38-gun Minerva-class frigates - HMS Minerva (1780) / HMS Arethusa (1781) / HMS Phaeton (1782) / HMS Thetis (1782)

Uwek

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The Minerva-class sailing frigates were a series of four ships built to a 1778 design by Sir Edward Hunt, which served in the Royal Navy during the latter decades of the eighteenth century.

During the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, the Royal Navy - while well supplied with ships from earlier programs, but faced with coastal operations and trade protection tasks along the American littoral - ordered numerous forty-four gun, two-decked ships and thirty-two gun 12-pounder armed frigates. Anticipating the entry of European powers into the war, and with renewed resistance provided by the large, nine hundred ton, thirty-two gun 12-pounder armed frigates of the French Navy, the RN looked to a newer larger design of frigate to meet this challenge. From November 1778 larger frigates with a heavier 18-pounder primary armament were ordered.

They were the first Royal Navy frigates designed to be armed with the eighteen-pounder cannon on their upper deck, the main gun deck of a frigate. Before coming into service, their designed secondary armament was augmented, with 9-pounder guns being substituted for the 6-pounder guns originally planned, and with ten 18-pounder carronades being added (six on the quarter deck and four on the forecastle). The type eventually proved successful, and went on to be virtually the standard frigate type during the latter periods of the age of sail.

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taken from Threedecks-page
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Ships in class
  • HMS Minerva
    • Builder: Woolwich Dockyard
    • Ordered: 6 November 1778
    • Laid down: November 1778
    • Launched: 3 June 1780
    • Completed: 6 July 1780
    • Fate: Fitted as a troopship and renamed Pallas 29 May 1798; broken up March 1803 at Chatham Dockyard.
  • HMS Arethusa
    • Builder: James Martin Hilhouse, Bristol
    • Ordered: 26 January 1779
    • Laid down: 23 August 1779
    • Launched: 10 April 1781
    • Fate: Broken up May 1815 at Sheerness Dockyard.
  • HMS Phaeton
    • Builder: John Smallshaw, Liverpool.
    • Ordered: 3 March 1780
    • Laid down: June 1780
    • Launched: 12 June 1782
    • Completed: 27 December 1782 at Plymouth Dockyard.
    • Fate: Sold to break up 26 March 1828
  • HMS Thetis
    • Builder: John Randall, Rotherhithe.
    • Ordered: 22 September 1781
    • Laid down: December 1781
    • Launched: 23 September 1782
    • Completed: 15 November 1782 at Deptford Dockyard.
    • Fate: Sold 9 June 1814 at Chatham Dockyard.

in the following days I will show much more details of the different ships and also the available contemporary drawings and models representing the very interesting class



to be continued ......
 

Uwek

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HMS Minerva was a 38-gun fifth-rate Royal Navy frigate. The first of four Minerva-class frigates, she was launched on 3 June 1780, and commissioned soon thereafter. In 1798 she was renamed Pallas and employed as a troopship. She was broken up in 1803.

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Service as HMS Minerva
Captain Charles Fielding commissioned Minerva in April 1780, for the Channel. At some point Minerva captured the French brig Jupiter. Between 24 and 27 December 1780, Minerva captured the Thomas en Jank, the Yonge Frone Teglaar, and the Zeepost.

On 11 April 1781, Minerva was serving with Vice-Admiral George Darby's Channel Fleet off Cape St Vincent when the British spotted three vessels. Darby sent Alexander, Foudroyant, and Minerva in pursuit, but the three vessels, which turned out to be enemy frigates, made it safely to Cadiz. Some time thereafter vessels of the Fleet made attacks on some gunboats, during which Minerva had some men badly wounded. Minerva was among the many ships of Darby's Fleet that shared in the prize money for the capture of Duc de Chartres, the Spanish frigate Santa Leocadia, and the French brig Trois Amis.

The next day, Darby's squadron of 29 ships of the line, and the 100 store ships from England laden for the relief of Gibraltar that they were escorting, entered the bay there. Later, on 9 June Minerva sailed with the Lisbon trade.

On 9 October 1781, Minerva, Monsieur, Flora, and Crocodile captured the American privateer Hercules. The next day Minerva and Monsieur captured the American privateer Jason.

In early 1782 Captain the Honourable Thomas Pakenham assumed command of Minerva. On 11 March 1782, Minerva and Daphne captured the brig Pearl off Oporto.

On 28 October Minerva was among the British ships that shared in the capture of the Dutch East Indiaman Young Susanna, off Ceylon.

Minerva was present at the action off Cuddalore on 20 June 1783, but as a transport she was not involved in the fighting. As a storeship she was transporting military stores and provisions in support of the British army which was planning to attack Cuddalore.

Recommissioned in 1790 under Captain Robert Sutton, she sailed for the East Indies on 27 December. In the beginning of November 1791, Minerva, Commodore William Cornwallis, accompanied by the 36-gun frigate Phoenix, Captain Sir Richard Strachan, and Perseverance, Captain Isaac Smith, was in the roads at Tellicherry, a fort and anchorage situated a few leagues south of Mangalore. Phoenix was ordered to stop and search the French frigate Résolue, which was escorting a number of merchant ships believed to be carrying military supplies to support Tippu Sultan. Résolue resisted Phoenix and a brief fight ensued before Résolue struck her colours. The French captain insisted on considering his ship as a British prize, so Cornwallis ordered Strachan to tow her into Mahé and return her to the French commodore.

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French Revolutionary Wars
In 1793, Captain J. Whitby took command of Minerva, which was flying Rear Admiral Cornwallis's flag. On 24 June she took the ship Citoyen off Cuddalore.

From 1 August 1793, together with three East IndiamenTriton, Warley, and Royal CharlotteMinerva blockaded the Port of Pondicherry while the army besieged the fort. The governor initially refused to surrender, so on 20 August the British began a bombardment. The governor surrendered the town on 23 August. During the siege, Minerva, with the admiral on board, chased off the French frigate Sybile, which had attempted to reach the town. Sybille had had 150 artillerymen on board so chasing her off was helpful to the siege. The British vessels also captured a vessel "from the islands" that was bringing in military supplies.

Minerva returned to Britain and was paid off in April 1794. In July 1795, Captain Thomas Peyton recommissioned her for service in Strachan's squadron, which was attached to the main British fleet.

In September 1796 Gilbert Elliot, the British viceroy of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom, decided that it was necessary to clear out Capraja, which belonged to the Genoese and which served as a base for privateers. He sent Lord Nelson in Captain, together with Gorgon, Vanneau, the cutter Rose, and troops of the 51st Regiment of Foot to accomplish this task in September. On their way, Minerva joined them. The troops landed on 18 September and the island surrendered immediately. On 27 September, Minerva was in company with the hired armed cutter Lady Jane when they captured two Spanish vessels, the Santa Francisco Xavier and the Nostra Senora de la Miserecordia.

On 13 November 1796, Minerva and Melampus, encountered the French corvette Etonnant off Barfleur and drove her ashore. Etonnant carried eighteen 18-pounders and was a new vessel on her first cruise. She was carrying naval and military stores from Havre to Brest.

On 19 April 1797, the hired armed cutter Grand Falconer with Diamond, Minerva, Cynthia] and Camilla in company, captured the American ship Favourite.[18] Later that month, Diamond and Minerva grounded near Cape Barfleur and both had to be docked for repairs when they returned to port.

Still, in October Minerva and Lively captured the Marselloise as she was sailing from Guadeloupe to France. They then took the richly laden former Sugar Cane into Martinique.

Service as troopship HMS Pallas
Between July 1797 and May 1798, the Admiralty converted Minerva into a troopship armed en flûte and renamed her Pallas. Pallas, the lead ship of the Pallas-class frigates, had just been wrecked, freeing the name. Captain John Mackellar recommissioned Pallas in February 1798.

In May 1798, Pallas (though still known as Minerva in the dispatches) participated in Home Popham's expedition to Ostend. The British Army force of about 1,300 were landed to destroy the locks and sluice gates on the Bruges canal to prevent the French from moving gunboats and transports from Flushing to Ostend and Dunkirk for an invasion of Britain. Although the British succeeded in damaging the sluice gates, the evacuation of the contingent failed due to bad weather and they were captured. The French also captured Mackellar and his boat crew.

Commander Joseph Edmunds took over as captain in July. On 20 May 1800, Pallas was in the squadron under the command of Vice-Admiral Lord Keith, off Genoa. Keith was blockading and bombarding Genoa when he decided to send in boats under the cover of the bombardment to try to cut-out some armed French vessels. At 1am on the 21st the boats succeeded in boarding, carrying, and bringing off the largest galley, the Prima. She had fifty oars and a crew of 257 men, and was under the command of Captain Patrizio Galleano. She was armed with two brass 36-pounder guns and had 30 brass swivel guns stored below deck, together with a large quantity of side arms and small arms. The British suffered only four men wounded, one of whom was from Pallas.

Then on 30 May, Pallas recaptured the English (Minorcan) tartane Rosario, which was sailing from Leghorn to Minorca, in ballast. Two days later Pallas captured a Ragusan ship sailing from Leghorn to Barcelona with a cargo of sundries. On 7 June Pallas captured the Ardita off the coast of Italy. Amongst other cargo she was carrying statuary.

From 8 August 1801, Pallas was involved in transporting a portion of the British Army under General Coote from Cairo to the west of Alexandria. The Siege of Alexandria ended on 30 August with the capitulation of Alexandria. Because Pallas served in the navy's Egyptian campaign (8 March to 8 September 1801), her officers and crew qualified for the clasp "Egypt" to the Naval General Service Medal that the Admiralty issued in 1847 to all surviving claimants.

Fate
Pallas was paid off in May 1802 and put in ordinary. She was broken up at Chatham in March 1803.

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Uwek

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In the following I show the drawings and model which can be directly found under the Minerva in the NMM

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Lines & Profile (ZAZ2502)

also valid for Arethusa and Phaeton
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Upper deck plan (ZAZ2504)

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Deck, Quarter & Forecastle (ZAZ2505)

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Lower deck plan (ZAZ2503)


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Scale: 1:48. A contemporary full hull model 'Minerva' (1780), a 38-gun frigate, built in 'bread and butter' fashion, planked and finished in the Georgian style. Model is partially decked, equipped and mounted on modern hull crutches. It has been identified by comparison to the original ship plans held in the NMM collection, as well as by the presence of a carved owl on the stern decoration, a figure associated with the 'Minerva’. Built at the Royal Dockyard, Woolwich, it had a gun deck length of 141 feet by 39 feet in the beam and a tonnage of 940 (builders old measurement). The 'Minerva’ was the first of a group of five 38-gun frigates built with identical dimensions. It took part in Admiral William Hotham’s action off Genoa in 1795 and was later renamed 'Pallas’ in 1798. It was eventually sold for breaking up in 1803.

Information about the model:
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The english modeler Malcom Darch built during a period of 3 years in 6.500 hours a beautiful model of the HMS Minerva for an american collector
An article of this model was published in the "Shipwright 2012" and was shown also in the cover of the book

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you can find also some information of this model here:

https://charlesmiller.blob.core.windows.net/media/Country-Life-April-20-2011.pdf
 

Uwek

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HMS Arethusa was a 38-gun Minerva-class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy built at Bristol in 1781. She served in three wars and made a number of notable captures before she was broken up in 1815.

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American Revolutionary War
In February 1782, Arethusa captured the French ship Tartare, of fourteen 6-pounder guns. Tartare was the former British privateer Tartar, which the French ships Aimable and Diligente had captured in September 1780. The Royal Navy took Tartare into service as True Briton.

On 20 August 1782, Arethusa recaptured the former British warship Thorn. She was armed with 18 guns and carrying a crew of 71 men. She was also carrying a cargo of 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of indigo and eight hogsheads of tobacco.

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Capture of the Pomona by Anson & Arethusa off Havannah, 23 Aug 1806 (PAD5764)

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French Revolutionary Wars
Arethusa was assigned to the British Western Frigate Squadron under Commodore John Borlase Warren. The squadron consisted of Flora, Captain Sir John Warren, Arethusa, Captain Sir Edward Pellew (later Lord Exmouth), Melampus, Captain Thomas Wells, Concorde, Sir Richard Strachan , and Nymphe, Captain George Murray. These were all 36-gun ships, apart from Nymphe and Arethusa with 38.

The Western Frigate Squadron engaged a French squadron off the Île de Batz on 23 April 1794. The squadron had sighted four strange sail which, upon closure, were identified as three French frigates and a corvette. The French squadron included the new French frigate Pomone which, at 44 guns, was the most powerful ship in action that day. Flora and Arethusa were the first to close with Pomone and Babet, the corvette of 20 guns. The opening shots were fired just before 6 a.m. For about forty-five minutes, the four ships manoeuvred against one another without any severe damage being done. Then Flora lost her mainmast and was forced to drop astern. With Flora out of action, Pellew ordered Arethusa to close with the corvette. Arethusa's carronades quickly destroyed her resistance. Leaving Babet to be finished by Melampus, Arethusa then engaged Pomone, coming to within pistol range at 8.30 a.m. and raking her repeatedly. Within twenty-five minutes one of the finest new French frigates was a ruin, her main and mizzen masts shot away and a fire burning on her aft deck. Just after 9 a.m., Pomone struck her colors.

Melampus and Arethusa captured Babet. The action had cost Babet some 30 to 40 of her crew killed and wounded. Arethusa also captured Pomone which had between eighty and a hundred dead or wounded out of her 350-man complement. Arethusa had three men killed and five wounded, a tribute to her superior gunnery. The captured vessels were brought her into Portsmouth, arriving on 30 April. The Royal Navy took Babet and Pomone into service under their existing names. Additionally Concorde captured Engageante in this action. Engageante suffered 30 to 40 men killed and wounded. Concorde lost one man killed and 12 wounded. Heavy mast damage to both vessels delayed their return to Portsmouth. Engageante was taken into British service as a hospital ship.

Some four months later, on 23 August, Arethusa and Flora sent their boats into Audierne Bay. There they attacked two French corvettes, Alerte and Espion, driving them ashore. The British took 52 prisoners.

On 21 October, the British frigate Artois captured Révolutionnaire at the Action of 21 October 1794. Artois shared the prize money with the other frigates in her squadron, Arethusa, Diamond, and Galatea.

On 31 January 1795 Arethusa was part of a squadron under Captain Sir John Borlase Warren that captured the Dutch East India ship Ostenhuyson.

Later that year Arethusa, under the command of Captain Mark Robinson, was one of the Royal Navy vessels under Borlase Warren's command that participated in the unsuccessful Quiberon Expedition.

Arethusa was part of a fleet under the command of Rear Admiral Sir Henry Harvey, commander-in-chief for the Navy in the Leeward Islands, aboard Prince of Wales, that in February 1797 captured the Spanish-held Caribbean island of Trinidad. The flotilla sailed from Carriacou on 15 February and arrived off Port of Spain the next day. At Port of Spain they found a Spanish squadron consisting of four ships of the line and a frigate, all under the command of Rear-Admiral Don Sebastian Ruiz de Apodaca. Harvey sent Favourite and some of the other smaller ships to protect the transports and anchored his own ships of the line opposite the Spanish squadron. At 2am on 17 February the British discovered that four of the five Spanish vessels were on fire; they were able to capture the 74-gun San Domaso but the others were destroyed. The five Spanish ships were San Vincente (Captain Don Geronimo Mendoza; 84 guns), Gallardo (Captain Don Gabriel Sororido; 74 guns), Arrogante (Captain Don Raphael Benasa; 74 guns), San Damaso (Don Tores Jordan; 74 guns), and Santa Cecilia (Captain Don Manuel Urtesabel; 36 guns).
Later that morning General Sir Ralph Abercrombie landed the troops. Captain Wolley of Arethusa superintended the landing. The Governor of Trinidad, José Maria Chacón, surrendered the next day. The flotilla shared in the allocation of £40,000 for the proceeds of the ships taken at Trinidad and of the property found on the island.

On 17 April, Arethusa, along with 60 other warships and transports, appeared off the Spanish colonial port city of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The fleet landed a 7,000-man invasion force of Royal Marines, German mercenaries, and black militia troops from the island of Tobago, commanded by General Sir Ralph Abercromby (also spelled "Abercrombie"). However, the resolute Spanish defense forced the British to withdraw after two weeks.

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Arethusa (here on the far right at Spithead) witnessed the destruction of Boyne by an accidental fire, 1 May 1795

At daybreak on 10 August, Arethusa, commanded by Captain Thomas Wolley, was in the Atlantic Ocean at 30°49′N 55°50′W when she sighted three ships to windward. At 7:30 a.m. one of the ships bore down to within half gunshot, and opened fire. She proved to be the French 514-ton corvette Gaieté, commanded by Enseigne de vaisseau Jean-François Guignier. Having taken on a ship almost twice her size, mounting forty-four 18-pounder guns, there could only be one outcome, and the French ship was captured within half an hour, having sustained considerable damage to her sails and rigging, and lost two seamen killed and eight wounded. Arethusa lost one seaman killed, and the captain's clerk and two seamen wounded. The Royal Navy took Gaieté into service as Gaiete.

On 22 August 1798 a force of 1,100 French soldiers landed in County Mayo to support a major rebellion in Ireland and the militias across the whole of the south of England were mobilized. On 30 August Arethusa arrived at Portsmouth from the coast of France and immediately sailed for Southampton River to embark the Dorset and Devon Militias

In May 1799 Arethusa came upon seven enemy vessels which made to engage her, but then turned away when she sailed towards them in "a spirited style". Arethusa captured one, an armed ship, which was carrying sundries from Saint-Domingue. Spitfire took the prize into Plymouth on the 23rd while Arethusa sailed off in search of the other six.

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Napoleonic Wars
On 12 December 1805, Arethusa, Boadicea and Wasp left Cork, escorting a convoy of 23 merchant vessels. Four days later the convoy encountered a French squadron consisting of five ships of the line and four sailing frigates, as well as nine other vessels that were too far away for assessment. A letter writer to the Naval Chronicle, describing the encounter, surmised that the distant vessels were the Africa squadron that had been escorted by Lark and that they had captured. On this occasion, the British warships and six merchant vessels went one way and the rest went another way. The French chased the warships and the six for a day, ignored the 17, and eventually gave up their pursuit. Boadicea then shadowed the French while Wasp went back to French and Spanish coasts to alert the British warships there. Arethusa and her six charges encountered the French squadron again the next day, but after a desultory pursuit the French sailed off.

During the Action of 23 August 1806, Arethusa and Anson captured the Spanish frigate Pomona, as well as destroying a shore battery and defeating a fleet of gunboats. The captured frigate was taken into the Royal Navy as HMS Cuba.

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Capture of Curacoa, 1 Jan 1807 (PAD5768)

On 1 January 1807 Arethusa, Latona, Anson, Fisgard, and Morne Fortunee captured Curaçao. The Dutch resisted and Arethusa lost two men killed and five wounded; in all, the British lost three killed and 14 wounded. On the ships alone, the Dutch lost six men killed, including Commandant Cornelius J. Evertz, who commanded the Dutch naval force in Curaçao and seven wounded, of whom one died later. With the colony, the British captured the frigate Kenau Hasselar, the sloop Suriname (a former Royal Naval sloop), and two naval schooners. In 1847 the Admiralty authorized the issue of the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Curacoa 1 Jany. 1807" to any surviving claimants from the action; 65 medals were issued.

On 29 November 1808, Arethusa was some eight or nine leagues (39 or 43 km) north west of Alderney when she sighted and gave chase to a lugger making for the coast of France. After four hours Arethusa captured her quarry, which turned out to be the privateer Général Ernouf, of Calais, but eight days out of Cherbourg without having made any captures. She was armed with 16 guns and had a crew of 58 men under the command of Jacques Antoine de Boulogne. Boulogne had some 15 years experience of successful cruising against British trade, all without ever having been captured. Captain Robert Mends, in his letter, was fulsome in his praise of Général Ernouf, recommending that the Royal Navy acquire her.

On 4 April 1809, HMS Amethyst, HMS Emerald, and Arethusa encountered the newly-built French frigate Niémen. Amethyst and Emerald gave chase, with Emerald falling behind. Amethyst caught up the next day. Amethyst and Niémen engaged each other in a bitter battle. Arethusa arrived on the scene that evening, firing a couple of broadsides at the badly damaged French ship. Either at this point, or the next morning, Niémen surrendered. The Royal Navy took her into service as Niemen.

Between 26 and 27 February, Arethusa and Resistance captured four vessels off the coast of Spain: the 1-gun Mouche No. 4, Etienneite, Charsier, master, Nancy, Subibelle, master, and a chasse-maree of unknown name. Arethusa shared in the proceeds of the capture of Mouche No. 4, which was under the command of M. Sorrel. A boat under the command of Lieutenant Joseph William Bazalgette of HMS Resistance, captured Mouche on 26 February 1809 in an action that resulted in the death of the lieutenant de vaiseau commanding her.

Fate
Arethusa was broken up in 1815.


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Uwek

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j6595.jpg
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail, longitudinal half breadth for Arethusa (1781), and later with alterations for Phaeton (1782), both 38-gun Fifth Rate Frigates.

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Scale: 1:48. A ship plan showing the body plan, and incomplete inboard detail for 'Arethusa' (1781), a 38-gun Fifth Rate Frigate. Note that the plan is unnamed and undated, but the hull dimensions and number of guns matches that of the 'Arethusa' class (1778), of which 'Arethusa' was built by Hilhouse at Bristol. However, there are differences with the layout of gunports - see ZAZ3155 for the plan sent to Hilhouse by the Navy Board.

and in the following some paintings and etches

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A bow quarter view of 'Arethusa' in high winds and very choppy seas, with Plymouth in the background and the church in Maker also visible. Technique includes engraving. This particular print was published in Dublin by William Allen. The image was also prints by Carrington Bowles as part of the book "Twelve Views of His Majesty's Ships, in Different Situations" (PAD7563).
The Arethusa Frigate scudding under Foresail in a storm, with a view of Plymouth, and Maker Church at a distance (PAD7591)

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A bow quarter view of 'Arethusa' in high winds and very choppy seas, with Plymouth in the background and the church in Maker also visible. From a book of "Twelve Views of His Majesty's Ships, in Different Situations". Plate No.8. Book 28. Published by Carrington Bowles.
The Arethusa Frigate scudding under Foresail in a Storm, with a View of Plymouth, and Maker Church at a distance (PAD7563)

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The Conquest of the Island of Curacoa by Four Frigates under the Command of Sir Charles Brisbane &c &c - viz Arethusa Latona Anson and Fisguard [Fisgard] 1. Sr C: B: leading his men to storm Fort Amsterdam...6. Dutch Commodore in possession 7. Surinam in possession (PAI6997)

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The Conquest of the Island of Curacoa by Four Frigates under the Command of Sir Charles Brisbane &c &c viz Arethusa Latona Anson and Fisguard 1. Arethusa leading in 2. Latona 3. Dutch Commodore 36 Guns Hatslar 4. Dutch frigate Surinam 22 Guns 5. Fort Republic 6. Fort Amsterdam (PAI6996)


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Taking the Island of Curacoa, by Sir Chas Brisbane and his Officers under his Command, Captns Lydard, Wood and Bolton, Commanding H.M.Ss. Arethusa, Latona, Anson and Fisguard [Fisgard] Jan 1 1807 (PAI6435)

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Capture of La Pomone L' Engageante & La Babet April 23rd 1794 (PAD5471)


 

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HMS Phaeton was a 38-gun, Minerva-class fifth rate of Britain's Royal Navy. This frigate was most noted for her intrusion into Nagasaki harbour in 1808. John Smallshaw (Smallshaw & Company) built Phaeton in Liverpool between 1780 and 1782. She participated in numerous engagements during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars during which service she captured many prizes. Francis Beaufort, inventor of the Beaufort Wind-Scale, was a lieutenant on Phaeton when he distinguished himself during a successful cutting out expedition. Phaeton sailed to the Pacific in 1805, and returned in 1812. She was finally sold on 26 March 1828.

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Early years
Phaeton was commissioned in March 1782. Within a year she had been paid off.

Service in the Channel

Sir Andrew Snape Douglas

In December 1792 Phaeton was commissioned under Sir Andrew Snape Douglas.[3] In March 1793 Phaeton captured the 4-gun privateer lugger Aimable Liberté.

Then on 14 April Phaeton sighted the French privateer Général Dumourier (or Général Du Mourier), of twenty-two 6-pounder guns and 196 men, and her Spanish prize, the St Jago, 140 leagues to the west of Cape Finisterre. Phaeton was part of Admiral John Gell's squadron and the entire squadron set off in pursuit, but it was Phaeton that made the actual capture.

St Jago had been sailing from Lima to Spain when General Dumourier captured her on 11 April. In trying to fend off General Dumourier, St Jago fought for five hours, losing 10 men killed and 37 wounded, before she struck. She also suffered extensive damage to her upper works. St Jago's cargo, which had taken two years to collect, was the richest ever trusted on board a single ship. Early estimates put the value of the cargo as some £1.2 and £1.3 million. The most valuable portion of the cargo was a large number of gold bars that had a thin covering of pewter and that were listed on the manifest as "fine pewter". General Dumourier had taken on board 680 cases, each containing 3000 dollars, plus several packages worth two to three thousand pounds.

The ships that conveyed St Jago to Portsmouth were St George, Egmont, Edgar, Ganges and Phaeton. The money came over London Bridge in 21 wagons, escorted by a party of light dragoons, and lodged in the Tower of London.

On 11 December the High Court of Admiralty decided that the ship should be restored to Spain, less one eighth of the value after expenses for salvage, provided the Spanish released British ships held at Corunna. The agents for the captors appealed and on 4 February 1795 the Lords of the Council (the Privy council) put the value of the cargo at £935,000 and awarded it to the captors. At the time, all the crew, captains, officers and admirals could expect to share in the prize. Admiral Hood's share was £50,000.

On 28 May Phaeton took the 20-gun Prompte off the Spanish Coast. The Royal Navy took Prompte into service under her existing name.

Together with Weazle, Phaeton took two privateers in the Channel in June - Poisson Volante, of ten guns, and Général Washington. On 27 November Phaeton and Latona were among the six vessels of a squadron that captured the 28-gun French corvette Blonde off Ushant.

In February 1794 Phaeton was paid off, but the next month Captain William Bentinck recommissioned her.

During the battle of the Glorious First of June, Phaeton came to the aid of the dismasted Defence. While doing so, Phaeton exchanged broadsides with the French ship-of-the-line Impétueux. Phaeton suffered three men killed and five wounded. She was the only one of the support vessels there to suffer casualties. In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the survivors to that date of all the vessels at the battle, including Phaeton, the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "1 June 1794".

Captain Robert Stopford


Portrait of Queen Caroline, ca. 1820, by James Lonsdale

In September, Phaeton came under the command of Captain Stopford. In May 1795 Phaeton escorted Princess Caroline of Brunswick to England. Then began what would become a spectacular string of prize-taking. During Stopford's service in the Channel, Phaeton captured some 13 privateers and three vessels of war, and also recovered numerous vessels that the French had taken.


Admiral Sir Robert Stopford, c. 1840, by Frederick Richard Say, from the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London

On 10 March 1796, Phaeton engaged and captured the French corvette Bonne Citoyenne off Cape Finisterre. She was armed with twenty 9-pounder guns and had a crew of 145 men. She had left Rochefort on 4 March in company with the French frigates Forte, Seine, and Régénérée , and the brig Mutine, all sailing for the Île de France with troops and military supplies. Stopford took her back to England as his prize. The Royal Navy then bought her in as Bonne Citoyenne, a Sixth Rate sloop of war.

While cruising in the Channel, on 6 March 1797, Phaeton took the French privateer Actif. She was armed with 18 guns and had a crew of 120 men. She had sailed from Nantes on the 17 of February and ten days later had captured the packet ship Princess Elizabeth, which was her only prize.

On 28 May, Phaeton, Melpomene, and the hired armed lugger Speedwell detained Frederickstadt.

On 16 September Phaeton took the 6-gun Chasseur. Then two days later she took the privateer Brunette. Then with Unite she took 16-gun Indien on 24 September off the Roches Bonnes. On 9 October Unite captured Découverte, with the 32-gun frigate Stag and Phaeton in company.

Phaeton also recaptured three British vessels. These were Adamant (24 September), Arcade (3 October), and Recovery (20 October).

Then on 28 December Phaeton took the 12-gun Hazard in the Bay of Biscay. The next day, the 44-gun Anson, Captain Philip Charles Durham, with Phaeton, retook the 20-gun Sphinx-class post ship Daphne, which the French had captured almost exactly three years earlier. Out of a crew of 276, including 30 passengers of various descriptions, Daphne, lost five men killed and several wounded before she surrendered. Anson had no casualties.

On New Year's Day, 1798, Phaeton took Aventure. On 19 February she took the 18-gun Légère in the Channel. On 22 March she participated in damaging the 36-gun frigate Charente near the Cordouan lighthouse. Phaeton fired on Charente, chasing her first into range of the guns of the 74-gun Third Rate Canada, under the command of Captain Sir John Borlase Warren, with whom she exchanged broadsides. Charente grounded, but then so did Canada. Phaeton and Anson had to abandon the chase to pull Canada free. In the meantime, Charente threw her guns overboard, floated free, and reached the river of Bordeaux, much the worse for wear.

With Anson, Phaeton took the 18-gun privateer Mercure on 31 August. Mercure was pierced for 20 guns and had a crew of 132 men. She was one day out of Bordeaux and had captured nothing.

A week later, Anson and Phaeton captured the 32-gun privateer Flore after a 24-hour-long chase. Stopford, in his letter, described Flore as a frigate of 36 guns and 255 men. She was eight days out of Boulogne on a cruise. Flore had also served the Royal Navy in the American Revolutionary War.

Then on 8 October Phaeton took the 16-gun privateer Lévrier. Together with HMS Ambuscade (1773) and Stag, on 20 November she took Hirondelle.

On 24 November 1798, Phaeton captured the French privateer brig Resolue (or Resolu). Resolue was armed with 18 guns and carried a crew of 70 men. She had previously captured the English merchant ship General Wolfe, sailing from Poole to Newfoundland and an American sloop sailing from Boston to Hamburg. Stag later recaptured the American.

On 6 December, Phaeton and Stag captured the French privateer brig Resource. She was armed with 10 guns and carried a crew of 66 men. She had sailed from La Rochelle two days previously and was sailing for the African coast. Ambuscade shared in the prize money for both Resolu and Resource.

Mediterranean
In July 1799 Captain Sir James Nicoll Morris took command of Phaeton and sailed with Lord Elgin, of the eponymous Elgin Marbles, for Constantinople. Elgin would be Britain's ambassador to the Ottoman Empire until 1803. In May 1800 she participated in the blockade of Genoa as part of Lord Keith's squadron. The Austrian general besieging the city, Baron d'Ott, particularly appreciated her fire in support of the Austrian army.

On 14 April 1800 Phaeton and Peterel captured the St. Rosalia. Phaeton had to share her share of the proceeds with five vessels due to a prior agreement.

On 3 May, Mutine, Phaeton and Cameleon captured eight vessels in Anguilla Bay:
  • Stella de Nort;
  • Santa Maria;
  • Nostra Senora del Carmine;
  • Fiat Volantes Deus;
  • Nostra Signora del Assunta;
  • Nostra Signora de Sonsove;
  • San Nicolas; and
  • San Joseph (San Giuseppe).
Five days later they captured eleven Genoese vessels. They captured the first eight at St Remo:
  • Polacre ship St. Giovanni, which was sailing in ballast from St Remo;
  • Polacre brig Achille, which was sailing from Marseilles to Genoa with a cargo of corn and wine;
  • Polacre barque St. Antonio, which was sailing from Cette to Genoa with a cargo of wine;
  • Polacre brig Santa (Assunta), which was sailing from Ard to Port Maurice with a cargo of wine;
  • Polacre ship Conception, sailing in ballast to Port Maurice;
  • Polacre ship Madona del Carmine, sailing from Cette to Genoa with a cargo of wine;
  • Settee Signora del Carmine, which was sailing from Marseilles to Genoa with a cargo of corn;
  • Settee St. Giuseppe, which was sailing from Marseilles to Port Maurice with a cargo of corn;
  • Settee Immaculate Conception, which was sailing from Cette to Genoa with a cargo of wine;
  • Settee Amina Purgatorio, which sailing from Cette to Genoa with a cargo of wine; and
  • Settee Virgine Rosaria, which was sailing from Cette to Genoa with a cargo of wine.

Francis Beaufort

On 25 October Phaeton chased a Spanish polacca to an anchorage under a battery of five heavy guns at Fuengirola, where she joined a French privateer brig. The following night the brig escaped while the polacca tried twice, unsuccessfully, to escape to Málaga. On the night of the 27 October, Francis Beaufort led Phaeton's boats on a cutting out expedition. Unfortunately the launch, with a carronade, was unable to keep up and was still out of range when a French privateer schooner, which had come into the anchorage unseen, fired on the other boats. The barge and two cutters immediately made straight for the polacca and succeeded in securing her by 5 am. The captured ship was the San Josef, alias Aglies, of two 24-pounder iron guns, two brass 18-pounder guns as stern chasers, four brass 12-pounder guns and six 6-pounder guns. She was a packet, carrying provisions between Málaga and Velilla. She had a crew of 49 seamen, though 15 were away, and there were also 22 soldiers on board to act as marines.

The boarding party suffered one man killed and three wounded, including Beaufort who received, but survived, 19 wounds.[Note 5] The Spanish sustained at least 13 wounded.

Once Morris was sure that his men had secured the prize he sailed Phaeton in pursuit of a second pollaca that had passed earlier, sailing from Ceuta to Málaga. Phaeton was able to catch her under a battery at Cape Molleno. While Phaeton was returning to pick up Beaufort, his men and their prize, the French privateer schooner sailed past, too far away for Phaeton to intercept.

The British immediately commissioned San Josef as a British sloop-of-war under the name Calpe, the ancient name for Gibraltar. Although it would have been usual to promote Beaufort, the successful and heroic leader of the expedition, to command Calpe, Lord Keith chose instead George Dundas who not only was not present at the battle, but was junior to Beaufort. In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the survivors to that date of the boarding party the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "27 Oct. Boat Service 1800".

On 16 May 1801, boats from Phaeton and Naiad under the direction of Naiad's first lieutenant, entered the port of Marín, Pontevedra, in Galicia in north west Spain. There they captured the Spanish corvette Alcudia and destroyed the armed packet Raposo, both under the protection of a battery of five 24-pounders. Alcudia, commanded by Don Jean Antonio Barbuto, was moored stem and stern close to the fort. Her sails had previously been taken ashore so the boats had to tow her out but soon after a strong south-west wind set in and it was necessary to set her on fire. Only four men from the two British ships were wounded.

Phaeton then returned to Britain and was paid off in March 1802.

East Indies
In July 1803 Captain George Cockburn recommissioned Phaeton for service in the Far East. Later in 1804 she and HMS Lancaster chased the French privateer Henriette back to Port Louis. Also, Phaeton recaptured the Mornington, which the French privateer Nicholas Surcouf in Caroline had captured on 14 August 1804; Captain Fallonard of the brig Île de France recaptured Mornington. The British recaptured Mornington again as she continued to sail under the British Ensign until she was burnt in the Bay of Bengal in 1816.

On 2 August 1805, under Captain John Wood, Phaeton fought the 40-gun Sémillante, Captain Léonard-Bernard Motard, in the San Bernardino Strait off San Jacinto, Philippines, together with the 18-gun Cruizer class brig-sloop Harrier, Captain Edward Ratsey. After exchanges of fire first with Harrier and then with Phaeton, Sémillante took refuge under the guns of a shore battery. Unable to dislodge her, the two British vessels eventually sailed off, each having suffered two men wounded. Sémillante was reported to have suffered 13 killed and 36 wounded. After resupplying at San Jacinto, Sémillante intended to sail for Mexico in March 1805 to fetch specie for the Philippines; the encounter with Phaeton and Harrier foiled the plan. Motard returned to the Indian Ocean, operating for the next three years against British shipping from Île de France.

On 18 November 1805 Phaeton was at Saint Helena. There she took on board 32 officers and crew from the East Indiaman Brunswick, which the French had captured. The French had released them at the Cape of Good Hope and a cartel had delivered them to St Helena. Phaeton was already carrying the Marquis of Wellesley and his suite, who was returning to England after having served as Governor General of India. They arrived at Spithead on 13 January 1806.

In October 1806 Captain John Wood took command of Phaeton. Then in July 1808, Captain Fleetwood Pellew succeeded him.

Nagasaki Harbour Incident

Captain Fleetwood Pellew commanding Terpsichore against Dutch vessels in Batavia Road, 24 November 1806. Drawn at Madras, May 1807

After the French had conquered the Batavian Republic and Napoleon began to use its resources against England, Royal Navy ships started to prey on Dutch shipping. In 1808, Phaeton, by now under the command of Pellew, entered Nagasaki's harbour to ambush a couple of Dutch trading ships that were expected to arrive shortly.

Phaeton entered the harbour on 4 October surreptitiously under a Dutch flag. Despite the arrival of this "Dutch" ship being later in the season than normal, the Japanese and Dutch representatives did not suspect anything. So, Dutch representatives from their Nagasaki trading enclave of Dejima rowed out to welcome the visiting ship. But, as they approached, Phaeton lowered a tender and captured the Dutch representatives, while their Japanese escorts jumped into the sea and fled. Pellew threatened to execute the Dutch representatives unless supplies (water, food, fuel) were delivered to Phaeton. Phaeton also fired cannons and muskets to press her demands, and Pellew threatened to destroy the Japanese and Chinese ships in the harbour. The cannons in the Japanese harbour defenses were old and most could not even fire. Consequently, the meager Japanese forces in Nagasaki were seriously out-gunned and unable to intervene.


Dejima and Nagasaki Bay, circa 1820. The view includes two Dutch ships and numerous Chinese trading junks.

At the time, it was the Saga clan's turn to uphold the policy of Sakoku and to protect Nagasaki, but they had economized by stationing only 100 troops there, instead of the 1,000 officially required for the station. The Nagasaki Magistrate, Matsudaira Yasuhide (Nagasaki bugyō), immediately ordered troops from the neighbouring areas of Kyūshū island. The Japanese mobilized a force of 8,000 samurai and 40 ships to confront the Phaeton, but they could not arrive for a few days. In the meantime, the Nagasaki Magistrate decided to respond to the ship's demands, and provided supplies.

Phaeton left two days later on 7 October, before the arrival of Japanese reinforcements, and after Pellew had learned that the Dutch trading ships would not be coming that year. He left behind a letter for the Dutch director Hendrik Doeff. The Nagasaki Magistrate, Matsudaira, took responsibility by performing seppuku.

Following the attack of the Phaeton, the Bakufu reinforced coastal defenses, and promulgated a law prohibiting foreigners coming ashore, on pain of death (1825–1842, Muninen-uchikowashi-rei). The Bakufu also requested that official interpreters learn English and Russian, departing from their prior focus on Dutch studies. In 1814, the Dutch interpreter Motoki Shozaemon wrote the first English-Japanese dictionary (6,000 words). Although the incident revealed the vulnerability of the Tokugawa system to outside aggression, the Bakufu did not enter into more fundamental reform of its defenses because of its priority on maintaining the internal balance of power with the country's daimyo.

HMS_Phaeton.jpg
Contemporary Japanese drawing of HMS Phaeton (Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture)

After Nagasaki
Pellew was confirmed in his rank of post captain on 14 October 1808, and went on to see action in the Invasion of Île de France in 1810 and the reduction of Java in 1811.

In May, Phaeton escorted the second division of British troops, commanded by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, from Madras to Prince of Wales Island, and then on to Malacca. Once the expedition reached Batavia, Phaeton and three of the other frigates patrolled for French frigates known to be in the area.

On 31 August a landing party from Phaeton and Sir Francis Drake, together with marines from Hussar, captured a fort from the French at Sumenep on the island of Madura, off Java. The British lost three men killed and 28 wounded.

Pellew sailed Phaeton home in August 1812, escorting a convoy of East Indiamen. For his services he received a present of 500 guineas and the thanks of the East India Company.

Post-war
In 1816, Capt. Frances Stanfell sailed Phaeton from Sheerness, bound for Saint Helena and the Cape of Good Hope. She arrived at St Helena on 14 April 1816, where she delivered its newly-appointed military governor, Lieutenant-General Sir Hudson Lowe, his wife, Susan de Lancey Lowe, and her two daughters by a former marriage. Lowe had been expressly sent to the island to serve as the gaolor of Napoleon Bonaparte, who would die there in exile in 1821.

In April 1818, Capt. W. H. Dillon commissioned Phaeton. In the autumn of 1818 Lieutenant John Geary, who had joined Phaeton at her re-commissioning, faced a court martial. The charges were that he had concealed two deserters from the band of the 18th Regiment of Foot. More formally, the charges were: "Inveigling musicians from one of the Regiments in garrison and with practicing deception towards the officers who were sent on board to search for them." The board found him guilty. He was severely reprimanded and dismissed from Phaeton. Robert Cavendish Spencer, late of Ganymede, a captain on the board, thought enough of Geary to shake his hand and offer him a job in the future. Several years later Spencer made good on his offer.

Phaeton went on to the East Indies. In October 1819 she was paid off and then recommissioned within the month under Captain William Augustus Montagu, for Halifax. She was paid off in September 1822. She was immediately recommissioned under Captain Henry Evelyn Pitfield Sturt. She sailed for Gibraltar and Algeciras and was paid off some three years later.

Fate
Phaeton was sold on 11 July 1827 to a Mr. Freake for £3,430, but the Navy Office cancelled the sale, "Mr. Freake having been declared insane." She was finally sold on 26 March 1828 for £2,500 to Joshua Cristall for breaking up.

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phaetond.JPG

phaetone.JPG


 

Uwek

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pz0915_001.jpg

pz0915_002.jpg

No. 27 of 73 (PAI0889 - PAI0961) (Recto) Drawing insribed in the upper right 'Monday Sepr 16 – 1822 -/ H.M. Frigate Phaeton -', with an indistinct inscription in the upper left. HMS 'Phaeton', 38-guns, was launched at Liverpool on 12 June 1782. (Verso) There is a watercolour of the hull of a frigate on the reverse which extends across a double page. It is extensively annotated in Schetky's handwriting, and by a different hand or hands. It is dated 23 September 1822 as well as 26 September and the frigate is identified as HMS 'Active'. The annotation in the centre of the drawing above the hull (in Schetky's hand) is Sir James Gordon's Frigate. This is, therefore, HMS 'Active', 46-guns, which Schetky's friend and fellow Scot, Sir Sir James Alexander Gordon twice commanded. Gordon became lieutenant-governor of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich in 1840, and governor in 1853. Schetky was a frequent visitor as described by SFL Schetky (pp. 96-7): 'At Greenwich Hospital, when the late Admiral Sir James Gordon was its honoured governor, and my father was his constant visitor, the grey parrot in the hall knew his bos'n's whistle well; and so soon as she heard his voice at the door, uplifted a scream in anticipatory imitation of the notes she expected from it. "All well?" he would ask; and then came the long ringing "call," answered immediately from the room where his old friend sat, by the kind cheery greeting which never failed him in that house, - "Come along, Schetky! There's only one man out of the service that can do that."
Date made: 16 September 1822


Not on display online, but available


H.M. 38 gun Frigate Phaeton Captain Sir Andrew Snape Douglas. One year's captures La Prompte - 28 gun frigate - 180 men; La Blanche corvette 22 guns; Le General Doumourier 22 guns 196 men 2, 0400, 000 Dollars; privateer 16 guns 60 men; merchantman St Jago cargo worth #300, 000 (PAD9479)

A 19 page contract for Phaeton (1782), a 5th Rate 38-gun frigate, between the Admiralty and John Smallshaw of Liverpool in Lancashire, dated 28 February 1780 and signed 15 March 1780. ADMB0779



 

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HMS Thetis was a 38-gun fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy launched in 1782.

Thetis1.JPG Thetis2.JPG

Thetis1.JPG

Thetis2.JPG

Career
French Revolutionary Wars


George_Tobin_-_The_Cleopatra_towing_the_Thetis_towards_the_Chesapeake.jpg
Cleopatra towing Thetis towards the Chesapeake, 31 December 1794

On 2 May 1795 Rear Admiral George Murray sent Captain Alexander Cochrane in Thetis, together with HMS Hussar, to intercept three French supply ships reported at Hampton Roads. At daybreak on 17 May the British came upon five ships 20 leagues (97 km) west by south from Cape Henry. The French made a line of battle to receive the British frigates. An action commenced, with three of the French vessels eventually striking their colours. Thetis took possession of the largest, which turned out to be Prévoyante, pierced for 36 guns but only mounting 24. Hussar captured a second, Raison, pierced for 24 guns but only mounting 18. One of the vessels that had struck nonetheless sailed off. Two of the five had broken off the fight and sailed off earlier. (The three that escaped were the Normand, Trajan, and Hernoux.) An hour after she had struck, Prévoyante's main and foremasts fell over the side. In the battle, Thetis had lost eight men killed and 9 wounded; Hussar had only two men wounded.

Capture_of_La_Prevoyante_and_La_Raison.jpg
Capture of La Prevoyante and La Raison by Thetis and Hussar, by Thomas Whitcombe

Four of the French ships had escaped from Guadeloupe on 25 April. They had sailed to American ports to gather provisions and naval stores to bring back to France.

Cochrane had intended to leave the prizes in charge of the cutter Prince Edward after repairing the damage to his vessel during the night. However, a breeze picked up and by morning the escaping French vessels were out of sight. The British sailed with their prizes to Halifax. The British took Prévoyante into the Royal Navy as HMS Prevoyante.

On 20 July, Thetis was in company with Hussar and HMS Esperance when they intercepted the American vessel Cincinnatus, of Wilmington, sailing from Ireland to Wilmington. They pressed many men on board, narrowly exempting the Irish revolutionary Wolfe Tone, who was going to Philadelphia.

In 1797 Thetis recaptured Indian Trader as Indian Trader was sailing from Cayenne to Baltimore. Thetis sent her into Halifax, Nova Scotia.

In 1801 Thetis took part in Lord Keith's expedition to Egypt. Because Thetis served in the navy's Egyptian campaign (8 March to 2 September 1801), her officers and crew qualified for the clasp "Egypt" to the Naval General Service Medal that the Admiralty authorised in 1850 to all surviving claimants.

Napoleonic Wars

In 1809 boats from Thetis and several other vessels cut out the French 16-gun brig Nisus at Deshaies, Guadeloupe. Captain George Miller sent in boats with the marines from Pultusk, Achates and Bacchus, and 78 sailors. The landing party first captured the fort at Deshaies, whereupon Nisus surrendered when its guns were turned on her. During the operation, Attentive kept up a six-hour cannonade on Nisus and the battery. Many of the 300 men in the battery fled, as did most of the crew of Nisus before the British could take possession. The British destroyed the battery before withdrawing. British casualties amounted to two men from Thetis being wounded on shore, and two men being wounded on Attentive. The Royal Navy took Nisus into service as HMS Guadaloupe.

Thetis then took part in the storming of the batteries at Anse la Barque.

Thetis also participated in the capture of Guadeloupe in January and February 1810.[Note 3] In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Guadaloupe" to all surviving participants of the campaign.

Fate
Thetis was sold in 1814.

Thetis3.JPG

Thetis4.JPG



 

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Existing contemporary drawings of the HMS Thetis 1782

j5497.jpg
Lines (ZAZ2327)

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Inboard profile plan (ZAZ2329)

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Deck, Quarter & Forecastle (ZAZ2333)

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Lower deck plan (ZAZ2331)

j5494.jpg
Upper deck plan (ZAZ2332)

j5492.jpg
Platform (ZAZ2330)

j5496.jpg
Frame (ZAZ2328)

and some paintings

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H.M. Ship Thetis 36 Guns (PAD8508)

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No 3. January 2nd 1795. Thetis, Cleopatra and Thisbe at anchor in Lynhaven Bay at the mount of the Chesapeake (PAG9752)

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Watercolour depicting the 'Cleopatra' (right) towing the 'Thetis' (left) towards the Chesapeake on 31 December 1794, with the sloop 'Lynx' and frigate 'Thisbe' attending (in the background), and the pilot boat 'Sally of Norfolk' in the foreground. This is the 2nd (of 4?) watercolours by Tobin depicting these events. The 'Cleopatra' was in French hands briefly (17- 23 February 1805), and she was broken up in 1814. George Tobin was a junior lieutenant in the 'Providence' on Bligh's second breadfruit voyage (1791-93). He retired as a captain and lived near Teignmouth where, after 1807, he became a friend of the marine painter Thomas Luny. Medium includes pen and black ink.; signed by the artist and dated.

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No.1. Thetis on shore near Currituck Inlet, North Carolina Dec 23rd 1794... Cleopatra at anchor near her. Thisbe and Lynx answering private signals (PAG9750)

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No 4. Thetis Feby 1795 - Repairing at Gosport in Virginia... (PAG9753)

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Cochrane attacking five French storeships, the Thetis & Hussar bearing down to attack (PAD0405)

pu0403.jpg
Cochrane attacking five French storeships, 17 May 1795, The Prevoyant dismasted (PAD0403)


 

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One other contemporary model is also existing, which is probably the Minerva 1780

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Scale: 1:48. A Georgian full hull model of a 38-gun frigate (1780). The model is decked. The name ‘Amazon’ has been associated with the model, but its dimensions do not suit any ship of that name. From the model the vessel measured 141 feet in length (lower deck) by 39 feet in the beam, displacing 940 tons, builders own measurement. It was armed with twenty eight 18-pounders on the upper deck and ten 9-pounders on the quarterdeck. This model represents a proposed design for a 38-gun frigate, probably of the ‘Minerva’ class (see SLR0317). The use of bone for the deadeyes, stanchions, steering wheel and small items of decoration was a feature of some official models of the late 18th century. G. W. French of Chatham made the model in about 1800 for Sir Evan Nepean (1751–1822), First Secretary to the Admiralty, 1795–1804. Frigates were fifth-or sixth-rate ships and so not expected to lie in the line of battle. With the advantage of superior sailing qualities over the larger ships of the line, they were used with the fleet for such tasks as lookout or, in battle, as repeating ships to fly the admiral’s signals. They also cruised independently in search of privateers.





A HISTORY OF THE NAVY IN 100 OBJECTS

Artifacts like those found in the U.S. Naval Academy Museum are tangible links to our past - holding and studying them evokes emotions and makes connections in our memories. The U.S. Navy has a long and storied history - only beginning to understand it would take a lifetime of study. By bringing notable objects and places to life, this podcast series highlights key moments and themes in the Navy's complex history. Citizens and sailors alike can use this series to connect with their past, understand their present, and prepare for their future. The U.S. Naval Academy Museum, the Nimitz Library Special Collections and Archives Department and their partners proudly present "A History of the Navy in 100 Objects," a weekly podcast and video series exploring the navy's storied history using objects.

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Object 04 - Wooden Model of HMS Minerva
This is a model of HMS Minerva, one of the last new warships produced by the British navy during the 18th century. As the dominant maritime power for centuries, the influences of the British navy were significant in the U.S. Navy's development. From force structure and operational style, to ranks, to ship and cannon technology, the American navy relied heavily on the influences of its precursor, and many of those influences are still seen today. The Minerva was innovative in many ways, but today Naval Academy Museum education specialist Grant Walker takes us through two of the biggest.




Please take also a look at the older topic showing the class:

 
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