October 1804 that took place off the southern Portuguese coast, in which a British squadron under the command of Commodore Graham Moore attacked a Spanish squadron commanded by Brigadier Don José de Bustamante y Guerra, in time of peace, without declaration of war between the UK and Spain.
Francis_Sartorius_-_Four_frigates_capturing_Spanish_treasure_ships,_5_October_1804.jpg

Four Spanish frigates with a rich shipment from Montevideo headed for Cadiz. The cargo was ultimately destined for France and therefore potentially for use against the British. Four British frigates lay in wait to capture them and the two squadrons met on 5 October.


1836 - Lord Melville wrecked
Lord Melville was launched at Canotiere, Quebec, in May 1825. She made one voyage under charter to the British East India Company (EIC), two voyages transporting convicts to Australia, and one voyage to Canada with emigrants. She was wrecked in 1836 with some loss of life.


1850 - Launch of Ville de Paris, a 118 gun Ocean-class Ship of the Line
The Ville de Paris was an Océan class 118-gun ship of the line of the French Navy.
Ville-de-paris_sr1850.jpg
 

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6th of October

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1641 - Death of Matthijs Quast, Dutch explorer - He started in 1639 an expedition together with Abel Tasman
Matthijs Quast
(died October 6, 1641) was a Dutch explorer in the seventeenth century. He had made several voyages for the VOC to Japan, China and Siam.
Matthijs Quast has become known for an unsuccessful expedition to the Pacific.
In the early seventeenth century rumours abounded that two islands could be found in the Pacific east of Japan. These islands were said to be very rich, and were therefore called Rica de Oro (Rich in Gold) and Rica de Plata (Rich in Silver). The VOC, urged by one of its merchants in Japan, Willem Verstegen, wanted to try to find these islands.
Matthijs Quast was chosen to lead this expedition. He was to go to the area by way of the Philippines, and should also explore the areas north of China, in particular Korea and Tartary (Siberia). He was given two small ships. Quast himself sailed on the Engel (Angel), commanded by Lucas Albertsen, while second-in-command Abel Tasman was commander of the Gracht (Canal).


1774 – Launch of HMS Vigilant, a 64-gun Intrepid-class third rate ship of the line
HMS Vigilant
was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 6 October 1774 at Bucklers Hard.
By 1779 she had been deemed unseaworthy by the navy. She was stripped of her sails and used as a floating battery to support the amphibious landing of British Army troops on Port Royal Island, South Carolina prior to the Battle of Beaufort. From 1799 she served as a prison ship, and was broken up in 1816.
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1779 - The Action of 6 October 1779
was a minor but famous and furious naval engagement that took part in the early stages of the war between Britain and France in the American Revolutionary War between the British Royal Navy frigate HMS Quebec and the frigate Surveillante of the French Navy. The battle ended in a French victory when Quebec was destroyed by an explosion.
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painting of the action by Rossel de Cercy

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1786 - Launch of HMS Bellerophon , a 74 gun Arrogant-class
HMS Bellerophon
was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1786, she served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, mostly on blockades or convoy escort duties. Known to sailors as the "Billy Ruffian", she fought in three fleet actions, the Glorious First of June, the Battle of the Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar, and was the ship aboard which Napoleon finally surrendered, ending 22 years of nearly continuous war with France.
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Napoleon surrendered to Captain Frederick Maitland of the 'Bellerophon', 74 guns, on 15 July 1815.


1986 - Soviet submarine K-219 sunk by explosion and fire caused by seawater leak in missile tube (some sources date it 3.rd October) - film: Hostile Waters
K-219 was a Project 667A Navaga-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Yankee I) of the Soviet Navy. It carried 16 (later 15) SS-N-6liquid-fuel missiles powered by UDMH with IRFNA, equipped with an estimated 34 nuclear warheads.
K-219 was involved in what has become one of the most controversial submarine incidents during the Cold War.
K219-DN-SC-87-00808.JPEG

US Navy photo of K-219 on the surface after suffering a fire in a missile tube
 

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1403 – Battle of Modon / Venetian–Genoese wars: The Genoese fleet under a French admiral is defeated by a Venetian fleet.
The Battle of Modon was fought on 7 October 1403 between the fleets of the Republic of Venice and of the Republic of Genoa, then under French control, commanded by the French marshal Jean Le Maingre, better known as Boucicaut. One of the last clashes in the Venetian–Genoese wars, the battle ended in a decisive Venetian victory.


1571 - Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 where a fleet of the Holy League, led by the Venetian Republic and the Spanish Empire, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras. The Ottoman forces were sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) when they met the fleet of the Holy League which was sailing east from Messina, Sicily. The Holy League was a coalition of European Catholic maritime states which were arranged by Pope Pius V and led by John of Austria. The league was largely financed by Philip II of Spain, and the Venetian Republic was the main contributor of ships.
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The Battle of Lepanto, unknown artist, late 16th century

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Battle of Lepanto by Martin Rota, 1572 print, Venice


1785 – Launch of Commerce de Marseille, a 74 gun Téméraire class of the French Navy.
Commerce de Marseille was a Téméraire class of the French Navy. She was funded by a don des vaisseauxdonation from Marseille.
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1795 - Battle of the Levant Convoy / Action of 7 October 1795
The Battle of the Levant Convoy was a naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars fought on 7 October 1795. During the battle, a powerful French squadron surprised a valuable British convoy from the Levant off Cape St Vincent on the coast of Portugal. The convoy was weakly defended, and although the small escort squadron tried to drive the French back, they were outmatched. In the ensuing action one of the British ships of the line and almost the entire convoy was overrun and captured. The French commander, Commodore Joseph de Richery, then retired to the neutral Spanish port of Cádiz, where he came under blockade.
The annual British Levant convoy was a mercantile operation in which valuable merchant shipping from ports across the Eastern Mediterranean gathered together for security under escort to Britain by Royal Navy warships. In 1795, this escort comprised three ships of the line, one in a poor state of repair, and several frigates under the command of Commodore Thomas Taylor. Taylor split the convoy, sailing in two separate divisions. On 7 October a French squadron under Richery, sent from Toulon to attack the Newfoundland fisheries, encountered Taylor's division of the convoy.
Taylor attempted to hold off Richery for long enough for the merchant ships to scatter and escape, but one of his ships, HMS Censeur lost a top-mast as he formed a line of battle and was rapidly overwhelmed by the French. With his line broken and frigates seizing the merchant ships unopposed, Taylor turned away from the battle and withdrew, leaving the convoy to its fate. Only one ship survived. Richery took his prizes to Cádiz in Southern Spain, where he was subject to a blockade by a British squadron under Rear-Admiral Robert Mann. Nearly a year later he escaped with the help of the Spanish to inflict severe damage on the fishing fleets off Maritime Canada.


1800 – French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun East Indiaman Kent.
On 7 October 1800, off Sand Heads, near Calcutta, Confiance met the 40-gun East Indiaman Kent, of 824 tons burthen, under Captain Robert Rivington. Kent had rescued the crew of another ship, the Queen, destroyed by fire, and therefore had an exceptionally large complement of 437 men, including her passengers; 300 of them were soldiers and sailors; Surcouf managed to board his larger opponent and, after over an hour and a half of battle across the decks of the ship, seize control of the Kent.
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Capture of Kent by Confiance. Painting by Ambroise Louis Garneray.


1807 - Boats of (the brand new) HMS Porcupine (1807 - 22), Cptn. Hon. Henry Duncan, cut out Italian gunboat Safo, Ensign Antonio Ghega, from tthe harbour of Zupaino, Adriatic.
HMS Porcupine
was a Royal Navy Banterer-class post ship of 24 guns, launched in 1807. She served extensively and relatively independently in the Adriatic and the Western Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars, with her boats performing many cutting out expeditions, one of which earned for her crew the Naval General Service Medal. She was sold for breaking up in 1816 but instead became the mercantile Windsor Castle. She was finally sold for breaking up in 1826 at Mauritius.


1807 – Launch of HMS Zenobia, a 18-gun Cruizer-class brig-sloop by Brindley at King’s Lynn.
Although she served during the Napoleonic Wars she is known for her role in two events, the claiming of Ascension Island for Great Britain in 1815, and the naming of the Saumarez Reefs in 1823. She was broken up in 1835.
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1864 - The Bahia incident / USS Washusett captures Confederate raider CSS Florida in harbor of Bahia, Brazil.
The Bahia incident was a naval skirmish fought in late 1864 during the American Civil War. A Confederate States Navy warship was captured by a Unionwarship in Bahia Harbor, Brazil. The engagement resulted in a United States victory, but also sparked an incident with the Brazilian government, which claimed the Americans had violated Brazil's neutrality by illegally attacking a vessel in their harbor.
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"Cutting out the Florida from Bahia, Brazil by the U.S.S. Wachusett." 19th Century phototype print by F. Gutekunst, Philadelphia. It depicts the capture of CSS Florida by USS Wachusett at Bahia, Brazil, on 7 October 1864.


1865 - The Duncan Dunbar was a clipper constructed for Duncan Dunbar & Company in 1857. It was shipwrecked at the Rocas Atoll off the coast of Brazil on 7 October 1865 on the way to Sydney, Australia.
The Duncan Dunbar was a clipper constructed for Duncan Dunbar & Company in 1857. It was shipwrecked at the Rocas Atoll off the coast of Brazil on 7 October 1865 on the way to Sydney, Australia.
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1973 - The Battle of Latakia (Arabic: معركة اللاذقية‎; Hebrew: קרב לטקיה‎)
was a small but revolutionary naval action of the Yom Kippur War, fought on 7 October 1973 between Israel and Syria. It was the first naval battle in history to see combat between surface-to-surface missile-equipped missile boats and the use of electronic deception.


1985 – Four men from the Palestine Liberation Front hijack the MS Achille Lauro off the coast of Egypt.
On 7 October 1985, four members of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) took control of the liner off Egypt as she was sailing from Alexandria to Port Said. Holding the passengers and crew hostage, they directed the vessel to sail to Tartus, Syria, and demanded the release of 50 Palestinians then in Israeli prisons. After being refused permission to dock at Tartus, the hijackers killed disabled Jewish-American passenger Leon Klinghoffer and then threw his body overboard.
The ship then headed back towards Port Said, and after two days of negotiations, the hijackers agreed to abandon the liner in exchange for safe conduct and were flown towards Tunisia aboard an Egyptian commercial airliner. This plane, however, was intercepted by US fighter aircraft and directed to land in Sicily, where the hijackers were to be tried for murder, but could not be extradited. The hijackers were later given passage to Yugoslavia after being paroled by the Italians and escaped.
 

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1746 - HMS Weazel (1745 - 16), Cdr. Hugh Palliser, off Beachy Head, in a short time captured four French privateers including Jeantie (6). Antoine Colloit, and Fortune (10), John Gilliere.
HMS Weazel
or Weazle was a 16-gun ship-sloop of the Royal Navy, in active service during the War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. Launched in 1745, she remained in British service until 1779 and captured a total of 11 enemy vessels. She was also present, but not actively engaged, at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board outline, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth with deck detail for Weazle (1745), a 16-gun Ship Sloop.


1778 – Launch of HMS Alexander, a 74-gun Alfred-class third-rate
HMS Alexander
was a 74-gun third-rate of the Royal Navy. She was launched at Deptford Dockyard on 8 October 1778. During her career she was captured by the French, and later recaptured by the British. She fought at the Nile in 1798, and was broken up in 1819. She was named after Alexander the Great.
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The launch of the 74-gun warship HMS 'Alexander' at Deptford Dockyard.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with stern quarter decorations, longitudinal half-breadth for Alexander (1778) and Warrior (1781), and later for Montague (1779), all 74-gun Third Rate, two-deckers.


1778 – Launch of HMS Charon, a 44-gun Two-decker Roebuck-class Fifth-Rate
Fate: She was trapped at the Yorktown so her stores, men and guns were taken ashore; on 10 October 1781 heated shot from a French battery set her on fire.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board decoration, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for Charon (1778), as built at Harwich in 1778, and later used for Experiment (1784), Gladiator (1783), and Serapis (1782),


1782 – Launch of HMS Standard, a 64-gun Intrepid-class third-rate ship of the line,
HMS Standard
was a 64-gun Royal Navy third-rate ship of the line, launched on 8 October 1782 at Deptford. She was the last of the 15 Intrepid class vessels, which were built to a design by John Williams.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board detail, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Standard' (1782), a 64-gun Third Rate, two-decker,


1800 - HMS Diligence (16), Charles Hodgson Ross, wrecked on the Honda Bank near Havana
HMS Diligence
was the name ship of her class of brig-sloops of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1795 and lost in 1800. She spent her career on the Jamaica station where she captured four armed vessels, one of them after a short engagement, and many small Spanish and French merchant vessels in the Caribbean inter-island and coastal trade.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board outline, sheer lines with scroll figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for building Diligence (1795)


1804 - gunboat HMS Speedy (1798 - 4) sank
The schooner-rigged gunboat HMS Speedy sank in a snowstorm in Lake Ontario south of Brighton, Ontario and west of Prince Edward County, on 8 October 1804, with the loss of all hands. The sinking changed the course of Canadian history because of the prominence of the citizens of the tiny colony of Upper Canada lost in the disastrous event.
The ship was built for the Provincial Marine in 1798 at the Point Frederick Navy Depot and was used to transport government officials and supplies.
Story2-Speedy.jpg



1805 – Launch of HMS Fame, a 74-gun Fame-class third rate ship of the line
HMS Fame
was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Deptford Dockyard. She was constructed on the same building slip as was HMS Courageux, her keel having been ordered to be laid down on it immediately after the other ship's launch on 26 March 1800. The first elements of her keel were finally laid down on 22 January 1802, and Fame was launched on 8 October 1805.
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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plans, sheer lines, and logitudinal half-breadth for 'Fame' (1805), a 74-gun Third Rate, two-decker,


1812 - During the War of 1812, a boat party under Lt. Jesse D. Elliott captures HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia at Fort Erie in a night attack. Detroit is burned and Caledonia is purchased by the U.S. Navy in 1813 and placed in commission as USS Caledonia. The brig played an important role with the American squadron on Lake Erie, and was sold at the end of the war.
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On 24 July 2009, a story appearing in the Buffalo News mentioned the discovery of an 85-foot schooner on the bottom of Lake Erie, which may be Caledonia.


1856 – The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River.
The war followed on from the First Opium War. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties—granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, the opening of five treaty ports, and the cession of Hong Kong Island. The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War (1856–60). In China, the First Opium War is considered to be the beginning of modern Chinese history.
Between the two wars, repeated acts of aggression against British subjects led in 1847 to the Expedition to Canton which assaulted and took, by a coup de main, the forts of the Bocca Tigris resulting in the spiking of 879 guns.
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The Illustrated London News print of the clipper steamship Ly-ee-moon, built for the opium trade, c. 1859


1879 – War of the Pacific: The Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos.
The Combat of Angamos (Spanish: Combate de Angamos) was a naval encounter of the War of the Pacific fought between the navies of Chile and Perú at Punta Angamos, on 8 October 1879. The battle was the culminating point of a naval campaign that lasted about five months in which the Chilean Navy had with the sole mission of eliminating its Peruvian counterpart. In the struggle, two armored frigates, led by Commodore Galvarino Riveros and Navy Captain Juan José Latorre battered and later captured the Peruvian monitor Huáscar, under Rear Admiral Miguel Grau Seminario.
After the loss of the frigate Independencia at Punta Gruesa, Grau sought to challenge the outnumbering Chilean fleet adopting a harassing strategy, focused in inflicting as much damage as possible while avoiding a full scale engagement. As Grau evolved along the Pacific coast, he was chased by Admiral John Williams Rebolledo, who had been ordered to catch Grau no matter what. His failure cost him his commission, and was replaced by Riveros.
With a different strategy, Riveros managed to encircle Grau at Punta Angamos, about 80 kilometers north of Antofagasta. Falling in a trap set by Riveros and Latorre, Grau was forced to present battle after ordering the corvette Unión to escape to Perú.
1280px-Cambate_Naval_de_Angamos.jpg

The Battle of Angamos (Spanish: Combate de Angamos) was a naval encounter of the War of the Pacific fought between the navies of Chile and Perú at Punta Angamos, on 8 October, 1879.


1885 – Launch of SS La Bourgogne, a French ocean liner
SS La Bourgogne
was a French ocean liner, which sank in 1898, with the loss of 549 lives. At the time this sinking was infamous, because only 13% of the passengers survived, while 48% of the crew did. In 1886 she set a new record for the fastest Atlantic crossing by a postal steamer
1280px-La_Bourgogne,_ca._1895.jpg



1978 – Australia's Ken Warby sets the current world water speed record of 317.60 mph at Blowering Dam, Australia.
Ken Warby
(born 9 May 1939) is an Australian motorboat racer, who currently holds the water speed record of 317.58 miles per hour (511.10 kilometres per hour), set on Blowering Dam on 8 October 1978.
As a child, Warby's hero was Donald Campbell, who died attempting to break the record in 1967.
 

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1776 - HMS Roebuck (1774) was in action on the Hudson, with HMS Phoenix and HMS Tartar, where she destroyed two armed gallies Independence and Crane, and forced her way up the river, whilst engaging on either side, the two forts Washington and Lee
HMS Roebuck
was a 44-gun, fifth-rate ship of the Royal Navy which served in the American and French Revolutionary Wars. Designed by Sir Thomas Slade in 1769, to operate in the shallower waters of North America, she joined Lord Howe's squadron towards the end of 1775 and took part in operations against New York the following year, engaging the American gun batteries at Red Hook during the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, and forcing a passage up the Hudson River in October. On 25 August 1777, Roebuck escorted troopships to Turkey Point, Maryland, where an army was landed for an assault on Philadelphia. She was again called upon to accompany troopships in December 1779; this time for an attack on Charleston. When the ships-of-the-line, which were too large to enter the harbour, were sent back to New York, Admiral Marriot Arbuthnot made Roebuck his flagship. She was therefore at the front of the attack; leading the British squadron across the bar to engage Fort Moultrie and the American ships beyond.
Forcing_a_Passage_of_the_Hudson.jpg

The painting is a copy after the original rendering of the subject, a scene from the American Revolutionary War, by Dominic Serres the Elder. It shows HMS ‘Phoenix’, ‘Roebuck’ and ‘Tartar’, accompanied by two smaller vessels, forcing their way through a cheval-de-frise on the Hudson River with the Forts Washington and Lee and several batteries on both sides.


1790 – Launch of HMS Leviathan, a 74-gun Courageux-class third-rate ship of the line
HMS Leviathan
was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the British Royal Navy, launched on 9 October 1790. At the Battle of Trafalgar under Henry William Bayntun, she was near the front of the windward column led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard his flagship, HMS Victory, and captured the Spanish ship San Augustin. A flag said to have been flown by the Leviathan at Trafalgar is to be sold at auction by Arthur Cory in March 2016 - Bayntun is thought to have given it to his friend the Duke of Clarence (later William IV), who then gave it to Arthur Cory's direct ancestor Nicholas Cory, a senior officer on William's royal yacht HMS Royal Sovereign, in thanks for helping the yacht win a race and a bet.
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1799 – Sinking of HMS Lutine with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000.
Lutine was a frigate which served in both the French Navy and the Royal Navy. She was launched by the French in 1779. The ship passed to British control in 1793 and was taken into service as HMS Lutine. She sank among the West Frisian Islands during a storm in 1799.
She was built as a French Magicienne-class frigate with 32 guns, and was launched at Toulon in 1779. During the French Revolution, Lutine came under French Royalist control. On 18 December 1793, she was one of sixteen ships handed over to a British fleet at the end of the Siege of Toulon, to prevent her being captured by the French Republicans. In 1795, she was rebuilt by the British as a fifth-rate frigate with 38 guns. She served thereafter in the North Sea, where she was part of the blockade of Amsterdam.
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1800 - HMS Galgo (1796/1799 - 14) [renamed Chance], George Samuel Stovin, upset in a squall in lat. 21° long. 61° west and foundered.
HMS Galgo
was a Spanish corvette, named Galgo launched in 1795 in Ferrol, that the British captured in November 1799. In her brief career she detained, took or destroyed a number of small prizes before she foundered, with the loss of most of her crew, in October 1800.


1803 - HMS Atalante (1793/1797 - 16), J. O. Masefield, drove three French vessels ashore at the mouth of the Pennerf.
HMS Atalante
was a 16-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy. She was formerly the French Atalante, captured in 1797. She served with the British during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and was wrecked in 1807.
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1814 - Sloop of war USS Wasp informs crew on the Swedish brig Adonis that she is headed to the Caribbean but is never seen again, with all hands lost.
USS Wasp
was a sloop-of-war that served in the U.S. Navy in 1814 during the War of 1812. She was the fifth US Navy ship to carry that name. She carried out two successful raiding voyages against British trade during the summer of 1814, in the course of which she fought and defeated three British warships. Wasp was lost, cause unknown, in the Atlantic in early autumn, 1814.
USS_Wasp_1814.jpg



1824 – Launch of HMS Talbot, a 28-gun Atholl-class sixth-rate frigate
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1913 – The steamship SS Volturno catches fire (caused by a cigarette) in the mid-Atlantic and sank
SS Volturno
was an ocean liner that caught fire and sank in the North Atlantic in October 1913. She was a Royal Line ship under charter to the Uranium Line at the time of the fire. After the ship issued SOS signals, eleven ships came to her aid, and in heavy seas and gale winds, they rescued 520 passengers and crewmen. There were 136 people, most of them women and children in lifeboats launched unsuccessfully prior to the arrival of the rescue ships, who died in the incident. Volturno had been built by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Govan and was completed in November 1906.
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1918 - While escorting the British transport ship HMS Aquitania, USS Shaw's (DD 68) rudder jams just as she is completing the right leg of a zigzag, leaving her headed directly toward the transport. Aquitania then strikes Shaw, cutting off 90 feet of the destroyer's bow, mangling her bridge and setting her on fire. Shaw's crew brings her under control, though 12 lives are lost.
USS Shaw (DD-68)
was a Sampson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War I. She was later transferred to the United States Coast Guard as CG-22.
USSShawDD68.jpg


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Photo of the USS Shaw (DD 68) after collision with the British transport HMS Aquitania on 11 October 1918 at Portsmouth, England
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

10th of October

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1659 - Death of Abel Tasman
Abel Janszoon Tasman
(Dutch: [ˈɑbəl ˈjɑnsoːn ˈtɑsmɑn]; 1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He was the first known European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land(now Tasmania) and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji islands.
Abeltasman1903.jpg


1683 - Harbour of Cadiz: A fire started in the forecastle of convoy ship Wapen von Hamburg I and rapidly spread throughout the vessel. The fire eventually reached the gunpowder depot and caused a terrible explosion that destroyed the ship. Admiral Berent Jakobsen Karpfanger, 42 of 170 crew members, and 22 of 50 soldiers lost their lives.
In the 17th century the German Empire was a rather loose federation that had only limited naval power. It could not give its trading vessels a protection by an organized escort system. Especially the Mediterranean routes were endangered by corsairs of the Barbary States of North Africa, who were masters in using their fast and light chebecs.
In the 17th century, Hamburg was an important coastal town, well fortified but an attractive target to pirates. Particularly troubled by the corsairs of the Barbary Coast, and following the loss in June 1622 of eight fully laden cargo ships, the city determined that it needed to create a fleet of armed convoy ships to protect its interests, escorting merchant and other vessels.
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Model in the lobby of International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea - ITLOS



1758 - HMS Winchelsea (1740-20) taken by french Bizarre (1753-64) and Mignonne (1757-16)
HMS Winchelsea
was a 20-gun sixth-rate launched in 1740 and in service during the War of the Austrian Succession in Mediterranean, Atlantic and home waters. She was captured by the French in 1758, but was retaken two weeks later. She was broken up in 1761.
Bizarre was a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. She was present at two major battles, and was wrecked in 1782.
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1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000–30,000 in the Caribbean.
The Great Hurricane of 1780, also known as Huracán San Calixto, the Great Hurricane of the Antilles, and the 1780 Disaster, is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Between 20,000 and 22,000 people died throughout the Lesser Antilles when the storm passed through them from October 10–16. Specifics on the hurricane's track and strength are unknown because the official Atlantic hurricane database goes back only to 1851.
The hurricane struck Barbados with winds possibly exceeding 320 km/h (200 mph) before moving past Martinique, Saint Lucia, and Sint Eustatius and causing thousands of deaths on those islands. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to British fleet contesting for control of the area, largely weakening British control over the Atlantic. The hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of Hispaniola, causing heavy damage near the coastlines. It ultimately turned to the northeast and was last observed on October 20 southeast of Atlantic Canada.
The death toll from the Great Hurricane alone exceeds that of many entire decades of Atlantic hurricanes. Estimates are marginally higher than for Hurricane Mitch, the second-deadliest Atlantic storm, for which figures are likely more accurate. The hurricane was part of the disastrous 1780 Atlantic hurricane season, with two other deadly storms occurring in October.


1794 – Launch of French Décade Française, a 32-gun Galathée class frigate at Bordeaux
HMS Decade
was a 36-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was formerly the French Galathée-class frigate Décade, which the British had captured in 1798. She served with the British during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and was sold out of the service in 1811.
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1843 – Launch of HMS Worcester, a 52-gun 1,500 ton fourth rate frigate, belonging to the six-ship Southampton class in Deptford, 23 years after she was laid down
HMS Worcester
was a 52-gun 1,500 ton fourth rate frigate of the Royal Navy, belonging to the six-ship Southampton class. She was laid down in Deptford in 1820 but only launched in 1843. She was lent as a training ship in 1862 to form the Thames Marine Officer Training School (later known as the Thames Nautical Training College), with nearly £1,000 spent on her conversion. In that role she was moored on the Thames at Blackwall Reach, Erith by 1863, Southend in 1869 and finally at Greenhithe in 1871. She was broken up in 1885 and succeeded by the renamed HMS Frederick William.
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1845 – In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (later renamed the United States Naval Academy) opens with 50 midshipman students and seven professors.


1892 - The SS Bokhara, a P&O steamship sank in a typhoon off the coast of Sand Island in the Pescadores, Formosa. Of the 150 people who perished, eleven were members of the Hong Kong cricket team.

The SS Bokhara was a P&O steamship which sank in a typhoon on 10 October 1892, off the coast of Sand Island in the Pescadores, Formosa. Of the 150 people who perished, eleven were members of the Hong Kong cricket team.
Hong Kong's cricket team had played an Interport cricket match against Shanghai at the Shanghai Cricket Club on 3 October 1892 and were returning home on the SS Bokhara.
bokhara_ss.jpg



1918 - RMS Leinster , a vessel operated by the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company, sunk by German submarine UB-123. Over 500 people perished in the sinking – the greatest single loss of life in the Irish Sea.
RMS Leinster
was a vessel operated by the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company, served as the Kingstown (now Dún Laoghaire)-Holyhead mailboat until she was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine UB-123on 10 October 1918, while bound for Holyhead. She went down just outside Dublin Bay at a point 4 nautical miles (7.4 km) east of the Kish light. Over 500 people perished in the sinking – the greatest single loss of life in the Irish Sea.
Leinster_RMS_1897.jpg
 

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11th of October

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1746 - HMS Nottingham (1703 - 60), Cptn. Philip Saumarez, took French ship Mars (1740 - 64) off Cape Clear.
HMS Nottingham
was a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Deptford Dockyard and launched on 10 June 1703. She was the first ship to bear the name.
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Commissioned under Captain Samuel Whitaker, she formed part of Admiral Cloudesley Shovell's fleet that sailed with Admiral Rooke to attack and take the formidable Rock of Gibraltar in 1704. The ship also saw action in the Battle of Cabrita point in March 1705 and in the Mediterranean in 1711.
Nottingham was rebuilt according to the 1706 Establishment at Deptford, from where she was relaunched on 5 October 1719. On 18 May 1739, orders were issued directing that Nottingham be taken to pieces and rebuilt according to the 1733 proposals of the 1719 Establishment at Sheerness, from where she was relaunched on 17 August 1745.
Samuel_Scott_-_Action_Between_Nottingham_And_Mars_1746.jpg

A depiction of a sea battle between HMS Nottingham and the French ship Mars in 1746. The Mars was returning to Europe after the failed 1746 Duc d'Anville Expeditionattempting the recapture of the w:Fortress of Louisbourg.

The ship, when captained by Philip de Saumarez, also attacked and captured the French ship Mars, which was returning to France after the failed Duc d'Anville Expedition, 11 October 1746. The Nottingham took Augustin de Boschenry de Drucour captive.
Nottingham gained more success with the capture of the French 74 gun Magnanime on 31 January 1748 under Captain Robert Harland.
Nottingham continued in service until 1773, when she was sunk to form part of a breakwater.


1753 – Launch of French Courageux 74-guns at Brest,
Courageux was a heavy 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy,designed by Jean Geoffroy, launched in 1753. She was captured by the Royal Navy in 1761 and taken into service as HMS Courageux. She was wrecked in 1796.
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1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Valcour Island: On Lake Champlain a fleet of American boats is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777
The naval Battle of Valcour Island, also known as the Battle of Valcour Bay, took place on October 11, 1776, on Lake Champlain. The main action took place in Valcour Bay, a narrow strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. The battle is generally regarded as one of the first naval battles of the American Revolutionary War, and one of the first fought by the United States Navy. Most of the ships in the American fleet under the command of Benedict Arnold were captured or destroyed by a British force under the overall direction of General Guy Carleton. However, the American defense of Lake Champlain stalled British plans to reach the upper Hudson River valley.
BattleOfValcourIsland_watercolor.jpg



1776 - USS Royal Savage (1775) burnt and sunk during Battle of Valcour Island
Royal Savage was a two-masted schooner built by the British in the summer of 1775. She was damaged and sunk by soldiers of the United Coloniesduring the Siege of Fort St. Jean and later raised and repaired after the fort was captured.
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1776 - gunboat USS Philadelphia sunk during Battle of Valcour Island
USS Philadelphia
is a gunboat (referred to in contemporary documents as a gundalow or gondola) of the Continental Navy. Manned by Continental Army soldiers, she was part of a fleet under the command of General Benedict Arnold that fought the 11 October 1776 Battle of Valcour Island against a larger Royal Navy fleet on Lake Champlain. Although many of the American boats in the battle were damaged in the battle, Philadelphia was one of the few actually sunk that day. On the days following the main battle, most of the other boats in the American fleet were sunk, burned, or captured. She is one of a few such vessels used during the American Revolutionary War to be raised.
GunboatPhiladelphia.jpg

Philadelphia on display at the National Museum of American History

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Model of the gunboat Philadelphia in the National Navy Museum


1797 - The Battle of Camperdown
(known in Dutch as the Zeeslag bij Kamperduin) was a major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Batavian Navy fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. The battle was the most significant action between British and Dutch forces during the French Revolutionary Wars and resulted in a complete victory for the British, who captured eleven Dutch ships without losing any of their own. In 1795, the Dutch Republic had been overrun by the army of the French Republic and had been reorganised into the Batavian Republic, a French client state. In early 1797, after the French Atlantic Fleet had suffered heavy losses in a disastrous winter campaign, the Dutch fleet was ordered to reinforce the French at Brest. The rendezvous never occurred; the continental allies failed to capitalise on the Spithead and Nore mutinies that paralysed the British Channel forces and North Sea fleets during the spring of 1797.
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The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797, Thomas Whitcombe, 1798, NMM. The painting shows the British flagship Venerable engaged with the Dutch flagship Vrijheid.

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Off the coast of Holland, near Camperdown, on 11 October 1797, the British fleet defeated the Dutch, aligned with the Revolutionary French.


1935 – RMS Olympic left Southampton for the last time, she arrived in Jarrow on the 13th to get scrapped
In 1934, the White Star Line merged with the Cunard Line at the instigation of the British government, to form Cunard White Star. This merger allowed funds to be granted for the completion of the future RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Elizabeth. When completed, these two new ships would handle Cunard White Star's express service; so their fleet of older liners became redundant and were gradually retired.
Olympic_sea_trials.jpg


Olympic_and_Mauretania.jpg

Olympic (left) and Mauretania laid up in Southampton prior to their scrapping


1942 - The Battle of Cape Esperance,
also known as the Second Battle of Savo Island and, in Japanese sources, as the Sea Battle of Savo Island (サボ島沖海戦), took place on 11–12 October, 1942, in the Pacific campaign of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and United States Navy. The naval battle was the second of four major surface engagements during the Guadalcanal campaign and took place at the entrance to the strait between Savo Island and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Cape Esperance (9°15′S 159°42′E) is the northernmost point on Guadalcanal, and the battle took its name from this point.
AobaEsperance.jpg

The heavily damaged Japanese cruiser Aobadisembarks dead and wounded crew members near Buin, Bougainville and the Shortland Islands a few hours after the battle on 12 October, 1942


1972 – A race riot occurs on the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam during Operation Linebacker.
The USS Kitty Hawk riot was a racial conflict between white sailors and black sailors aboard the United States Navy aircraft carrier, Kitty Hawk, on the night of October 12/13, 1972, off the coast of North Vietnam while participating in Operation Linebacker of the Vietnam War.
USS_Kitty_Hawk_1975.jpg
 

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12th of October

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1492 – Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached the Indies.
Columbus_first_voyage.jpg

First voyage. Modern place names in black, Columbus's place names in blue


1765 – Launch of french Saint-Esprit ("Holy Ghost") was an 80-gun ship
The Saint-Esprit ("Holy Ghost") was an 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, lead ship of her class. She was funded by a don des vaisseauxdonation from the Order of the Holy Spirit, and named in its honour.
Vaisseau_français_le_Saint-Esprit_au_combat_en_1782.jpg

Le vaisseau de ligne français de 80 canons le Saint-Esprit au combat en 1782 (batailles de Saint-Christophe, Antilles). Détail d'un tableau anglais de 1784. (Vaisseau identifié par Rif Winfield et Stephen S. Roberts dans leur ouvrage French Warships in the Age of Sail 1626-1786 : Design, Construction, Careers and Fates, paru en octobre 2017).


1792 – The first celebration of Columbus Day is held in New York City.
Celebration of Christopher Columbus's voyage in the early United States is recorded from as early as 1792, when the Tammany Society in New York City (for whom it became an annual tradition) and also the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston celebrated the 300th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the New World.President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus's landing in the New World on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These rituals took themes such as citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and the celebration of social progress.
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1793 - Boats of HMS Captain (1787 - 74), Cptn. Reeve, and HMS Speedy (1782 - 14), Charles Cunningham, found French frigate Imperieuse (1787 - 40) at Porta Especia, 5 days after the Raid on Genoa. She scuttled herself but was raised and taken into the Royal Navy
Alarmed by the raid on Genoa, the authorities in Leghorn ordered Impérieuse to leave immediately. The frigate sailed north and took shelter at Fezzano, near the port of La Spezia. The French had decided that since capture was inevitable, the frigate should be destroyed, and beached the ship in order to remove guns and stores. Six days after the capture of Modeste, Captain reached La Spezia, acting on reports that Impérieuse was in the bay. Reeve discovered the French ship under the guns of the Santa Maria shore battery, and the following morning, 12 October, used his ship's boats to tow Captain alongside Impérieuse. At 08:00 boat parties from the ship of the line boarded the frigate, discovering that the remaining French crew had abandoned their disarmed ship during the night and scuttled it in shallow water. The British were able to take possession of Impérieuse without opposition from the battery. Reeve instructed his carpenters to make the frigate seaworthy again, refloating the ship and completing temporary repairs on 13 October before sailing back to Toulon with his prize.
The Impérieuse was a 40-gun Minerve-class frigate of the French Navy, launched 1787. The Royal Navy captured her in 1793 and she served first as HMS Imperieuse and then from 1803 as HMS Unite. She became a hospital hulk in 1836 and was broken up in 1858.
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1798 - The Battle of Tory Island
(sometimes called the Battle of Donegal, Battle of Lough Swilly or Warren's Action) was a naval action of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought on 12 October 1798 between French and British squadrons off the northwest coast of County Donegal, then in the Kingdom of Ireland. The last action of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the Battle of Tory Island ended the final attempt by the French Navy to land substantial numbers of soldiers in Ireland during the war.
WarrensAction1798Ireland.jpg



1798 - french Hoche, ex-Barra and ex-Pégase, 74 gun Temeraire class was captured during the Battle of Tory Island
HMS Donegal
was launched in 1794 as Barra, a Téméraire class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. She was renamed Pégase in October 1795, and Hoche in December 1797. The British Royal Navy captured her on 12 October 1798 and recommissioned her as HMS Donegal.
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1799 - HMS Trincomalee (1799 - 16), Lt. John Rowe, engaged Iphigenie (24) in the Persian Gulf. They fought at close quarters for 20 minutes when both vessels suddenly blew up.


1800 - American frigate USS Boston (1799 - 32) captures French frigate Le Berceau (1794 - 22),

The Action between the USS Boston and Berceau, was a single ship action off Guadeloupe, during the Quasi-War with France. USS Boston (32 guns), Capt. George Little, captured the French corvette Berceau, capitaine de frégate Louis-Andre Senez. Cruising 600 miles northeast of Guadeloupe in the morning of 12 October, Boston, spotted two vessels that by 8:00 A.M. were determined to be warships, a schooner (not identified) and the 24-gun Berceau, which then headed in different directions.
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1813 – Launch of French Duquesne, a 80-gun Bucentaure-class 80-gun ship of the line designed by Sané.
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1940 - Battle of Cape Passero
The Battle of Cape Passero (1940), was a Second World War naval engagement between the British light cruiser HMS Ajax and seven torpedo boatsand destroyers of the Italian Regia Marina, southeast of Sicily, in the early hours of 12 October 1940. It took place in the aftermath of a British supply operation to Malta.
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The Artigliere is finished by a torpedo from HMS York in the morning of 12 October.


2000 – The USS Cole is badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.
The USS Cole bombing was an attack against the United States Navy guided-missile destroyer USS Cole on 12 October 2000, while it was being refueled in Yemen's Aden harbor.
17 American sailors were killed and 39 injured in the deadliest attack against a United States naval vessel since 1987.
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The Military Sealift Command fleet ocean tug USNS Catawba towing USS Cole after the bombing
 

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1644 – A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners.
The Battle of Fehmarn (1644) took place north-west of the island of Fehmarn, now part of Germany, in the Baltic Sea. A combined Swedish fleet, with a large element of hired Dutch ships, defeated a Danish fleet and took 1000 prisoners, including Ulfeldt, Grabov and von Jasmund. The Danish admiral Pros Mund was killed in the battle.
Sjöstrid-Sjöslaget_vid_Femernbält_1644_-_Sjöhistoriska_museet_-_O_08132.tif.jpg



1796 - HMS Terpsichore (32), Cptn. Richard Bowen, captured Spanish frigate Mahonesa (34), Cptn. Don Tomas Ayaldi, off Carthagena.
The Action of 13 October 1796 was a minor naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought off the Mediterranean coast of Spain near Cartagena between the British Royal Navy 32-gun frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Richard Bowen and the Spanish Navy 34-gun frigate Mahonesa under Captain Tomás de Ayalde. The action was the first battle of the Anglo-Spanish War, coming just eight days after the Spanish declaration of war. In a battle lasting an hour and forty minutes, Mahonesa was captured.
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Capture of the Mahonesa Octr. 13th 1796


1798 - HMS Jason (1794 - 38), Charles Stirling, wrecked on unknown rock near Brest.
HMS Jason
was a 38-gun Artois-class fifth rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She served during the French Revolutionary Wars, but her career came to an end after just four years in service when she struck an uncharted rock off Brest and sank on 13 October 1798. She had already had an eventful career, and was involved in several engagements with French vessels.
HMS_Jason_and_the_Seine.jpg



1798 - HMS Melampus and Résolue - After the Battle of Tory Island
By nightfall some of the remaining French ships had entered Donegal Bay with Canada, Melampus and Foudroyant still in pursuit. The two forces repeatedly passed one another in the dark, and Canadaalmost drove ashore. Back at the battle site, Warren had ordered Robust to tow Hoche into Lough Swilly—this order later came under criticism, as Robust was in a battered state herself and the storms of the previous week had not abated. When a gale struck the pair on 13 October, Hoche lost several masts and broke her tow, only being prevented from foundering by the combined efforts of the British prize crew and their French prisoners. Eventually, on 15 October, Doris appeared and took Hoche in tow, arriving in Lough Swilly without further incident a few days later. Meanwhile, Ethalion saw Bellone safely into port, and Magnanime and Amelia brought in Coquille and Embuscade respectively.
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Melampus and Résolue
On the morning of 13 October, Warren sighted two of the French frigates standing out of Donegal Bay and went after them, directing Moore in Melampus to stay behind to search for stragglers. Hindered by contrary winds, Melampus scoured the bay until well after nightfall, and at 23:30 was surprised by the sudden appearance directly in front of her of Immortalité and Résolue near St. John's Point. Immortalité soon spotted Melampus and made sail, but Captain Bargeau of Résolue had not seen the British ship, and was hesitant about following his compatriot in the dark. In the gloom and confusion, he mistook Melampus for Immortalité and came alongside, only realising his mistake when Melampus opened fire. Because of the heavy seas, Résolue's guns had been tied down below decks, so the only return fire she could offer was from her handful of quarterdeck guns. Bargeau, whose ship was still leaking badly, recognised that further resistance was futile and surrendered in minutes, having lost ten men and much of his rigging. Melampus put aboard a prize crew and then departed in pursuit of Immortalité.


1805 - HMS Jason (32)(Thames-class) , Cptn. P. William Champain, captured French national corvette Naiade (20), Lt. Hamond, in the Atlantic west of Barbados. Jason also took a Spanish schooner, Three Schooners, the same day.
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sistership of the Thames-class - HMS ALEXANDRIA 1806


1813 - HMS Telegraph (14), Cdr. Timothy Scriven, engaged Filbustier (22), Lt. Daniels, in the mouth of the Adour until her crew escaped ashore after setting her on fire. Attempts to save her did not succeed.
HMS Telegraph
was built in 1812 in New York as the American letter of marque Vengeance. The Royal Navy captured her in 1813 and took her into service as the 14-gun schooner or gunbrig Telegraph. Over a period of only about two years she took numerous small prizes and caused the destruction of a French 16-gun brig. A gale caused the wrecking of Telegraph in 1817.
HMS_Telegraph_(1813)_and_Flibustier.jpg
 

Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

14th of October

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1726 – Birth of Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, Scottish-English admiral and politician (d. 1813)
Admiral Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham PC (14 October 1726 – 17 June 1813[1]) was a Royal Navy officer and politician. As a junior officer he saw action during the Seven Years' War. Middleton was given command of a guardship at the Nore, a Royal Navy anchorage in the Thames Estuary, at the start of the American War of Independence, and was subsequently appointed Comptroller of the Navy. He went on to be First Naval Lord and then First Lord of the Admiralty. Middleton also played a crucial role in the abolition of the slave trade.
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1780 – Launch of HMS Magnanime, Intrepid-class – converted 1794 razees
HMS Magnanime
was a 64-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 14 October 1780 at Deptford Dockyard. She belonged to the Intrepid-class designed by Sir John Williams.
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1785 - Launch of HMS St George, a 98-gun Duke-class
HMS St George
was a 98-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 14 October 1785 at Portsmouth.[1] In 1793 she captured one of the richest prizes ever. She then participated in the Naval Battle of Hyères Islands in 1795 and took part in the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801. She was wrecked off Jutland in 1811 with the loss of almost all her crew.
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Le HMS Saint-George, portant le pavillon d'un vice-amiral de l'escadre rouge, accompagnés d'autres vaisseaux, par Dominic Serres. Peinture de 1787.


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1811 - HMS Pomone (1805 - 38), Cptn. Robert Barrie, with Sir Hartford Jones on board, wrecked on the Needles. The master was severely reprimanded for not taking accurate bearings of Hurst lighthouse.
HMS Pomone
was a 38-gun Leda-class fifth rate of the Royal Navy launched in 1805. She saw action during the Napoleonic Wars, primarily in the Mediterranean while under the command of Captain Robert Barrie. She was wrecked off The Needles, part of the Isle of Wight, in 1811.
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Scale 1:60. A contemporary full hull model of ‘Pomone’ (1805) a 38-gun frigate fifth-rate ship of the line.


1881 - The Eyemouth disaster
was a severe European windstorm that struck the south-eastern coast of Scotland, United Kingdom, specifically Berwickshire, on 14 October 1881. One hundred and eighty-nine fishermen, most of whom were from the village of Eyemouth, were drowned. Many citizens of Eyemouth call the day Black Friday.


1898 – The steamer ship SS Mohegan sinks after impacting the Manacles near Cornwall, United Kingdom, killing 106.
The SS Mohegan was a steamer which sank off the coast of the Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall, on her second voyage. She hit The Manacles on 14 October 1898 with the loss of 106 of the 197 on board.
SS_Mohegan.jpg



1905 – Launch of SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie was a Hamburg-America Line passenger ship
Kronprinzessin Cecilie was a Hamburg-America Line passenger ship launched on 14 October 1905 by Krupp Aktiengesellschaft Germaniawerft at Kiel, Germany. The ship was placed on the South American service and soon to be overshadowed by the Norddeutscher Lloyd four stack liner Kronprinzessin Cecilie launched on 1 December 1906 that, at 18,372 GRT, was over twice the 8,688 GRT tonnage of the Hamburg-America Line ship.
The ship, after leaving New York on 25 July 1914 sought refuge in the port of Falmouth, Cornwall, Britain not yet having declared war, from a French cruiser. The ship was given permission to leave on Britain's entry into the war, though British and French warships were waiting, refused, and as a result was condemned in a British court, requisitioned by the government and taken into the Royal Navy as HMS Princess in 1915.
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1915 - The keel to first electrically-driven battleship USS New Mexico (BB 40) is laid.
USS New Mexico (BB-40)
was a battleship in service with the United States Navy from 1918 to 1946. She was the lead ship of a class of three battleships, and the first ship to be named for the state of New Mexico. Her keel was laid down on 14 October 1915 at the New York Navy Yard, she was launched on 23 April 1917, and was commissioned on 20 May 1918. She was the first ship with a turbo-electric transmission, which helped her reach a cruising speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). Shortly after completing initial training, New Mexico escorted the ship that carried President Woodrow Wilson to Brest, France to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The interwar period was marked with repeated exercises with the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets, use as a trial ship for PID controllers, and a major modernization between March 1931 and January 1933.
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USS New Mexico (BB-40) in 1921

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USS New Mexico (BB-40), c. 1935, in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.


1939 – World War II: The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak within her harbour at Scapa Flow, Scotland.
HMS Royal Oak
was one of five Revenge-class battleships built for the Royal Navy during the First World War. Launched in 1914 and completed in 1916, Royal Oak first saw combat at the Battle of Jutland as part of the Grand Fleet. In peacetime, she served in the Atlantic, Home and Mediterranean fleets, more than once coming under accidental attack. The ship drew worldwide attention in 1928 when her senior officers were controversially court-martialled. Attempts to modernise Royal Oak throughout her 25-year career could not fix her fundamental lack of speed and by the start of the Second World War, she was no longer suited to front-line duty.
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1942 - civilian ferry SS Caribou was attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-69 - 137 died
SS Caribou
was a Newfoundland Railway passenger ferry that ran between Port aux Basques, in the Dominion of Newfoundland, and North Sydney, Nova Scotia between 1928 and 1942. During the Battle of the St. Lawrence the ferry was attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-69 in October 1942, while traversing the Cabot Strait as part of her three weekly SPAB convoys. As a civilian vessel, she had women and children on board, and many of them were among the 137 who died. Her sinking, and large death toll, made it clear that the war had really arrived on Canada's and Newfoundland's home front, and is cited by many historians as the most significant sinking in Canadian-controlled waters during the Second World War.
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Uwek

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

15th of October

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1711 - HMS Edgar (1668 - 72) ), Cptn. George Paddon, blew up at Spithead after an accidental fire.
HMS Edgar
was a 72-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built by Baylie of Bristol and launched in 1668. By 1685 she was carrying 74 guns.
Edgar was destroyed by fire at Spithead, Hampshire in 1711. All on board perished. The wrecked was cleared in May 1844
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32 pounder salvaged in 1844, 133 years after the sinking, now on display at the Tower of London


1779 - HMS Charon (44), HMS Lowestoffe (32), HMS Pomona (28), HMS Porcupine (24) and other small craft surprised fortress of San Fernando de Omoa in Honduras which during 4 day campaign was taken with 2 Spanish treasure ships.
HMS Lowestoffe
was a 32-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Built during the latter part of the Seven Years' War, she went on to see action in the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary War, and served often in the Caribbean. A young Horatio Nelson served aboard her shortly after passing his lieutenant's examination.
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1781 – Launch of French Pégase 74 at Brest – Captured by the British in the Bay of Biscay in April 1782 and added to the RN under the same name
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Foudroyant and Pégase entering Portsmouth Harbour, 1782. Painting by Dominic Serres

She was captured by the Captain John Jervis on 21 April 1782, in HMS Foudroyant, Jervis was invested Knight of the Order of the Bath for the capture. Pégase was bought into the Navy and commissioned as the third rate HMS Pegase. She served as a prison ship in Portsmouth from 1799, and was broken up in 1815.
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1795 – Launch of French corvette Mignonne (1795), Etna-class corvette
Mignonne was an 18-gun Etna-class corvette of the French Navy, launched in 1795. She served until 1803 when the British captured her. Though she served briefly, there is no record of her actually being commissioned into the Royal Navy; she grounded and was condemned in 1804.
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1863 – American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks, killing its inventor.
H. L. Hunley, often referred to as Hunley, was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that played a small part in the American Civil War. Hunley demonstrated the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. She was the first combat submarine to sink a warship (USS Housatonic), although Hunley was not completely submerged and, following her successful attack, was lost along with her crew before she could return to base. The Confederacy lost 21 crewmen in three sinkings of Hunley during her short career. She was named for her inventor, Horace Lawson Hunley, shortly after she was taken into government service under the control of the Confederate States Army at Charleston, South Carolina.
Conrad_Wise_Chapman_-_Submarine_Torpedo_Boat_H.L._Hunley,_Dec._6,_1863.jpg
 

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Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

16th of October

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1777 – Launch of french Iphigénie, a 32-gun Iphigénie-class frigate
Iphigénie was a 32-gun Iphigénie-class frigate of the French Navy, and the lead ship of her class. She was briefly in British hands after the Anglo-Spanish capture of Toulon in August 1793 but the French recaptured her December. The Spanish captured her in 1795 and her subsequent fate is unknown.
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Fight between Bellone and HMS Foudroyant at the Battle of Tory Island


1807 - HMS Pert (16), Donald Campbell, wrecked off Santa Margarita.
HMS Pert
was the French privateer Bonaparte that HMS Cyane captured in November 1804. The Royal Navy took Bonaparte into service as HMS Pert. Pert was wrecked off the coast of what is now Venezuela in October 1807.
On 14 October Pert was off the coast of what is now Venezuela when she sighted a ship that she then chased. Pert caught up with her quarry off Margarita Island and captured her. The quarry turned out to be the Spanish packet Alarma, 40 days out of Ferrol and bound for the Spanish Main and Havana. Before the British could board Alarma, she sent a boat to the island of Mucana with the dispatches that she was carrying. Campbell immediately too sent a boat to the island to try to retrieve them. Campbell put the crew of Alarma into boats and sent them to Cumana under a flag of truce. While he waited for his boats to return, Campbell anchored. Unfortunately, the weather worsened to a gale that on the morning of 16 October drove Pert on to the rocky shore of Margarita Island after her anchor cable parted. The gale pushed her onto her side, and the rocks bilged her, letting in water. The crew scrambled ashore as quickly as they could, but ten men drowned. The next morning the weather improved and Alarmarescued the survivors. Head money for the crew of Alarma, Infanzon, master, was paid in November 1810.
The gale that wrecked Pert may have been part of the hurricane among the Leeward Islands that on 16 October sank Maria with the loss of her entire crew.
Pert also shared with Galatea in His Majesty's grant for the capture of the Danish brig Amalia, Dills, master, captured on 17 October.
 
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