Naval/Maritime History 20th of September - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History


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Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

14th of September

some of the events you will find here,
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1779 - HMS Pearl (1762 – 32 – Niger-class) took Spanish frigate Santa Monica (32) off the Western Islands
HMS Pearl
was a 32-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Niger-class in the Royal Navy.
..................... and arrived at Spithead on 22 March. She was then paid off, sheathed in copper, and refitted at Plymouth. She served for a short while in the Channel before returning to the North American Station under Captain George Montagu.

Pearl engages the Santa Monica in the Action of 14 September 1779

1782 - Destruction of floating batteries at Gibraltar
The Great Siege of Gibraltar from 24 June 1779 – 7 February 1783 (3 years, 7 months and 2 weeks) was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.
The British garrison under George Augustus Eliott were blockaded at first by the Spanish led by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor in June 1779. This failed however as two relief convoys entered unmolested—the first under Admiral George Rodney succeeded in 1780 and the second by Admiral George Darby in 1781 despite the presence of the Spanish fleets. The same year a major assault was planned by the Spanish but a sortieby the Gibraltar garrison in November succeeded in destroying much of the forward batteries. With the siege going nowhere and constant Spanish failures the besiegers were reinforced by French forces under the Duc de Crillon who took over operations in early 1782. With a lull in the siege in which the allied force gathered more guns, ships and troops, a huge 'Grand Assault' was delivered in September 1782. This involved huge numbers—60,000 men, 49 ships of the line and ten specially designed newly invented floating batteries against 5,000 men of the Gibraltar garrison. This was a disastrous failure which caused heavy losses for the Bourbon allies.
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1825 - Launch of HMS Princess Charlotte, 104 gun Princess Charlotte-class First Rate
HMS Princess Charlotte
was a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 14 September 1825 at Portsmouth. The occasion was notable for the fact that the gates of the dry dock into which she was to be placed burst because of the high tide and more than 40 people were drowned.

When first ordered in 1812 she was intended to be a second rate of 98 guns, but in the general reclassifications of 1817 she was reclassed as a first rate.

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Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth as originally prepared for Princess Charlotte (1825), a 100/110-gun, First Rate, three-decker.

1848 – Launch of French Henri IV, a 100 gun Hercule class at Cherbourg
The Henri IV was a 100-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, named after Henry IV of France. She was launched in 1848. Her shipwreck in a storm off Sebastopol in 1854 marked the beginnings of French meteorology.

Henri IV at the bombardment of Salé.


1/75th-scale model of Prince Jérôme, on display at the Swiss Museum of Transport. She was transformed into a sail and steam ship of the line while on keel.

1852 – Launch of French Jean Bart, 90 gun Suffren class Ship of the Line
The Jean Bart was a 90-gun Suffren class ship of the line of the French Navy, named in honour of Jean Bart.

The Jean Bart, painting by Louis Le Breton


Straight walls of an arsenal model of Suffren

1914 – HMAS AE1, the Royal Australian Navy's first submarine, was lost at sea with all hands near East New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
(originally known as just AE1) was an E-class submarine of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). She was the first submarine to serve in the RAN, and was lost at sea with all hands near what is now East New Britain, Papua New Guinea, on 14 September 1914, after less than seven months in service. Search missions attempting to locate the wreck began in 1976. The submarine was found during the 13th search mission near the Duke of York Islands in December 2017.

HMAS AE1 underway in 1914


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Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

15th of September

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1806 - HMS Anson (1781 - 64) engaged French Foudroyant (1800 - 80)
The Anson remained cruising off Havana, and on 15 September sighted the French 84-gun Foudroyant. The Foudroyant, carrying the flag of Vice-Admiral Jean-Baptiste Willaumez, had been dismasted in a storm and was carrying a jury-rig. Despite the superiority of his opponent and the nearness of the shore Lydiard attempted to close on the French vessel and opened fire. Anson came under fire from the fortifications at Morro Castle, while several Spanish ships, including the 74-gun San Lorenzo, came out of Havana to assist the French. After being unable to manoeuvre into a favourable position and coming under heavy fire, Lydiard hauled away and made his escape. Anson had two killed and 13 wounded during the engagement, while its sails and rigging had been badly damaged. Foudroyant meanwhile had 27 killed or wounded.

Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for 'Anson' (1781), a 64-gun Third Rate, two decker, as built at Plymouth Dockyard.

1808 - French frigate Canonniere (1794 - 44), Cptn. Bourayne, captured HMS Laurel (1806 - 22), Cptn. J. C. Woolcombe, off Port Louis in Mauritius.
Minerve was a 40-gun Minerve-class frigate of the French Navy. The British captured her twice and the French recaptured her once. She therefore served under four names before being broken up in 1814:
  • Minerve, 1794–1795
  • HMS Minerve, 1795–1803
  • Canonnière, 1803–1810
  • HMS Confiance, 1810–1814
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1814 - HMS Hermes (1811 - 20), Cptn. Hon. William Henry Percy, and HMS Sophie (18), Cptn. Lockyer, engaged Fort Bowyer on Mobile Point.
Consorts HMS Carron, and HMS Childers (18), J. B. Umfreville, did not engage. Whilst withdrawing, Hermes, with all her rigging shot away, was unmanageable and grounded with her stern to the fort. Boats of the squadron took off the crew and she was set on fire, subsequently exploding.
HMS Hermes
was a 20-gun Hermes-class sixth-rate flush decked sloop-of-war built in Milford Dockyard to the lines of the ex-French Bonne Citoyenne[2]. She was destroyed in 1814 to prevent her falling into American hands after grounding during her unsuccessful attack on Fort Bowyer on Mobile Pointoutside Mobile, Alabama.
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Destruction of La Mouche French Privateer of Boulogne.... by H.M. Ship Hermes Septr 14th 1811 off Beachy Head in a heavy Gale

1816 – HMS Whiting runs aground on the Doom Bar
HMS Whiting, built in 1811 by Thomas Kemp as a Baltimore pilot schooner, was launched as Arrow. On 8 May 1812 a British navy vessel seized her under Orders in Council, for trading with the French. The Royal Navy re-fitted her and then took her into service under the name HMS Whiting. In 1816, after four years service, Whiting was sent to patrol the Irish Sea for smugglers. She grounded on the Doom Bar. When the tide rose, she was flooded and deemed impossible to refloat.

1835 – HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands. The ship lands at Chatham or San Cristobal, the easternmost of the archipelago.

Longitudinal section of HMS Beagle as of 1832

1931 - The Invergordon Mutiny was an industrial action by around 1,000 sailors in the British Atlantic Fleet that took place on 15–16 September 1931. For two days, ships of the Royal Navy at Invergordon were in open mutiny, in one of the few military strikes in British history.

British Atlantic Fleet on exercise in the late 1920s

1942 – World War II: U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Wasp is sunk by Japanese torpedoes at Guadalcanal.
USS Wasp (CV-7)
was a United States Navy aircraft carrier commissioned in 1940 and lost in action in 1942. She was the eighth ship named USS Wasp, and the sole ship of a class built to use up the remaining tonnage allowed to the U.S. for aircraft carriers under the treaties of the time. As a reduced-size version of the Yorktown-class aircraft carrier hull, Wasp was more vulnerable than other United States aircraft carriers available at the opening of hostilities. Wasp was initially employed in the Atlantic campaign, where Axis naval forces were perceived as less capable of inflicting decisive damage. After supporting the occupation of Iceland in 1941, Wasp joined the British Home Fleet in April 1942 and twice ferried British fighter aircraft to Malta. Waspwas then transferred to the Pacific in June 1942 to replace losses at the battles of Coral Sea and Midway. After supporting the invasion of Guadalcanal, Wasp was sunk by the Japanese submarine I-19 on 15 September 1942.


Wasp on fire shortly after being torpedoed.

1962 – The Soviet ship Poltava heads toward Cuba, one of the events that sets into motion the Cuban Missile Crisis.

A US Navy P-2H Neptune of VP-18 flying over a Soviet cargo ship with crated Il-28s on deck during the Cuban Crisis.

1966 - German U-boot Hai sunk by accident with the loss of complete crew
German submarine Hai
, the former U-2365 Type XXIII U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II, was one of the first submarines of the Bundesmarine. She was ordered on 20 September 1944, and was laid down on 6 December 1944 at Deutsche Werft AG, Hamburg, as yard number 519. She was launched on 26 January 1945 and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Fritz-Otto Korfmann on 2 March 1945. Scuttled in 1945, the boat was raised in 1956 and commissioned into the newly-founded Bundesmarine as Hai, where she served until she sank by accident in 1966.

1969 - oil tanker SS Manhattan making the first time the Northwest Passage transit
SS Manhattan
was an oil tanker constructed at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts that became the first commercial ship to cross the Northwest Passage in 1969. Having been built as an ordinary tanker in 1962, she was refitted for this voyage with an icebreaker bow in 1968–69. Registered in the United States at the time, she was the largest US merchant vessel as well as the biggest icebreaker in history.

Bow of the SS Manhattan


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Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

16th of September

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1782 - The Central Atlantic hurricane of 1782, was a hurricane that hit the fleet of British Admiral Thomas Graves as it sailed across the North Atlantic in September 1782. It is believed to have killed some 3,500 people.
On 17 September 1782, the fleet under Admiral Graves was caught in a violent storm off the banks of Newfoundland. Ardent and Caton were forced to leave the fleet and make for a safe anchorage, Ardent returning to Jamaica and Caton making for Halifax in company with Pallas. Of the rest of the warships, only Canada and Jason survived to reach England. The French prizes Ville de Paris, Glorieux and Hector foundered, as did HMS Centaur. HMS Ramillies had to be abandoned, and was burnt. A number of the merchant fleet, including Dutton, British Queen, Withywood, Rodney, Ann, Minerva and Mentor also foundered. Altogether around 3,500 lives were lost from the various ships.

The view from Lady Juliana on the morning after the hurricane, featuring Glorieux along with HMS Centaurand HMS Ville de Paris


Loss of HMS Ramillies, September 1782: before the storm breaks


French warship Ville de Paris in 1764.


Sinking of the Ville de Paris

1788 - Launch of HMS Royal George
HMS Royal George
was a 100-gun first rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched from Chatham Dockyard on 16 September 1788. She was designed by Sir Edward Hunt, and Queen Charlotte was the only other ship built to her draught. She was the fifth ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name.

HMS Royal George on the right fitting out in the River Medway off what is now Sun Pier, with HMS Queen Charlotte under construction in the centre background. This is a view from Chatham Ness, today the southernmost point of the Medway City Estate

1814 - A squadron from the schooner USS Carolina attacks and raids the base of the pirate Jean Lafitte, at Barataria, La., capturing six schooners and other small craft while the pirates flee the attack.
Jean Lafitte (c. 1780 – c. 1823) was a French pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. He and his elder brother, Pierre, spelled their last name Laffite, but English-language documents of the time used "Lafitte". The latter has become the common spelling in the United States, including for places named after him.
Portrait said to be of Jean Lafitte

1823 - Samuel Southard becomes the seventh Secretary of the Navy, serving until March 3, 1829. During his tenure, he enlarges the Navy, improves administration, purchases land for the first Naval Hospitals, begins construction of the first Navy dry docks, undertakes surveying U.S. coastal waters and promotes exploration in the Pacific Ocean.

1841 – Launch of French Forte, a 60 gun Surveillante-class frigate, at Cherbourg
The Surveillante class was a type of sixty-gun frigate of the French Navy, designed in 1823 by Mathurin-François Boucher.
One of the main innovations with respect to previous design was the disappearance of the gangways, which provided a flush deck capable of harbouring a complete second battery. With the standardisation on the 30-pounder calibre for all naval ordnance that occurred in the 1820s, this design allowed for a frigate throwing a 900-pound broadside, thrice the firepower of the 40-gun Pallas class that constituted the majority of the frigate forces during the Empire, and comparable to that of a 74-gun.


Model showing characteristics and original painting scheme of Belle Poule.

1888 - HMS Lily, an Arab-class composite gunvessel wrecked on the coast of Labrador
HMS Lily
was an Arab-class composite gunvessel built for the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1874, saw service in Chinese and North American waters, and was wrecked on the coast of Labrador on 16 September 1888.

1918 - HMS Glatton and her sister ship Gorgon were originally built as coastal defence ships for the Royal Norwegian Navy, as Bjørgvin and Nidaros respectively. She was requisitioned from Norway at the beginning of World War I, but was not completed until 1918 although she had been launched over three years earlier. On 16 September 1918, before she had even gone into action, she suffered a large fire in one of her 6-inch magazines, and had to be scuttled to prevent an explosion of her main magazines that would have devastated Dover. Her wreck was partially salvaged in 1926, and moved into a position in the northeastern end of the harbour where it would not obstruct traffic. It was subsequently buried by landfill underneath the current car ferry terminal.


Wreck of HMS Glatton in Dover harbour


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Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

17th of September

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1625 - The Recovery of Ré Island
(French: Reprise de l'Île de Ré) was accomplished by the army of Louis XIII in September 1625, against the troops of the Protestant admiral Soubise and the Huguenot forces of La Rochelle, who had been occupying the Island of Ré since February 1625 as part of the Huguenot rebellions.

Battle of Pertuis Breton in 1625, between Soubise and the Duc de Montmorency, with the explosion of the Dutch ship under Vice-Admiral Van Dorp. Pierre Ozanne.

1765 - Launch of HMS Canada, a 74 gun Canada-class Ship of the Line
HMS Canada
was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 17 September 1765 at Woolwich Dockyard.

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HMS Captain, pictured, was from the same Canada class as HMS Canada

1797 - HMS Pelican (1795 - 18), Lt. Thomas White (Act.), destroyed French privateer Trompeur (12) off St. Domingo.
HMS Pelican (1795) was an 18-gun Albatros-class sloop launched in 1795 and sold in 1806.

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Plan showing the framing profile (disposition) for Albatross (1795); Dispatch (1795); Kite (1795); Raven (1796); Star (1795); Swallow (1795); Sylph (1795) and Pelican (1795), all 16-gun Brig Sloops. All were built of fir except Albatross and Dispatch, while Pelican was also built with oak and elm.

1803 – Launch of French Suffren, a 74 gun Short Variant (Suffren-group) of the Temeraire class

The Suffren was a Téméraire class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy.
Suffren took part in Allemand's expedition of 1805 under Captain Amable Troude.
She operated in the Mediterranean until the end of the First Empire, and was decommissioned shortly thereafter.
Suffren was razeed in 1816, and used as a prison hulk on Toulon harbour.
She was eventually broken up in 1823.
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1807 - HMS Barbara (1806 - 10), Lt. Edward D'Arcy, captured by privateer General Ernouf (1805 - 14)
HMS Barbara
was an Adonis class schooner of the Royal Navy and launched in 1806. A French privateer captured her in 1807 and she became the French privateer Pératy. The Royal Navy recaptured her in 1808. She was paid off in June 1814 and sold in February 1815.
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1840 - Caiffa captured by HMS Castor (1832 – 36 – Castor-class), Cptn. Edward Collier, and HMS Pique (36), Cptn. Robert Boxer.
HMS Castor
was a 36-gun fifth rate frigate of the Royal Navy.
Castor was built at Chatham Dockyard and launched on 2 May 1832. She was one of a two ship class of frigates, built to an 1828 design by Sir Robert Seppings, and derived from the earlier Stag class. The Castor classhad a further 13 inches (33 cm) of beam to mount the heavier ordnance. Castor cost a total of £38,292, to be fitted for sea.
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1864 - Launch of French Intrépide , a 90 gun Algesiras- class steamship of the line (sub-class of the Napoleon-class), renamed Borda
From 1883, she was a school ship of the École navale, and from 1887 she was hulked as barracks. Renamed Borda in 1890, she was used again by the École navale, and was eventually broken up in 1921.

1887 – Launch of SS Oceana, a P&O passenger liner and cargo vessel,
SS Oceana
was a P&O passenger liner and cargo vessel, built in 1888 by Harland and Wolff of Belfast. Originally assigned to carry passengers and mail between London and Australia, she was later assigned to routes between London and British India. On 16 March 1912 the ship collided in the Strait of Dover with the Pisagua, a 2,850 GRT German-registered four-masted steel-hulled barque. As a result Oceana sank off Beachy Head on the East Sussex coast, with the loss of nine lives.

1894 – Battle of the Yalu River, the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of the Yalu River (simplified Chinese: 黄海海战; traditional Chinese: 黃海海戰; pinyin: Huáng Hǎi Hǎizhàn; Japanese:Kōkai-kaisen (黄海海戦, "Naval Battle of the Yellow Sea")) was the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang. It involved ships from the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Chinese Beiyang Fleet. The battle is also known by a variety of names: Battle of Haiyang Island, Battle of Dadonggou, Battle of the Yellow Sea and Battle of Yalu, after the geographic location of the battle, which was in the Yellow Sea off the mouth of the Yalu River and not in the river itself. There is also no agreement among contemporary sources on the exact numbers and composition of each fleet.

1895 - The battleship USS Maine is commissioned.
Her active career was spent operating along the U.S. East Coast and in the Caribbean. In January 1898, Maine was sent to Havana, Cuba, to protect U.S. interests during a time of local insurrection and civil disturbance. Three weeks later, on Feb. 15, 1898, the battleship was sunk by a massive explosion that killed a great majority of her crew.

1939 – World War II: German submarine U-29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous.
HMS Courageous
was the lead ship of the Courageous-class cruisers built for the Royal Navy during the First World War. Designed to support the Baltic Project championed by First Sea Lord John Fisher, the ship was very lightly armoured and armed with only a few heavy guns. Courageous was completed in late 1916 and spent the war patrolling the North Sea. She participated in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917 and was present when the German High Seas Fleet surrendered a year later.
Courageous was decommissioned after the war, then rebuilt as an aircraft carrier during the mid-1920s. She could carry 48 aircraft compared to the 36 carried by her half-sister Furious on approximately the same displacement. After recommissioning she spent most of her career operating off Great Britain and Ireland. She briefly became a training carrier, but reverted to her normal role a few months before the start of the Second World War in September 1939. Courageous was torpedoed and sunk in the opening weeks of the war, going down with more than 500 of her crew.


Courageous sinking after being torpedoed by U-29

1949 – The Canadian steamship SS Noronic burns in Toronto Harbour with the loss of over 118 lives.
SS Noronic
was a passenger ship that was destroyed by fire in Toronto Harbour in September 1949 with the loss of at least 118 lives

SS Noronic lying at Maple Leaf Dock in Port Colborne, Ontario 1931.

minutes after the fire began, but already half of the ship’s decks were on fire.


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Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

18th of September

some of the events you will find here,
please use the following link where you will find more details and all other events of this day .....

1740 - George Anson's voyage around the world begins in Spithead
While Great Britain was at war with Spain in 1740, Commodore George Anson led a squadron of eight ships on a mission to disrupt or capture Spain's Pacific possessions. Returning to Britain in 1744 by way of China and thus completing a circumnavigation, the voyage was notable for the capture of an Acapulco galleon but also horrific losses to disease with only 188 men of the original 1,854 surviving.
George Anson, 1st Baron Anson


Model of HMS Centurion, made in 1748.

1778 – Launch of French Auguste, a 80-gun Third Rate Ship of the Line ("vaisseaux de 80") at Brest
Auguste was an 80-gun ship of the line in the French Navy, designed by Léon-Michel Guignace, laid down in 1777 and in active service from 1779. She tooks part in the Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War and later in the French Revolutionary Wars, notably fighting at the Combat de Prairial. She was lost with most hands during the Croisière du Grand Hiver in January 1795.

Auguste fighting at the Battle of the Chesapeake

1781 – Re-Launch of French Couronne (later Ça Ira) , a 80-gun Third rate purpose built Ship of the Line at Brest
Couronne was built at Brest, having been started in May 1781 and launched in September that year. She probably was built from the salvaged remains of her predecessor, Couronne, which had been accidentally burnt at the dockyard in April 1781. She had a refit at Toulon in 1784.

Model of Couronne, on display at the Château de Brest.

1804 - The Battle of Vizagapatam - HMS Centurion (50) engaged French Marengo (74), Atalante (40) and Semillante (36) in Vizagapatam Road
was a minor naval engagement fought in the approaches to Vizagapatam harbour in the Coastal Andhra region of British India on the Bay of Bengal on 15 September 1804 during the Napoleonic Wars. A French squadron under Contre-Admiral Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand Linois in the ship of the line Marengo attacked the British Royal Navy fourth rate ship HMS Centurion and two East Indiaman merchant ships anchored in the harbour roads. Linois was engaged in an extended raiding campaign, which had already involved operations in the South China Sea, in the Mozambique Channel, off Ceylon and along the Indian coast of the Bay of Bengal. The French squadron had fought one notable engagement, at the Battle of Pulo Aura on 15 February 1804, in which Linois had attacked the Honourable East India Company's (HEIC) China Fleet, a large convoy of well-armed merchant ships carrying cargo worth £8 million. Linois failed to press the attack and withdrew with the convoy at his mercy, invoking the anger of Napoleon when the news reached France.

Defence of the Centurion in Vizagapatam Road, Septr. 15th 1804, Engraving by Thomas Sutherland after a painting by James Lind

1810 - The Action of 18 September 1810
was a naval battle fought between British Royal Navy and French Navy frigates in the Indian Ocean during the Napoleonic Wars. The engagement was one of several between rival frigate squadrons contesting control of the French island base of Île de France, from which French frigates had raided British trade routes during the war. The action came in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Grand Port, in which four British frigates had been lost, and just four days after a fifth British frigate had been captured and subsequently recaptured in the Action of 13 September 1810. In consequence of the heavy losses the British force had suffered, reinforcements were hastily rushed to the area and became individual targets for the larger French squadron blockading the British base at Île Bourbon.
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1849 - Launch of SMS Niobe, a Diamond-class 28-gun sixth-rate sailing frigate built for the Royal Navy, but sold to Prussia.
was never commissioned into the Royal Navy, which was converting to steam power, and was sold to Prussiain 1862. She was named after Niobe, a figure from Greek mythology. She served with the Prussian Navy, the North German Federal Navy and the Imperial German Navy as a training ship until stricken and hulked in 1890. Niobe was eventually broken up in 1919.

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A contemporary half block model of HMS Diamond (1848), a 28 gun sixth rate sloop.

1860 - The sloop of war, USS Levant, sails from Hawaii for Panama. She is never seen again.
In June 1861 a mast and a part of a lower yardarm believed to be from USS Levant are found near Hilo. Spikes had been driven into the mast as if to a form a raft. Some rumors had her running aground on an uncharted reef off California; others had her defecting to the Confederacy.

The sloop-of-war USS Levant under way in stormy seas. Artist and source unknown.

1876 – Launch of french ironclad Redoutable
Redoutable was a central battery and barbette ship of the French Navy. She was the first warship in the world to use steel as the principal building material. She was preceded by the Colbert-class ironclads.

Redoutable in 1889

1903 – Launch of german pre-dreadnought battleship SMS Hessen,
SMS Hessen was the third of five pre-dreadnought battleships of the Braunschweig class. She was laid down in 1902, was launched in September 1903, and was commissioned into the German Kaiserliche Marine(Imperial Navy) in September 1905. Named after the state of Hesse, the ship was armed with a battery of four 28 cm (11 in) guns and had a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Like all other pre-dreadnoughts built at the turn of the century, Hessen was quickly made obsolete by the launching of the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought in 1906; as a result, she saw only limited service with the German fleet.

Hessen ca. 1931

1940 – World War II: The British liner SS City of Benares is sunk by German submarine U-48; 248 died, those killed include 77 child refugees.
SS City of Benares
was a steam passenger ship built for Ellerman Lines by Barclay, Curle & Co of Glasgow in 1936. During the Second World War the City of Benares was used as an evacuee ship to evacuate 90 children from Britain to Canada. The ship was torpedoed in 1940 by the German submarine U-48 with heavy loss of life, including the death of 77 of the evacuated children. The sinking caused such public outrage in Britain that it led to Winston Churchill cancelling the Children's Overseas Reception Board (CORB) plan to relocate British children abroad.

1944 - Jun'yō Maru, a Japanese cargo ship (one of the "hell ships") that was attacked and sunk in 1944 by the British submarine HMS Tradewind, resulting in the loss of over 5,600 lives.

Japanese cargo ship Jun'yō Maru.

1998 - MV Princess of the Orient, a passenger ferry owned by Sulpicio Lines, sank off Fortune Island, off Batangas province in the Philippines, 150 of the 388 passengers lost their life
MV Princess of the Orient
was a passenger ferry owned by Sulpicio Lines that sank off Fortune Island, off Batangas province in the Philippines in September 1998.The ship was originally built in Japan as the Sunflower 11 before being sold to Sulpicio Lines.

Princess of the Orient as Sunflower 11.


Staff member
Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

19th of September

some of the events you will find here,
please use the following link where you will find more details and all other events of this day .....

1670 – Launch of Terrible and Tonnant, two french Ships of the line at Brest at the same day
-> strange fact in addition: both wrecked at the same day at the same location in 1678

from Seapower and Naval Warfare, 1650-1830 by Dr Richard Harding, Richard Harding

1758 – Launch of HMS Alarm, a 32 gun Niger-class frigate,
she was later the first ship in the Royal Navy to have a fully copper-sheathed hull
HMS Alarm
was a 32-gun fifth rate Niger-class frigate of the Royal Navy, and was the first Royal Navy ship to bear this name. Copper-sheathed in 1761, she was the first ship in the Royal Navy to have a fully copper-sheathed hull
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1777 - During the American Revolution, the British cutter HMS Alert captures the brig USS Lexington
HMS Alert
(1777 - 10), a 10-gun cutter launched at Dover in 1777, converted to a sloop in the same year, and captured in the Channel by the Junon in 1778; foundered December 1779 off the coast of America. French records show her serving as Alerte, a cutter of fourteen 4-pounder guns and valued as a prize at Lt 32,289.

The first USS Lexington of the Thirteen Colonies was a brigantine purchased in 1776. The Lexington was an 86-foot two-mast wartime sailing ship for the fledgling Continental Navy of the Colonists during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).


1779 – Launch of French Scipion, a 74 gun Scipion-class Ship of the line
The Scipion was a French warship of the 18th century, lead ship of her class.
Scipion took part in the American War of Independence, notably sailing at the rear of the French squadron at the Battle of the Chesapeake.
In the Action of 18 October 1782, under Captain Nicolas Henri de Grimouard, Scipion fought gallantly against two British ships of the line of 90 and 74 guns. Through good sailmanship, she managed to damage HMS London and escape, but was destroyed the next day after she was chased and ran aground.

Combat du Scipion contre le London, credited to Rossel de Crecy, on display at Toulon naval museum.


Modèle réduit d'un vaisseau de 74 canons du même type que le Scipion

1782 - French Ville de Paris 90-gun Ship of the Line sank in a storm
Ville de Paris was a large three-decker French ship of the line that became famous as the flagship of the Comte de Grasse during the American Revolutionary War.

1785 - Launch of French Fougueux, 74 gun Téméraire class Ship of the Line at Lorient
Fougueux was a Téméraire class 74-gun French ship of the line built at Lorient from 1784 to 1785 by engineer Segondat.
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Belleisle 15 minutes past Noon. Octr 21st 1805. Fougueux. Belleisle. Indomptable. Santa Ana. Royal Sovereign (PAD5707)

1807 – Launch of HMS Sultan, a 74 gun Fame-class ship of the line
HMS Sultan
was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 19 September 1807 at Deptford Wharf.
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1813 – Launch of USS Peacock, sloop of the war
USS Peacock
was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the War of 1812.
The Peacock was authorized by Act of Congress 3 March 1813, laid down 9 July 1813, by Adam and Noah Brown at the New York Navy Yard, and launched 19 September 1813. She served in the War of 1812, capturing twenty ships. Subsequently, she served in the Mediterranean Squadron, and in the "Mosquito Fleet" suppressing Caribbean piracy. She patrolled the South American coast during the colonial wars of independence. She was decommissioned in 1827 and broken up in 1828 to be rebuilt as the USS Peacock (1828), intended as an exploration ship. She sailed as part of the United States Exploring Expedition in 1838. The Peacock ran aground and broke up on the Columbia Bar without loss of life in 1841.

The US Navy sloop USS Peacock was stuck in the ice in January 1840, shortly after the first confirmed sighting of the Antarctic continent by a US Navy ship. She was lost on the Columbia river in July 1841.

1898 – Launch of Japanese armored cruiser Izumo
Izumo (出雲, sometimes transliterated Idzumo) was the lead ship of her class of armored cruisers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the late 1890s. As Japan lacked the industrial capacity to build such warships herself, the ship was built in Britain. She often served as a flagship and participated in most of the naval battles of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. The ship was lightly damaged during the Battle off Ulsan and the Battle of Tsushima. Izumo was ordered to protect Japanese citizens and interests in 1913 during the Mexican Revolution and was still there when World War I began in 1914.

1941 – Launch of japanese Taiyo, escort carrier of the Taiyo-class
The Japanese aircraft carrier Taiyō (大鷹, "Big Eagle") was the lead ship of her class of three escort carriers. She was originally built as Kasuga Maru (春日丸), the last of three Nitta Maru class of passenger-cargo liners built in Japan during the late 1930s. The ship was requisitioned by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in early 1941 and was converted into an escort carrier. Taiyō was initially used to transport aircraft to distant air bases and for training, but was later used to escort convoys of merchant ships between Japan and Singapore. The ship was torpedoed twice by American submarines with negligible to moderate damage before she was sunk in mid-1944 with heavy loss of life.

Imperial Japanese Navy's aircraft carrier, Taiyo in habor at Yokosuka, Japan


Staff member
Dec 25, 2017

Vienna, Austria
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

20th of September

some of the events you will find here,
please use the following link where you will find more details and all other events of this day .....

1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sets sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe.
Background: Spanish search for a westward route to Asia

Christopher Columbus's voyages to the West (1492–1503) had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498.
Castile (Spain) urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain


The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after Magellan's death.

1715 – Re-Launch of HMS Royal George
HMS Royal Charles
was a 100-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, designed and built by Sir Anthony Deane at Portsmouth Dockyard, where she was launched and completed by his successor as Master Shipwright, Daniel Furzer, in March 1673. She was one of only three Royal Navy ships to be equipped with the Rupertinoe naval gun.

1759 – Launch of HMS Milford, a 28 gun Coventry-class frigate
HMS Milford
was a 28-gun Coventry-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was built at Milford by Richard Chitty and launched in 1759. She was sold for breaking at Woolwich on 17 May 1785
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1766 - Launch of HMS Magnificent, a 74-gun Ramillies-class third-rate ship of the line
HMS Magnificent was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 20 September 1766 at Deptford Dockyard. She was one of the Ramillies-class built to update the Navy and replace ships lost following the Seven Years' War. She served through two wars before her loss during blockade duty off the French coast.

1778 – Birth of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Russian admiral, cartographer, and explorer (d. 1852)
Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen
(Russian: Фадде́й Фадде́евич (фон) Беллинсга́узен, Faddey Faddeyevich (von) Bellinsgauzen; 20 September [O.S. 9 September] 1778 – 25 January [O.S. 13 January] 1852), a Baltic German naval officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, ultimately rose to the rank of admiral. He participated in the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe and subsequently became a leader of another circumnavigation expedition that discovered the continent of Antarctica.

1799 - HMS Rattlesnake (1799 - 16) and armed storeship HMS Camel (1782 - 26) engaged French frigate Preneuse (1794 - 46) in Algoa Bay - Action known also as Battle of Algoa Bay
In 1796 British Royal Navy dominance in the East Indies during the French Revolutionary Wars was challenged by the arrival of a squadron of six French Navy frigates, commanded by Contre-amiral Pierre César Charles de Sercey. Among these ships was the new 40-gun frigate Preneuse, commanded by Captain Jean-Matthieu-Adrien Lhermitte. Preneuse had not sailed from France with Sercey, instead passing independently through the Atlantic and uniting with the squadron at Port Louis on Île de France. Sercey deployed his squadron to the Dutch East Indies, but suffered frustration at the Action of 9 September 1796 and the Bali Strait Incident of January 1797 and subsequently returned to the base at Port Louis. There the squadron began to fracture, with a succession of ships sent back to France or detached on independent missions.

Algoa Bay, 20–21 September 1799. French frigate Preneuse against HMS Camel and the privateer Surprise

1839 – Death of Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet, English admiral (b. 1769)
Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, 1st Baronet, GCB (5 April 1769 – 20 September 1839) was a Royal Navy officer. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797, the Battle of the Nile in August 1798 and the Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801 during the French Revolutionary Wars. He served as flag captain to Admiral Lord Nelson, and commanded HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. Nelson was shot as he paced the decks with Hardy, and as he lay dying, Nelson's famous remark of "Kiss me, Hardy" was directed at him. Hardy went on to become First Naval Lord in November 1830 and in that capacity refused to become a Member of Parliament and encouraged the introduction of steam warships.

1874 – Launch of armored frigate / turret ship SMS Friedrich der Große of german Kaiserliche Marine
SMS Friedrich der Grosse  (or Große ) was an armored frigate of the German Kaiserliche Marine. She was the second of three Preussen-class ironclads, in addition to her two sister-ships Preussen and Grosser Kurfürst. Named for Frederick the Great, she was laid down at the Imperial Dockyard in Kiel in 1871 and completed in 1877. Her main battery of four 26 cm (10 in) guns was mounted pair of twin gun turrets amidships.

German turret ship SMS Friedrich der Grosse, photographed in 1887 with torpedo nets and reduced rig.

1899 - Launch of Ocean liner SS Rhein, later USS Susquehanna
USS Susquehanna (ID-3016)
was a transport for the United States Navy during World War I. She was the second U.S. Navy ship to be named for the Susquehanna River. Before the war she operated at SS Rhein, an ocean liner for North German Lloyd. She was the lead ship of her class of three ocean liners. After the end of World War I, the ship operated briefly in passenger service as SS Susquehanna. Laid up in 1922, Susquehanna was sold to Japanese ship breakers in 1928 and scrapped.

USS Susquehanna (ID-3016) was underway

1906 – The Cunard Line's RMS Mauretania is launched at Newcastle upon Tyne, England.
RMS Mauretania
was an ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by Wigham Richardson and Swan Hunter for the British Cunard Line, launched on the afternoon of 20 September 1906. She was the world's largest ship until the completion of RMS Olympic in 1911, as well as the fastest until Bremen's maiden voyage in 1929. Mauretania became a favourite among her passengers. She captured the Eastbound Blue Ribandon her maiden return voyage in December 1907, then claimed the Westbound Blue Riband for the fastest transatlantic crossing during her 1909 season. She held both speed records for 20 years.

Mauretania on her sea trials, passing Castle Wemyssand the Station Clock Tower on the Measured Mile, Skelmorlie, November 1907


Workmen standing below Mauretania's original three-bladed propellers in dry dock

1906 - Launch of RMS Adriatic
RMS Adriatic
was an ocean liner of the White Star Line. She was the fourth of a quartet of ships measuring over 20,000 tons, dubbed The Big Four. The ship was the only one of the four which was never the world's largest ship; however, she was the fastest of the Big Four. Adriatic was the first ocean liner to have an indoor swimming pool and a Turkish bath.

1908 - Star of Bengal struck the rocks near the shore of Coronation Island and sunk, killing approximately 110 of 138 people aboard.
The Star of Bengal was an iron three-masted 1,877 GT merchant sailing vessel built in Belfast in 1874 by Harland and Wolff Industries, the shipyard that later constructed the Titanic. Although built towards the decline of the Age of Sail, the Star of Bengal was successfully operated for 24 years by the British trading company J.P. Corry & Co. The ship was mainly used on London-Calcutta trading route, but also made a few voyages to Australian and American ports.
By 1898, following the formative change in the shipping industry, J.P. Corry switched to steam vessels and sold its sailing fleet. On the other hand, merchant shipping along the United States Pacific Coast was experiencing a boom triggered by Klondike and Nome gold rushes which intensified the colonization of the Pacific Northwest, and spiked the demand for both passenger and cargo shipping in the area. As a result, the Star of Bengal was purchased by a San Francisco trading company J.J. Smith & Co. and, along with many other old European vessels, was taken around Cape Horn to the Pacific Ocean. J.J. Smith conducted an overhaul of the ship and re-rigged her from a full-rigged ship to a barque, aiming to decrease costs of her operations.

Star of Bengal (ship) Ship: Star of Bengal Rig: Three-masted bark Hull: Iron Launched: 1874 Out of service: 1908 Builder: Harland & Wolff, Belfast Dimensions: 262.8’ x 40.2’ x 23.5’ Tonnage: 1694 tons

1910 – The ocean liner SS France, later known as the "Versailles of the Atlantic", is launched.
France was a French ocean liner which sailed for the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, colloquially known as CGT or the "French Line". She was later christened Versailles of the Atlantic, a reference to her décor which reflected the famous palace outside Paris. Ordered in 1908, she was introduced into the Transatlantic route in April 1912, just a week after the sinking of RMS Titanic, and was the only French liner among the famous "four stackers". France quickly became one of the most popular ships in the Atlantic. Serving as a hospital ship during World War I, France would have a career spanning two decades. Her overall success encouraged CGT to create even larger liners in the future.

1911 – The White Star Line's RMS Olympic collides with the British warship HMS Hawke.
RMS Olympic
(/ʊˈlɪmpɪk/) was a British transatlantic ocean liner, the lead ship of the White Star Line's trio of Olympic-class liners. Unlike the other ships in the class, Olympic had a long career spanning 24 years from 1911 to 1935. This included service as a troopship during the First World War, which gained her the nickname "Old Reliable". Olympic returned to civilian service after the war and served successfully as an ocean liner throughout the 1920s and into the first half of the 1930s, although increased competition, and the slump in trade during the Great Depression after 1930, made her operation increasingly unprofitable.

1911 – Launch of P-liner Passat
Passat is a German four-masted steel barque and one of the Flying P-Liners, the famous sailing ships of the German shipping company F. Laeisz. The name "Passat" means trade wind in German. She is one of the last surviving windjammers.